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For special instruction there are the following institutions: The Royal Academies of Fine Arts at Lisbon and Oporto and the Royal Con. servatory of Music at Lisbon.

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts at Lisbon had its origin in the school of design, established in 1781. The branches of instruction are historical, decorative, and architectural drawing; historical and land. scape paintiug; sculpture; bistorical engraving; wood engraving, and drawing from life. The institution has 6 professors, receiving a salary of $500 each. The number of pupils in 1873–74 was 224.

The Academy of Fine Arts at Oporto had its origin in a school of drawing, founded in 1779. It consists of four schools or courses, viz: first, historical drawing; second, historical painting; third, civil architecture; fourth, sculpture, perspective drawing, and anatomy. There are 4 professors, receiving a salary of $500 each.

The government gives a subsidy to four or five artists who desire to study the fine arts in foreign countries.

The Royal Conservatory of Music consists of a school of dramatic art and a school of music. The first one bas three professors, viz: one of acting, receiving a salary of $500; one of declamation, at a salary of $300; one of grammar and pronunciation, at a compensation of $100.

In the school of music there are 10 professors, nine of whom receive a salary of $200 each and one a salary of $300.

Statistics of the Royal Conservatory of Music for the years 1871-1874.

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The Industrial Institute of Lisbon and the Industrial School of Oporto were established in 1852–53. To the Lisbon Institute was afterward added the school of commerce, founded by the Marquis of Pombal. At first the instruction in the institute was limited to industrial and com. mercial branches, but it now embraces the following courses: General instruction for artisans, the training of directors for factories and industrial establishments, of foremen and assistant foremen, of conductors for public works, makers of instruments of precision, telegraphic operators, &c.

The following are the statistics of the institute from 1870 to 1873:

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The scbool bas 10 professors, at a salary of $700 each, and 1 professor of French and English, at a salary of $500. The adıninistrative staff consists of a director, at a salary of $300; 1 librariau and secretary, at $100; 1 clerk, 1 custos, and 1 keeper of the schools, at a salary of $300 each.

An instrument manufactory is attached to the school. It is under the supervision of a director, who receives a salary of $600 a year. The estimated expenditure for 1875–76 was $14,320.

The Industrial Institute of Oporto bas the same organization, with 9 professors at a salary of $700 each and 1 at $500. The expenditure for 1875–76 was $10,770.


By the decree of 1852 instruction in agriculture is divided into elementary and higher. For elementary instruction, district gardens were established in 1852; and in 1869 a decree was issued establishing experimental stations in the districts and elementary courses on agriculture in the lyceums.

For higher instruction in agriculture, there is the general institute of agriculture, established in 1852 and incorporated in 1855, with the school of veterinary surgery. In some districts elementary stations and courses on agriculture are established, which are open to all who desire to acquire a general knowledge of agriculture. Certificates of qualification are not issued.

The general institate of agriculture embraces courses on tillage and veterinary science, and bas 10 professors at a salary of $700 each and 1 professor of drawing at a salary of $500. The administrative stafr consists of a director, 5 assistant professors, and superintendeuts of the various divisions.


The Royal Academy of Sciences was founded in 1779, at the suggestion of the Duke of Lalões and the Abbot José Correia da Serra. The academy was originally divided into three classes, viz: natural sciences, mathematical sciences, and literature. Each class was intended to have 8 active members. Afterward the number of supernumerary fellows was tixed at 12, the number of honorary at 12, and that of the corre. sponding members at 100.


Portugal has three astronomical establishments, viz: the Royal Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon, the observatory of the university of Coinbra, and the observatory of the Lisbon Polytechnic School. In · 187.1 the old marine astronomical observatory, at Lisbon, was annexed to the naval school. Its object was to regulate the chronometers and to correct the errors of the instruments of the war vessels. The observatory was established in 1798 for the practical training of naval officers. The institution received all the necessary instruments; but some years later these were sent to Brazil, (then a Portuguese colouy,) where the court remained during the French invasion in 1809.

The observatory did not emerge from obscurity until 1856, in which Fear the most necessary instruments were supplied in order to enable it to fulfil the purpose for which it had been established. The principal instruments which this observatory possesses are the transit circle, by Repsold, (with 1.36 inetres focal distance anıl an object glass .1 metre in diameter,) one transit instrument, one retracting telescope, and one universal, by Repsold.

The observatory possesses varions other instruments, among them a zygometer, constructed by Sr. José Mauricio Vieira, of the Lisbon Industrial Institute.

The Royal Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon is situated in the royal park of the Ajuda, between Lisbon and Belem, on a hill 93 metres high. The plan of the observatory is similar to that of Pulkowa.

The collection of instruments in the observatory consists of one large equatorial, with 7 metres focal distance and an object glass of .38 metre diameter; one transit instrument, (Struve's,) with 2.31 metres focal distance; one transit circle, with an object glass of 15 metre diameter and 2 metres focal distance; one transit instrument, (Oom’s,) with an object glass of .07 metre diameter, and .78 metre focal distance ; one refracting telescope; one normal clock, by Krille; various chronometers and clocks; one time marker; electric apparatus; one zygometer; barometers; thermometers; and telegrapbic apparatus.

To bring the observatory to proper perfection a large equatorial is still to be put up.

Owing to its geographical position, this observatory is likely to occupy an inportant place in European astronomy, for which it furnishes already excellent instruments and a very efficient staff.

The Observatory of Coimbra, the foundation of which is due to the Marquis of Pombal, stands near the university buildings, and is chiefly intended for the practical instruction in astronomy of the students in the mathematical course. The principal instruments which it possesses

are an equatorial, a transit circle, a transit instrument, and a sidereal clock, by Berthoud. The staff consists of a director, 2 astronomers, and 2 calculators.


The work of the national surrey in Portugal began at the end of the last century. In 1788 Dr. Francisco Antonio Ciera was entrusted with these operations. In 1796 the work was suspended, and it was only resumed in 1835, in which year the survey was entrusted to General Folgue, who had been the assistant of Dr. Ciera. General Folgue was succeeded by his son, Dr. Filippe Folgue. Slow progress was made until 1852, when the survey received a powerful impetus by the creation of the ministry of public works. A general direction of the survey was now instituted, to which, some time later, a geological department was added. To Dr. Ciera belongs the honor of having given the first impulse to the establishment of a national survey in Portugal; but General Folgue deserves credit for having organized the surveying and topographical operations.

As the public service required the early execution of a geographica map of the whole kingdom, the survey entered upon the work and completed the same within four years. The scale of the map was 1 to 500,000. The atlas of Portugal will consist of 37 pages, 22 of wbich are already finished.

The hydrographic works were instituted in 1842, under the direction of the minister of the navy; but very little was done until tbe year 1852, when hydrographic drawings were begun. The plans of the Lisbon and Oporto bars and that of Berlengas Islands have already been pub. lished.

The principal geological works executed by the respective sections up to the end of the year 1874 were the geological investigation for the construction of the general geological chart of the kingdom, on the scale of 1 to 500,000, which is nearly completed; the classification of the large collection of stones and fossils; and the publication of various memoranda on geological subjects.

The engraving of all the work executed in connection with the nationa survey bas been performed in the department of engraving of the survey. All the engravings are executed on stone and have reached re. markable perfection. A photographic department was established in 1872, in order to substitute photography for stone engraving. In the short space of two years this department has produced more than 14,000 photographs. With the exception of one Swiss chemical engraver, the whole staff of operators consists of natives. Besides tbe above named work, the photographic department has executed various reproductions by the process of light printing, (phototypia) and sun engraving, (heliogravura.) The staff of the direction of the survey consists of 1 director general,

7 chiefs of sections and 29 assistants, 12 engravers, 2 draftsmen, 1 printer, 1 paymaster, 3 clerks, 1 messenger, 2 collectors, and 1 serrant. There are besides attached to the survey 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, and 27 men of the military battalion of engineers. The estimated expenditure for the survey in 1875–76 was $62,466.

METEOROLOGICAL ESTABLISHMENTS.—There are in Portugal 2 me. teorological observatories, one at Lisbon, the other at Coimbra, and 11 meteorological stations on the continent and 3 in the adjacent islands.

The magnetic service was inaugurated in 1857. For this service the observatory possesses the necessary magnetometers and magnetographers; also, barometers, the mometers, &c., for direct observations. These are made daily at 9 and 12 in the morning, and at 3 and 9 p. m. Twice a month the amount of magnetic declination and inclination is reg. istered and once every month the horizontal component of the mag. netic force of the globe.

For several years the observatories at Kew and Lisbon alone had complete and perfectly organized magnetic services.

The service of meteorological telegraphy, both with Paris and with all the meteorological stations of the kingdom, has also been organized. The calculations on weather probabilities, which were formerly received from Paris, are now made at the observatory of Lisbon.

There is besides a nautico-meteorological service under the control of this institution, to which are sent the logs of Portuguese ships which make meteorological observations during their voyages. For this purpose the officers of ships that apply for them are supplied with the neces. sary instruments, which are examined and stamped by the proper authorities before they are used.

The staff of the observatory consists of 1 director, at a salary of $400; 2 observers, at a salary of $600 each ; 3 assistants, at a salary of $360 each, and 1 artist, at $144.

The meteorological stations on the continent and in the islands have together 10 assistant observers, at a salary of $108 each.

The Meteorological Observatory of Coimbra, founded in 1864, has col. lections of instruments similar to those in the Lisbon observatory, with which it is in telegraphic communication. The staff of this observatory consists of 1 director, 3 assistants, and 1 keeper. The total espenditure is $1,800 a year.

MUSEUMS OF NATURAL HISTORY. Portugal has 2 museums of natural history, 1 at Lisbon and 1 at Coim. bra.

The Lisbon museum is connected with the Polytechnic School, and contains valuable collections of Portuguese and foreign specimens. The staff consists of 1 director of the zoological section, 1 director of the mineralogical section, 2 assistant naturalists, 1 curator, and 2 preparers of specimens. The museum was allowed $3,000 for collecting specimens and for other expenses in 1875–76.

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