« AnteriorContinuar »
school are to be explained ; and in the third year the duties of the future teacher as servant of state and church and also the means of selfimprovement are to be taught. The students shall also be taught how to prepare their lessons for the practice school, how to establish and maintain discipline, and how to explain the text of the holy scriptures.
The religions instruction in the teachers' seminaries is henceforth to be termed "catechism.” Its object is to provide a direction and a firm footing for the individual religious confession of the pupil through a profound understanding of God's word. As this subject of instruction is not one which the teacher has himself to reproduce in the elementary school, it is not subject to the same limitations in all respects as the other branches of instruction which do occur again in the elementary school. The religious instruction in the seminary ought to exert a pow. erful influence on the teacher; and it is, therefore, of great importance that sure and abiding results of a Christian confession should be sought.
The future teacher shall be required to be able to repeat, without book, each scripture story in the form in which it is taught in the elementary school. He shall be able to establish a connection of the scripture teaching with the order of the church year.
From this time forth an indispensable condition of admission into the seminary will be an exact acquaintance with the stories of the Bible, as contained in the manuals approved for this purpose, and the ability to recite them from memory.
The future teacber must be fully qualified to instruct in language and reading. The seminaries hitherto have too much neglected to teach a simple method of learning to read. To qualify the teacher in this branch, neither theoretical instruction nor practice in the model school will alone suffice; but it will be necessary to take the student in the lowest class through a course of practical lessons in all the details of teaching to read, which practice must be continued till the right method has been thoroughly mastered.
In the use of the reading book it is not enough to instruct the stu. dent generally in the mode of interpreting. Each portion of the read- . ing book must be gone through in the manner in which it has to be afterward taught in the elementary school.
In connection with the reading book the students must be introduced to German grammar, keeping in view always that this is a subject which they will not be obliged to teach in the school. The written exercises for the two lower classes must be made in connection with the reading lesson; but in the upper class they may consist of independ. ent reproduction of single parts out of other parts of the course, or of the consideration of questions which concern the profession of teacher. The student should also be made acquainted with the form of official documents which he may afterward have occasion to write. Each year the students must be directed to a course of private reading, and they shall be called on from time to time to give an account of their progress to the teacher. In the choice of books for this purpose regard must be had not merely to the student's own culture but to the influ. ence wbich he may hereafter exercise, beyond the limits of the school, upon the character and morals of the people.
The instruction in history and geography shall begin at a common point, viz, our own country. History shall be limited to Germany and Prussia and that province in which the school is situated. It should be one of the first duties of the teacher to inculcate in those with whom he comes in contact a knowledge of the patriotic traditions and characters of the past and present, and a sentiment of respect and love for the reigning family. This patriotic history should be brought into connection with the life of the people, and their mode of thinking, for which purpose the days of patriotic commemoration are to be put prominently forward and employed as points of departure. The students of the seminary should learn the best specimens of popular poetry.
As the instruction in history is confined to the higher class, so that in geography shall be confined to the two lower classes.
Natural history shall be taught during the first and second year, two hours a week, but not in a strictly scientific manner. The principal indigenous plants and animals shall be illustrated and described to the pupils. In botany a foundation for further private study shall be laid. The pupils shall be taught to distinguish the principal native minerals and rocks. A popular description of the human body shall be given. The pupils ought to acquire a love for nature and natural occupations. A practical direction, too, may be given to this branch of instruction by constant reference to horticulture, trade, and industry. In the third year the students may advance to natural philosophy, which shall always be treated in an experimental manner.
The instruction in geometry is limited to the principal geometrical figures, plane and solid,"their properties and the modes of measuring them, without any scientific method or calculus. Arithmetic shall be taught with the view to enable the future teacher to teach this branch in the popular elementary school; the higher parts of arithmetic may, however, be arranged for private study.
The method of teaching to write is to be learned along with the practice in writing. Drawing in the seminary must not go beyond introductory lessons in the linear representation of simple objects.
Music is cultivated for moral and church objects. The seminary has not only to form the teacher of singing for the school, but also the organist for the churco.
The “ Regulativ ” of which the foregoing is a summary has always been bitterly attacked by the liberal educators in Prussia. Their zealous efforts have been in a measure successful since the accession of Dr. Falk to the ministry of public instruction, and they expect still greater improvement in the training system while he remains in office.
The following tables are of interest as exhibiting the number of stu. dents in the elementary training schools in 1870 and 1876, the number of graduates in 1876, and the number of pupils in the practice schools in 1876 for the several provinces of Prussia :
TABLE IX.- PROVINCE OF WESTPHALIA.
TABLE X.- PROVINCE OF HESSE-NASSAU.
47 77 68
13 27 23
57 211 189
39 214 198
do Protes'ts and Cathl's
40 80 83 79 70 80
96 425 387
3 4 5 6
1 Boppard 2 Neuwied. 3 Elten 4 | Kempen 5 Mettmann 6 Mörs. 7 Brühl 8 Siegburg. 9 Ottweiler 10 Wittlich. 11 Kornelymünster 12 Linnich..
Number of pupils in
659 640 283 255 850 756
866 1, 122
930 641 996 916 478 511 614
583 1, 247
1, 525 1,762 1, 213
896 1, 846 1, 672
478 1, 040
986 1,034 1, 368
529 372 451 121