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EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL.*
ORGANIZATION. Public education in Portugal is under the control of a superior council of education, at the head of which is the minister of the interior. This council has to examine all matters relating to public instruction and to submit its decisions to the council of ministers for approval.
Special military schools are under the control of the minister of war and naval schools are under the supervision of the minister of the nary.
Public schools are divided into four classes, viz: superior, secondary, primary, and special.
EXPENDITURE FOR SCHOOLS. The expenditure for public instruction in 1874–75 was † 8777,611, and for the year 1875–76 tbe expenditure was estimated at $798,614, to be distributed as follows: The council of education ...
$1,200 The University of Coimbra..
87,285 The Polytechnic School at Lisbon
55, 247 The Polytechnic School at Oporto.
17, 874 The School of Surgery at Lisbon .
13, 573 The School of Surgery at Oporto
12, 840 The School of Surgery at Funchal
1, 027 The higher course of literature
3, 400 Extra salaries .... The Academy of Fine Arts at Lisbon....
9, 050 The Academy of Fine Arts at Oporto.... Subsidy to students
3, 600 Royal Conservatory of Music
6, 432 Subsidy to theatres
33, 552 Lyceums ...
67, 418 Other secondary schools..
13, 410 Extra salaries .... Primary normal schools..
7, 637 Primary instruction..
244, 764 Other expenses
35, 400 Royal Academy of Sciences....
12, 609 * A translation of Chapter VII, Part III, pp. 225–264, of Sr. Gerardo A. Perys Geographia e Estatistica Geral de Portugal e Colonias : Lisboa, 1875.
+ Throughout this article the dollar mark has been conveniently used as the equivalent of the Portuguese milreis, although the latter really represents a value of $1.08 gold.
$7,080 11, 730 138, 830
798, 614 Adding this total to the expenses on account of o her ministries, viz: Practical military school
$31, 143 Military college..
19,056 Naval school....
7,470 Elementary agricultural instruction..
3,500 General Agricultural Institute....
17.857 The Industrial Institute at Lisbon ..
14,320 The Industrial Institute at Oporto.
902, 730 The amount spert by private persons for education may be estimated at $300,000. This sum, added to the government expenditure, would give for the school year 1875–76 a total expenditure of $1,200,000.
The institutions for superior and special instruction are the University of Coimbra, the Polytechnic School of Lisbon, the Army School, the Polytechnic School of Oporto, the Schools of Surgery of Lisbon, Oporto, and Funchal, and the higher course of literature.
THE UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA.
The University of Coimbra was founded at Lisbon in the year 1290, by King Dom Diniz. Besides this monarch, the prior of Santa Cruz deserves special credit for the zeal with which he worked for this insti. tution. In 1307 the university was transferred to Coimbra; seventy years later it was brought back to Lisbon ; but in 1537 Dom Joãs III again caused it to be removed to Coimbra, where it has since remained.
Until the year 1772, instruction in the university was confined to theology, law, and medicine. In that year a reform was brought about by the Marquis of Pombal, and the faculties of philosophy and mathe. matics were established. Later several additional chairs were instituted in the faculty of pbilosophy and one in political economy.
The following is the course of study in the university :
Theology.— First chair, ecclesiastical history; second chair, dogmatic and polemical theology; third chair, theological symbolism; fourth chair, theological mystics; fifth chair, moral philosophy; sixth chair, liturgical theology; serenth chair, holy scripture; eighth chair, pastoral theology
Lau.-First chair, the philosophy of law and the history of Portuguese constitutional public law; second chair, Roman law; third chair, Portuguese civil law; fourth chair, public law; fifth chair, political and statistical economy; sixth chair, civil law; seventh chair, administrative legislation; eighth chair, financial legislation ; ninth chair, civil
law; tenth chair, ecclesiastical law; eleventh chair, commercial law; twelfth chair, juristical organization; thirteenth chair, ecclesiastical law; fourteenth chair, penal law; fifteenth chair, procedure and practice of courts.
Administrative course.-- First chair, inorganic chemistry; second chair, natural law; third chair, political economy; fourth chair, mineralogy and geology ; fifth chair, public law; sixth chair, civil law; seventh chair, general agriculture; eighth chair, administrative legislation; ninth chair, penal legislation.
Medicine.- First chair, human anatomy; second chair, general apatomy and physiology; third chair, special physiology and hygiene; fourth chair, anatomy, operative medical science, and pathology ; fifth chair, materia medica; sixth chair, external pathology and clinical surgery; seventh chair, pathological anatomy; eighth chair, internal pathology, the knowledge and history of medicine ; ninth chair, obstetrics and obstetrical diseases; tenth chair, clinical surgery for women; eleventh chair, clinical surgery for men ; twelfth chair, medical law.
Mathematics.- First chair, higher algebra, analytical geometry, spher. ical trigonometry; second chair, differential and integral calculus, rariations, probabilities; third chair, rational mechanics; fourth chair, descriptive geometry; fifth chair, practical astronomy; sixth chair, surveying; seventh chair, astronomy; eighth chair, mathematical physics.
Philosophy. First chair, inorganic chemistry; second chair, organic chemistry, chemical analysis; third chair, physics, part 1; fourth chair, botany; fifth chair, physics, part 2; sixth chair, zoology ; seventh cbair, mineralogy, geology, and mines; eighth chair, general agriculture, rural economy.
The corps of teachers consists of 52 professors and 15 assistants. The yearly salary of the director of each faculty is $1,200; the salary of each ordinary professor $800, and of an assistant professor and of the professor of drawing, $500 per annum.
The following table shows the number of students in each faculty from 1870 to 1873, inclusive:
THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL OF LISBON.
The course of study of the polytechnic school embraces the higher mathematics, natural history, and political economy. The following is an outline of the subjects of instruction according to the programme of 1872 :'
First chair, spherical trigonometry, higher algebra, analytical geometry; second chair, calculus, variations, probabilities; third chair, rational mechanics and machinery; fourth chair, astronomy and surveying; (besides these subjects, there is another course in descriptive geometry divided into two parts ;) fifth chair, pbysical and experimental mathematics; sixth chair, inorganic chemistry, chemical analysis, and organic chemistry; seventh chair, mineralogy and geology; eighth chair, comparative anatomy, and physiology, zoölogy; ninth chair, botany; tenth chair, political economy, administrative and commercial law.
The course in drawing extends through four years. The staff of teachers consists of 12 regular professors, 8 assistant professors, and 1 professor of drawing. The regular professors receive a salary of $700, the assistant professors $100, and the professor of drawing $300 per annum.
The present polytechnic school is a substitute for the former college for the education of the nobility, founded by the Marquis of Pombal. The original endowments of the college yield a yearly income of $6,800 to the government.
The following table shows the number of students attending the polytechnic school from 1856 to 1872:
The army school is the only institution in the kingdom where students receive practical training in military science and in civil engineering. The corps of teachers consists of 1 general commandant,
who receives a salary of $1,080 a year, besides his regular pay as army officer; 1 second commandant, at a salary of $1,200; 2 directors of study, at a salary of $1,260 each ; 6 military professors, at a salary of $150 each, besides their pay as army officers; 1 second class teacher, at a salary of $720; 4 tutors, 5 instructors, and 1 English teacher, receiving a salary of $360 each, and a drawing teacher.
At present the course of military engineering is of three years' duration. The other courses last two years.
The following table shows the attendance, &c., on the several courses of the school from 1870 to 1875, inclusive:
The Academy of the Naval Guard, established in 1796, was reorganized in May, 1815, and is at present known as the Naval School. The corps of teachers consists of 1 commandant, 4 regular professors, 1 pro