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Ant. 37. For conducting education in private houses the following qualificatious are required : a, a certificate of capacity ; b, testimonials of good moral character. | ART. 38. Applications for permission to teach in private houses must be made to the burgomaster of the commune where it is desired to establish a private school.

ART. 39. Teachers who in conducting education in private schools or in private houses shall propagate doctrines inconsistent with morality or tending to excite disobedience to the law of the country shall lose their licenses to give instruction.

Art. 40. Certificates of capacity for giving instruction in schools and private houses are obtained by regular examinations.

Art. 41. Examinations shall be held twice a year in each province by a committee composed of the provincial inspector and four district inspectors. The examinations shall be held in public, except those of the female teachers.

ART. 42. The time when the examinations are to take place shall be made known to the public through the press. Any person desiring to present himself for examination shall apply in due time to the school inspector of the district in which he resides. He must produce testimonials of moral conduct and his certificate of birth.

ART. 43. In order to be admitted for examination, the candidate must be eighteen years of age; the applicant for a head mastership must be at least twenty-three years

of age.

Art. 44. Candidates for examination for the purpose of obtaining a certificate of capacity as assistant teachers, of either sex, must prove that they have received a thorough training in the common school branches, and besides in natural philosophy, in vocal and instrumental music, and in the science of education.

ART. 45. Candidates for certificates of capacity as head mistresses must at least possess the same amount of knowledge which is required of assistant male teachers, and also the necessary skill to teach needle work.

ART. 46. Candidates for certificates of capacity as head masters are required to possess attainments of the same description as those required of assistant teachers, but their knowledge must be more comprehensive and developed.

Art. 47. Candidates who fail to pass in all the branches prescribed may apply for another examination.

ART. 48. The examinations of private teachers embrace the same branches as those prescribed for public teachers.

ART. 49. Candidates who have passed a satisfactory examination shall receive a certificate of capacity, in which the branches are named in which they håve successfully passed.

ART. 50. Certificates of capacity shall be delivered, on payment of ten florins, to head masters and mistresses, and five florins to assistant teachers of either sex.

Art. 51. Certificates of capacity shall be valid for the whole kingdom.

Art. 52. The superintendence of education, subject to the supervision of the minister of the interior, is conferred upon local school boards, district school inspectors, and provincial inspectors.

Art. 53. There shall be a local school board in every commune.

Art. 54. In communes of less than 3,000 inhabitants the duties of the local school board are performed by the burgomaster and the assessors. In other communes a sep. arate board shall be appointed by the communal council. The offi e of member of the school board may be held with that of member of the communal council.

Art. 55. Every province shall be divided into school districts, and every district shall be placed under the control of a district school inspector.

Art. 56. The district school inspectors shall be appointed by the minister of the interior for the period of six years. On the expiration of their term of service they may be reappointed. They may be dismissed at any time by the minister of the interior.

Art. 57. The district school inspectors shall receive a fixed salary from the government and a compensation for travelling expenses.

Art. 58. There shall be a provincial inspector in each province, appointed by the King, who may dismiss them at any time.

ART. 59. The provincial school inspectors shall be summoned to meet once a year by the minister of the interior for the purpose of deliberating upon the general interests of elementary instruction.

ART. 60. The provincial inspectors shall hold no other office without the sanction of the King

ART. 61. The members of the local school board and the district and provincial school inspectors shall be sworn in before entering upon the duties or they shall promise upon their honor to discharge the duties of their office faithfully.

Art. 62. The local school boards and the district and provincial school inspectors have to see that the laws concerning elementary instruction are observed.

Art. 63. All elementary schools shall be open at all times to the members of the local school board and to district and provincial inspectora.

The teachers are bound to give them any information that may be asked for with regard to their schools.

ART. 64. The local school board shall carefully inspect all elementary schools under their control. They shall visit them at least twice a year; they shall see that the regulations concerning these schools are strictly observed; and they shall present annually to the communal council a report on the condition of the schools.

ART. 65. The district school inspectors shall be well acquainted with the condition of the elementary schools under their control. They shall visit, at least twice a year, all the schools of their district. They shall correspond with the local school boards and with the communal councils; they shall lay before them sach suggestions as they may deem necessary for the improvement of elementary schools. They shall communicate to the provincial inspector everything which appears to them of any importance; and they shall furnish him such information as he may require. They shall send annually to the provincial inspector a report on the condition of education in their district.

Art. 66. The district school inspectors shall have access to the meetings of all tho school boards in their districts and shall have a consulting voice in such meetings.

Art. 67. The provincial school inspectors shall do all in their power to promote education. They shall prepare, from the annual returns of the district school inspectors, a complete report on education in their respective provinces, and submit the same, with their own observations, to the minister of the interior before the 1st of July in each year.

Secondary instruction (styled middle class instruction in Holland) is regulated by the law of May 2, 1863. The law includes among the secondary schools the higher burgher schools, (corresponding to the German Realschulen,) the burgher schools, and the polytechnic school at Delft. The Gymnasia and Latin schools are classed with the superior institutions of learning.

Superior instruction is regulated by the law of 1815. According to this law, superior institutions of learning are the Latin schools, the Gymnasia, the athenæums, and the high schools, (universities.)



Education is not compulsory in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, as it is in several other European countries; but the higher school authorities bave so excited the zeal of the district and communal boards and bave been so well seconded in their efforts by the clergy, that the necessity for compulsory regulations has not been felt. There is, however, a law ordaining that parents shall be excluded from public charity unless they send their children to school. The excellence of the Dutch school-louses and the great ability of the teachers have also largely contributed to the present admirable condition of the popular schools. By early providing for primary education, Holland has wonderfully improved the social condition of her people. There is scarcely a child ten years of age of sound intellect who cannot read and write. Almost every one receives instruction during some period and the majority of the children attend school regularly. In 1818 Holland had 3,405 public and private elementary schools, with 5,772 teachers and assistants; in 1857 there were 3,422 schools and 7,392 teachers.

There has not been a very large increase in the number of schools, but since 1857 those in existence have been much improved, and there hås been an increase of 1,620 in the number of teachers up to the latest report.

The number of papils in public and private elementary schools in 1848 was 385,186, viz, 209,016 boys, 170,329 girls, and 5,811 papils whose sex is not reported. In 1857 this number had increased to 406,329, viz, 228,353 boys and 177,976 girls. In the latter year, 85 per cent. of all the children of school age attended the public or private elementary schools; 146,062 pupils received instruction gratis.

The following are the statistics of primary education from 1858 to 1873, inclusive: In 1858 the total number of public and private schools was 3,473; in 1873 it was 3,790. The number of teachers increased from 8,021 in 1858 to 11,465 in 1873; total increase, 3,414. Concerning the number of pupils during the years 1858–1861, no correct statements have been published. In 1862 the number of pupils was 410,359, viz: 224,072 boys and 186,287 girls; in 1873 it had increased to 500,059, viz: 265,815 boys and 231,244 girls. The increase in the number of pupils during the period of twelve years is thus 89,700. Of these, 33,466 belonged to the public and 56,234 to private schools. The number of pupils who received gratuitous instruction in 1862 was 208,983; in 1873 it was 255,097.

A large number of evening schools for children and adults and review schools for adults have been established since 1858. In 1873 the total number of pupils attending these schools was 35,391, viz : 23,736 males and 11,655 females.

The condition of primary schools in 1875 is reported as follows: The total number of public and private schools was 3,817, with 11,975 teachers. The number of pupils in the same year was 509,066, viz: 284,133 boys and 218,933 girls. The evening and review schools were frequented by 48,500 pupils, viz: 26,689 males and 21,811 females.

The total expenditure for primary education was, in 1875, 7,127,001 florins. Of this amount 698,465 florins were supplied by the government, and the rest by the provinces and the communes.

The minimum teacher's salary was 200 florins and the maximum 3,000 florins. Thirty-six teachers received pensions in 1875, the minimum being 100 florins and the maximum 1,131 florins. The total sum for pensions in 1875 amounted to 163,118 florins.

Teachers' seminaries, (normal schools.)-In 1875 the Netherlands had 3 state teachers' seminaries, with 295 students, 33 of whom were females. The expenditure for the seminaries was in the same year 126,605 florins.

Infant schools.— The number of public and private infant schools in 1875 was 705 and the number of teachers 2,222, viz: 39 males and 2,183 females. The number of pupils in the same year was 73,018, viz: 38,852 boys and 34,166 girls.


The secondary institutions of learning are, according to the law of May 2, 1863, the burgher schools, the higher burgher schools, the agricultural schools, and the polytechnic school at Delft.

The burgher schools, chiefly designed for the children of tradesmen, mechanics, and agriculturists, are divided into day and evening schools. The course of study of the day schools extends through two years and embraces the following branches: Mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural history, technology, agriculture, geography, history, the Dutch language, political economy, drawing, and gymnastics.

The bigher burgher schools are divided into schools with a five years' course and schools with a three years' course. The course of study embraces, besides the branches taught in the burgher schools, the French, English, and German languages, book-keeping and commercial science, and history

The course of study of the agricultural schools embraces all the branches relating to scientific and practical agriculture.

The polytechnic school is intended to train manufacturers, civil engi. neers, and architects. Its course of study is of five years and embraces the following branches: Algebra, trigonometry, geometry, land surveying, mensuration, mechanics, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, inetallurgy, bydraulic engineering, construction of roads, railways, and bridges, shipbuilding, linear and free hand drawing, model making, political economy, commercial and administrative law, mining, and manufactures.

According to the official report for 1875-76, the total number of burgher schools was 35 and the number of pupils 3,992; the number of higher burgher schools was 51, with 3,812 pupils. The number of pupils of the two agricultural schools was, in 1875, 28. The polytechnic school bad 263 students.

The total expenditure of the state and of the communes for secondary education amounted to 1,691,518 florins in 1875. Of this amount · 790,796 forins were contributed by the state.


The higher institutions of learning consist of the Universities of Leyden, Utrecht, and Groningen, the athenæums of Amsterdam and Deventer, and the so called Latin schools, the number of which is 51.

The total number of students of the universities was in 1875–76 1,684, viz: 980 in Leyden, 527 in Utrecht, and 177 in Groningen. The athenæum of Amsterdam had, in 1875–76, 381 students. The athenæum of Deventer has been closed for several years, but will soon be reopened. The total number of pupils of the 51 Latin schools was 1,260.

The state grant for higher education in 1875–76 amounted to 829,219 florins.

Higher schools for girls.---The number of higher schools for girls has increased from 4 in 1874 to 9 in 1875. The total number of pupils was in the latter year 691. The course of study is of three years and embraces the following branches : Dutch language and literature, French, German, English, history, geography, arithmetic, book keeping, natural history, chemistry, drawing, needle work, gymnastics, singing, and music.


Drawing schools.—The number of public drawing schools was in 1875–76 39, with 168 teachers and 3,904 pupils.

Navigation schools. There are in the Netherlands 11 navigation schools, with 25 professors and 541 students.

Schools for the blind.—The two institutions for the blind at Amsterdam had 120 inmates, viz: 74 males and 46 females.

School for deaf mutes. The deaf mute school at Groningen had in 1875 131 inmates, viz: 69 males and 62 females.

Veterinary school.—The veterinary school had, in 1875, 49 students. The government grant for this institution amounted to 138,144 florins in 1875–76.


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