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The Coinabra University Museum was founded by the Marquis of Pombal, who caused an imposing building to be erected for the purpose in 1773. Besides the natural history section it has a physical section, in which, among many ancient and modern instruments, is shown an enormous machine for collecting electricity, by Rhumkorff.
The medical faculty have their rooms for anatomy, physiology, and medical chemistry on the ground floor of the same building. A large dispensary of pharmacy is also connected with the museum.
Among these may be mentioned:
The Museum of Archæology, founded by the Archæological Society at Lisbon. It now possesses a collection of about 1,600 specimens.
The Museum of the Academy of Sciences. Here a valuable collection of coins is preserved.
The Colonial Museum, established in the naval arsenal. It contains a valuable collection of the products of the ultramarine possessions of Portugal.
The industrial museum, commonly called the Museum Fradesso da Silveira, on account of its having been established in 1874 by that well kuown promoter of industry.
There are 4 public libraries supported by the government.
The principal one is the National Library, at Lisbon; the others are situated at Evora, Braga, and Villa Real. Besides these, the state possesses many other important libraries in the various scientific establishments. The number of private libraries is also very large. Several libraries possess valuable collections of rare ancient manuscripts. The National Library, at Lisbon, possesses at present more tban 300,000 volumes; the library of the Academy of Sciences, 75,000 volumes; and the University Library, 58,000 volumes. These libraries were considerably enlarged by the collections of the abolished convents.
THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIPZIG.
LEIPZIG, January 15, 1870. As the University of Leipzig now occupies such a prominent position among the institutions of learning in the world, a few remarks bearing upon its receut rapid progress and present condition may be of interest, especially as it is largely attended by American students.
Commencing with the summer semester of 1850, we find 897 students inscribed, and this number varied but little until in the summer of 1865 there were 1,000 names upon the rolls, being an increase of only 103 students in fifteen years; but in the summer of 1870 we find this number increased to 1,665, and since that time we will take the winter semesters and note the rapid progress to the present time as follows: Winter semester of 1870_71..
1, 762 students. Winter semester of 1871-'72.
2, 204 students. Wiuter semester of 1872–73..
2, 650 students. Winter seinester of 1873–74.
2, 876 students. Winter semester of 1874–75....
2,947 students. Winter semester of 1875–76..
In addition to this last and present number of regularly matriculated students there are also 107 persons not inscribed, but who, by permis. sion, are attendants upon the lectures, making a total of 3,032 “hearers," as they are called, for, in university parlance, the professors do not teach ; they read" and students "hear."
After the summer semester of 1875, 856 students left the university and 1,006 were newly inscribed for the winter, being an increase of 150 students for the present term.
The German Empire furnishes 2,575 students, of which number Prussia contributes 1,143 and Saxony 1,031. From other European states there are 274, as follows: 86 from Austria, 67 from Russia, 62 from Swit. zerland, 30 from Greece and Turkey, 12 from England, 7 from the Netherlands, 6 from Sweden and Norway, and 2 each from Italy and France. From foreign countries there are: 63 from North America, 4 each from Japan and Africa, 3 from Brazil, and I each from Chili and Cuba; in other words, the four quarters of the globe are represented as follows: Europe, 2,849; America, 68; Asia, 4; and Africa 4; making the total of 2,925 students.
The classes number in the following order: law, 1,130; philosophy, 1,089; medicine, 369, and theology, 337 students. Under the head of philcsophy are included philosophy, agriculture, mathematics, and polit. ical economy.
The faculty consists of 60 "ordentliche Professoren,” 58 “ ausserordentliche Professorey," and 42 "Privatdocenten," besides a director of music and teachers and masters of fencing and gymnastics.
In medicine we find such names as Weber, Wagner, Wunderlich, Ludwig, Thiersch, and Coccius. In theology, Kabnis, Luthardt, Delitzsch, and Baur. In law, Von Wächter, Windscheid, Schmidt, Friedberg, and Osterloh. Protessor Overbeck, the present "Rector mag. nificus,” lectures on classical archæology; Professor Curtius, on classical philology; Professors Fleischer and Brockhaus, on Oriental languages; Roscher on political economy; Kolbe and Wiedemann, on chemistry, and Leuckart, on zoology.
There are many other names equally deserving of mention, but I have given only those who are best and most widely known.
From the above record it will be seen that in point of numbers the University of Leipsic is now the most important in Germany, if not in the world. The great majority of its students are natives of German states outside of Saxony, and it has lost all provincial character.
The former King of Saxony, a scholar himself, a man of great learning, took especial interest in this university and was its patron up to the time of his death. His son, the present King, although more of the sol. dier than the scholar, takes the same deep interest, and the Saxon gor. ernment, having plenty of means at command, has been able to draw together here the great leaders in almost every branch of science and art and to imbue with a tone of liberality botin professors and students.
The German student gains admission into the university only by a strict and severe training in the public schools and Gymnasia. Especially must be be thorough in the classics ; but once in the university lie takes his future in his own hands; he selects his professors and studies and improves or wastes his talents, as he thinks best; he may be sure the professors or no one else will concern themselves whether he studies or plays, and he must succeed by his own efforts or fail through his own neglect.
Special training is the object of university life, and it is to be sapposed that the American student coming to Germany has tinished his studies and taken his degree at home and has come for the purpose of perfecting himself in some specialty; and this subject, whatever it may be, he must study to the exclusion of all others.
Facilities are offered here for the study of some specialties such as no other university offers; for instance, the study of the oriental languages, those of the eastern as well as of the western brauch, and of comparative philology.
These advantages, together with the general tone of excellence and thoroughness in the instruetion in all the faculties and the comparative cheapness of the necessities of life in this city, have enabled Leipsic to