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be admitted that nowhere are teachers paid according to their deserts; and this observation finds no exception in the little Kingdom of Würtemberg. The salaries of the best teachers of Gymnasia and Realschulen range from a thousand to fifteen hundred dollars. Those of professors in the university and polytechnic school are moderately augmented by endowments and lecture fees. But I cannot find that the most distinguished professor in Würtemberg, whose name is the pride of the whole kingdom, receives for his entire salary, collaterals included, a larger sum than $2,500.
EDUCATION OF WOMEN.
To an American, who contemplates with pride the position which woman occupies educationally in bis native country, it is an inquiry full of interest, what is her status in this relation in foreign lands? I need not, therefore, say that in the two interviews which his excellency the minister of public culture politely accorded to me this matter was made a special theme of conversation.
It may be stated as a fact, almost without exception, that the bigher intellectual culture of woman is wholly ignored in the educational system of Germany. There is, to be sure, a supplementary clause in one of the larger schools for young women in the city of Stuttgart, a provision, to wit, whereby a student can go forward with study till her sixteenth year, devoting her attention chiefly to the modern languages. But almost never, in this country, does a young woman include an ancient language and the higher mathematics as a part of her intellectual discipline and equipment, and never does she do this in any public school or college. I need not say, with all the confessed excellences of the German educational system, it is, in my judgment, susceptible of great improvement in this respect.
In Würtemberg, as in other European nations, differences of religious belief complicate educational and many other problems. Here, as elsewhere, Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and the people of no religious faith whatever all claim a share in the privileges of intellectual culture. How to conduct public education withont a collision of these heterogeneous elements is a question to which the government of this people has evidently addressed itself in sober earnest. And in general it may be stated that, so far as is possible for a government whoso head is Protestant, all causes of jealousy and misunderstanding of a theological character have been sedulously avoided. Religion is an optional branch of instruction in all the public schools. The pupils may take it or not, according to the election of their parents or guardians. If they choose, it may be omitted altogether, or if they desire it, they themselves have the privilege of choosing the minister by whom it shall be communicated, whether by a Protestant clergyman, by
a Catholic priest, or a Jewish rabbi. And those three sorts of teachers of religion are often found in a single school, each giving instruction in religion to his separate class of pupils. The Bible, as a text book, is never employed in the public exercises of a school; but at the opening and closing a simple prayer is offered, so general in its phraseology that one could not guess whether the petitioner were a Protestant, a Catholic, or a Jew.
Thus far, as his excellency the minister of culture informed me, this system of liberality in religious matters has worked without serious friction; and it is possible that some hints may be herein contained which shall aid our public authorities at home in unravelling the religious perplexities with which our own public educational system is embar. rassed.
In conclusion, I would gratefully acknowledge the polite and courteous attention of his excellency the royal minister of public culture in granting me an audience on two occasions and in placing at my disposal valuable public documents bearing upon the subject in hand.
$7,080 11, 730 138, 830
798, 614 Adding this total to the expenses on account of oiher ministries, viz: Practical military school
$31, 143 Military college..
19, 056 Naval school...... Elementary agricultural instruction...
3, 500 General Agricultural Institute...
17. 857 The Industrial Institute at Lisbon ...
14,320 The Iudustrial Institute at Oporto...
The amount spert by private persons for education may be estimated at $300,000. This sum, added to the government expenditure, would give for the school year 1875–76 a total expenditure of $1,200,000.
The institutions for superior and special instruction are the University of Coimbra, the Polytechnic School of Lisbon, the Army School, the Polytechnic School of Oporto, the Schools of Surgery of Lisbon, Oporto, and Funchal, and the higher course of literature.
THE UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA. The University of Coimbra was founded at Lisbon in the year 1290, by King Dom Diniz. Besides this monarch, the prior of Santa Cruz deserves special credit for the zeal with which he worked for this insti. tution. In 1307 the university was transferred to Coimbra; seventy years later it was brought back to Lisbon ; but in 1537 Dom Joãs III again caused it to be removed to Coimbra, where it has since remained.
Until the year 1772, instruction in the university was confined to theology, law, and medicine. In that year a reform was brought about by the Marquis of Pombal, and the faculties of philosophy and mathe. matics were established. Later several additional chairs were instituted in the faculty of philosophy and one in political economy.
The following is the course of study in the university :
Theology.- First chair, ecclesiastical history; second chair, dogmatic and polemical theology; third chair, theological symbolism ; fourth chair, theological mystics; fifth chair, moral philosophy; sixth chair, liturgical theology; seventh chair, holy scripture; eighth chair, pastoral theology.
Law.- First chair, the philosophy of law and the history of Portu. guese constitutional public law; second chair, Roman law; third chair, Portuguese civil law; fourth chair, public law; fifth chair, politistatistical economy; sixth chair, civil law; seventh chair, : tive legislation ; eighth chair, financial legislation ; nintha