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Copenhagen no class is allowed to have more than from 30 to 40 pupils. In the country districts no pupil is to be obliged to go to school at a greater distance than one-fourth of a Danish mile, (1 English mile.)

(5) No teacher is to have more than 100 pupils. Whenever there are more than 100 children of school age in one commune, either a second teacher must be employed or a new school established.

(6) Tuition in the public schools is free.

(7) The school room must be at least 12 feet high and of proportionate length and width and well ventilated.

(8) The minimum time of giving instruction is 246 days per annum, and 6 hours a day for each teacher and 3 hours a day for each pupil's recitation.

(9) In the primary schools, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion constitute the prescribed branches of study. In the towns, vocal music, geometry, history, and gymnastics are added to the above named branches.

(10) In the intermediate schools, besides the above branches, grammar, physics, mathematics, and two modern languages have to be taught.

(11) Those primary schools that have but one teacher must be divided into two classes, the first of which is to contain the pupils under ten years of age and the second those over ten. Primary schools having two teachers are to be divided into three and four classes.

(12) The text books to be used must first be approved by the bishop and clergy of the district.

(13) No teacher may be employed in any public school before he has attended the prescribed course in the teachers' seminaries or else quali. fied himself before the school authorities. The course of study in the seminaries is calculated for three years, and no one is allowed to pass his final examination before he has reached his twentieth year. Female teachers must be twenty-four years of age before they can be employed in school.

(14) In city schools, the King, through the minister of public instruction, appoints the head masters or superintendents, and they can be dismissed only by him. All other teachers are appointed by the local school boards, consisting of the bishop and clergy of the diocese and the sheriff of the district. To these boards the teachers are primarily responsible for good behavior and efficiency. But these boards are, in turn, subordinated to a special board of school inspectors, appointed by the minister of public instruction, to whom they make their annual reports.

(15) The salaries of teachers in the schools of Copenbagen are from 1,200 crowns* to 2,200 crowns. In the country the minimum salary is 800 crowns and the maximum 1,400, not including the usual allow. ances, such as dwelling, fuel, and a piece of ground, or a garden. At the close of each period of five years of service the teachers are entitled to a small increase of salary, ranging from 50 to 100 crowns per annum.

* 1 crowu = 26.8 cents gold.


(16) With the special permission of the school board, teachers may be placed on the pension list after ten years of faithful service. After twenty years of service teachers may retire on a pension of one-balf of their salaries and after twenty-nine years of service on a pension of twothirds of their salaries.

(17) The widows and orphans of deceased teachers are entitled to a pension amounting to about one-eighth of the salaries of their husbands or fathers at the time of death.

(18) The ordinary expenses connected with the support of the primary schools are paid by the cities, towns, or districts in which they are located, but the additions to the teachers' salaries and the pensions are paid from a special school fund, of which each governmental district possesses one.

(19) The secondary or intermediate schools receive a subsidy from the state.

(20) The special school funds are raised partly by local taxation and partly by subsidies from the state.

(21) Children attending private schools are annually required to pass an examination before a school board in the studies prescribed for the public schools for the year preceding the examination.


Primary schools.— The country is divided into 2,399 school districts. Each of these districts bas at least one school, with one teacher. As soon as the number of pupils of school age in a district is more than 100, an assistant teacher must be employed.

Although the law prescribes that every child shall attend the common school from the age of seven to fourteen, a child may be dismissed upon the wish of its parents or guardians, if, in the opinion of the school authorities, it bas received a sufficient amount of elementary education.

The school hours in summer are from 8 to 11 in the morning and from 1 to 4 in the afternoon, and in winter from 9 to 12 in the morning and from 1 to 4 in the afternoon.

Corporal punishment is only allowed in cases of disrespect or disobedience; laziness or truancy must be reported to the head master.

Each teacher prepares his own course of study and submits it to the approval of his local superiors. A general model course for the whole country does not exist. The method of teaching is left to the teacher, wbo also, conjointly with the school board selects the text books.

Almost every town has, besides the elementary schools, at least one higher primary school, or burgher school, in which a small tuition fee is charged.

The number of primary country schools is 2,781 ; the number of male teachers, 2,929; the number of female teachers, 59; the number of children of school age, 200,761; the number of children attending public schools, 194,198, and the number of children attending private schools, 13,994, making the total number of children under instruction 208,192.

The number of primary schools in cities is 113, with 422 male and 54 female teachers, and 23,353 pupils, 6,161 of whom attend the Realschulen.

Teachers' seminaries. The five teachers' seminaries are situated at Joenstrup, Skaarup, Lyngbye, Ranum, and Jelling. The total number of students is 233, viz: 51 in Joenstrup, 75 in Skaarup, 31 in Lyngbye, 31 in Ranum, and 45 in Jelling. Every seminary has three classes, the course of each class comprising one year. No student is admitted under 17 years of age. The following is the course of studies for the three classes: Religion, Danish language and literature, arithmetic, mathematics, penmanship, history, geography, natural history, lessons on education and instruction, music, drawing, gymnastics, catechism.

Farmers' high schools. The first school of this kind was founded by Professor Flor in the village of Rödding, in Northern Schleswig, (now belonging to Prussia,) in the year 1844. The benefits of this institution were soon felt, and similar schools were soon established in all parts of the country. In 1874 their number was, in Denmark proper, 49, with 2,132 male and 1,003 female pupils. They were at first entirely supported by voluntary contributions and the school fees of the pupils, the latter amounting to 50 Danish rix-dalers* per term. But of late the government, recognizing the great importance of these schools, has granted an annual appropriation of 14,000 rix.dalers (about $7,000) for their better support. These schools are intended for adults of the rural districts, the age of the students ranging between eighteen and thirtyfive years. They are well attended and exercise a most beneficial in. fluence.

The course of instruction embraces the following subjects: General and Danish literature; general and Danish history and geography; chemistry; natural philosophy, zoology, and botany, as applied to agriculture; orthography; arithmetic; free hand drawing; levelling; surveying; singing; and gymnastics. No text book is used, but everything being treated in lectures. Pupils are never examined and no lessons are recited; but it entirely depends on the student himself how much and what he learns. A well selected library always exists in connection with these schools. The course of instruction Jasts six months, and it is of frequent occurrence that pupils go through the course twice, and even three times. The spirit pervading these schools aims at a devel. opment of sound practical thought, and endeavors to cultivate a wholesome enthusiasm for all the higher interests of mankind and to awaken an independent national spirit.

Instruction in these schools commences at 8 o'clock in the morning and is opened with singing and prayer. The first hour of the morning is devoted to the reading of Danish authors; during the second hour

* One rix-daler = about 55 cents.


history is treated ; at 10 o'clock there is an iutermission of half an Lour; after this there follow writing exercises : likewise essays, written, from time to time, on given themes; at 12 o'clock, dinner; at 2 o'clock, instruction is resumed aud lasts, with an intermission from 5 to 6, till supper at 7 o'clock.

School for girls.-Quite recently a similar course of three months has been established for grown up girls of the lower classes, who are instructed in housekeeping, needle work, floriculture, and horticulture.

Secondary schools.—Secondary instruction in Denmark was formerly represented by Gyindasia, with a classical course, and Realschulen more practical than otherwise. After long discussions in the Folkething the so called bifurcation (already practised for some years in German insti. tutions of this kind) was introduced, so that these institutions have two divisions each, viz, one of languages and history and one of mathematics and natural scionces. The subjects of instruction are very much the same as those of the German gymnasium, only that a very full course of Danish and old Norse literature is given and that more time is devoted to English and French.

The total number of secondary schools is 26, 15 of which are Gymnasia. 5 burgher schools, and 6 private schools. The number of teachers is 163 in the Gymnasia, 6 in the burgher schools, and 145 in the private schools, making a total of 314.

The total number of pupils in secondary schools is 3,476, viz: 1,629 in the Gymnasia, 410 in the burgher schools, and 1,437 in the private schools.

The oldest and wealthiest secondary schools of the kingdom are those of Soröe aud Herlufsholm. The former was founded in 1580. In 1749 it was changed into the Knights Academy. Afterward a classical school was added ; and in 1849 the academy was discontinued, and only the classical school remained, which, in 1870, had 160 students. The school of Herlufsholm was founded in 1565, and in 1870 had 95 students.

All the secondary schools are well managed, and thus secure good results.

Superior instruction.- Superior instruction is represented by the Uni. versity of Copenhagen, founded in 1478–79. This institution is liberally sustained and patronized, its income amounting to about $75,000. The university has four faculties: theology, law, medicine, and philosophy. The number of professors is about 60 and the number of students 1,250, The library, (containing about 275,000 volumes,) laboratory, botanical garden, museum of natural history, and astronomical observatory, all of which are connected with the university, are in an excellent condition.

Special instruction. For special instruction, Denmark has a royal veterinary and agricultural school, with 16 professors and about 200 students; a polytechnic school, with 13 professors and about 150 students; two academies of fine arts, a technical school, eight navigation

schools, a military academy, a large number of Sunday improvement or review schools, and the institutions usual for the unfortunate.

Libraries.- Libraries are now generally connected with public schools for the use of teachers and pupils. Popular libraries are found in almost every town and village. The capital, Copenhagen, with a population of 230,000 in 1876, has two large libraries open to the public: the univer. sity library, already mentioned, and the royal library, with more than 500,000 volumes and 20,000 manuscripts.


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