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No tuition fees are charged the students, but on the contrary many allowances or stipends are paid indigent students. The university also sends, at its own cost, every year at least three graduate students to study in foreign countries, one of them especially for pedagogical studies.

The buildings of the university, all of brick and erected in a beautiful style, are: (1) the university hoase, in which are the lecture rooms, balls, and offices; (2) the library, in which there are 140,000 volumes; (3) chemical laboratory and lecture room, erected in 1870; (4) anatomical museum and dissection rooms; (5) astronomical observatory; (6) meteorological and magnetic observatory; (7) botanic garden and conservatory; (8) gymnastic halls; and (9) the above named students' house. Iu addition to the collections and facilities of illustration indicated by the buildings in which they are placed, there are the mineralogical and geological cabinets, the zoölogical collections, the ethnographical and historical museum, collections of coins and medals, physical apparatus, &c. There are also under the charge of the professors of medicine two large state hospitals to which the students of medicine resort for instruction and practice.

IV.- THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS. (a) The polytechnic school at Helsingfors admits, on examination in the branches taught in tbe Realschule, pupils of at least 14 years of age. The school is divided into two departments, the preparatory and the technical. In the former, which occupies a term of two years, the instruction is the same for all pupils, drawing, mathematics, and natural phi. losophy being the principal subjects, besides some English, German, and Russian. The technical department provides special courses of instruction for (1), architects, (2) civil engineers, (3) mechanical engineers and constructors, (4) chemists and mining engineers, and (5) surveyors, each course occupying two to five years, exclusive of the time spent in the . preparatory department. This institution, which received its present organization in 1872 and is wholly supported by the state, bad in 1874 8 ordinary and 7 assistant teachers. The number of pupils was 105, 34 of whom belonged to the preparatory department, and 15 were extra pupils not following the regular course of instruction.

(6) The teachers' seminaries or normal schools were established to meet the want of good teachers for the popular schools. There are 3 seminaries in operation, one Finnish, with separate departments for ladies and gentlemen, established in 1863, and two Swedish, one for ladies and the other for gentlemen, established in 1872 and 1873. The course of instruction, which embraces all the subjects taught in the popular schools and pedagogy, occupies four years, the last being devoted to practice in the model schools and Kindergarten attached. Candidates must have completed their eighteenth year. A part of the students get lodgings, fuel, and board at the institution. Tuition is free and stipends or allowances are made by the state toward the expenses for

board, books, &c., of indigent students. In 1874 there were 272 pupils at these institutions.

(c) Agricultural schools. There is one institute of agriculture, established at Mustiala in 1837, and nine agricultural schools of lower grades, established at different periods since 1858. The institute is di. vided into two departments, one scientific, requiring a thorough common education of the students entering, and the other giving the elements of the agricultural sciences in the most popular and practical form. Each course occupies two years. The scientific course is exclusively attended by persons of educated families, many of them having been students at the university before entering the institute, and the popular one mostly by sons or servants of peasants or farmers. To the institute is attached a large farm, which the pupils have to cultivate in order to get practice in scientific agriculture. The lower agricultural schools have only the popular course and are located on private or public farms. In 1873 the aggregate number of pupils was 235 and that of teachers 28.

There are also several schools for butter and cheese making, some of which are connected with the agricultural schools. In each of the eight counties there is a plough-instructor, who goes round and spends some time with farmers who wish his instruction in adopting new methods in the cultivation of their fields and the breeding of cattle.

(d) A forest institute was established in 1862, to secure intelligent inspectors and managers of the large public forests. The institute was closed in 1866 on account of the lack of pupils, but it was reopened in 1874. The course extends throughout two years and embraces the forest sciences. The candidates must be graduates of the lyceums or students of the university. During the summer vacation the pupils are required to to practise in the public forest, within the boundaries of which the school is situated. The students have free tuition and lodg. ing at the institute.

(e) The navigation schools are six in number, three of them established in 1812, each with two departments, for mates and for captains. Before entering the mates' department the candidate must have been at sea four years, and, for the captains' department, besides this, have practised as mate two years. Instruction is given in mathematics and the science of navigation, in English, book-keeping, and penmanship. The course in each department can be completed in one year, but requires commonly two to three years. These schools are open only from the middle of October to the end of April. The captains on steamers have, besides the course in navigation, to pass an examination in the management of engines.

(f) A military school has since 1780 been in operation at Fredriks. baum. Besides the preparatory course of three years in the common subjects of instruction, the special course in the military branches occapies the same term of three years. All the pupils reside in the build. ings of the institution, and are under constant supervision and military discipline. The management of the school is divided between the Finnish authorities and the Board of Russian Military Schools at St. Petersburg. The school is also assisted in a slight degree by the Russian government. The language of instruction is Swedish, except in a few branches in the special department, in which it is Russian. Only sons of Finnish parents are admitted as pupils. In 1873 the school had 122 pupils and 17 teachers, exclusive of the military officers.

(9) Technical Realschulen the two schools are called which were established in 1847 to give the instrnction needed by boys going into the me. chanical trades. The course of instruction extends through four years and embraces, besides the common branches, geometry, algebra and trigonometry, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, and mechanics. The pupils must be at least 12 years of age. Small shops for instruction in mechanics are attached to these schools.

For almost the same purpose, or for giving to apprentices the elements of mechanical science needed in their occupations, there is in every city a Sunday school, kept on Sunday evenings, and in several places besides this two or three evenings a week. These Sunday schools are thus quite different from the American Sunday schools for religious instruc. tion.

But all these schools are not in a condition to meet the wants of the industrial classes. They are therefore to be completely reorganized, and a system of industrial drawing and evening schools is to be estab. lished reaching all parts of the country.

(h) The schools for deaf-mutes are four in number. The first was estab. lished in 1858. The pupils generally board in the school and are instructed by sigos in the common branches of study, including religion, and in some manual work. The speaking method is also used with pupils capable of learning it.

(i) The asylums for the blind, two in number, were established, the first in 1866 and the other in 1870. Both of them are boarding schools. The pupils are taught to read the blind types and oral instruction is given in the common branches. Musical exercises are much in use. The pupils also get instruction in some manual work in order to be able to support themselves. The aggregate number of pupils was in 1873 only 32 and that of teachers 7.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. The attendance on all the public schools, except the popular and the Sunday schools, is very regular. Pupils are, as a rule, admitted only at the beginning of the school year, and in case of sickness the parents or guardians must give written notice thereof to the master of the school. This rule cannot for various reasons be kept up in the popular schools, especially in those in the country. Of the pupils enrolled in the popular schools in the year 1874 and 1875, about 65 per cent. attended the school the whole year, 20 per cent. more tban four months, and 15 per cent. less than four months. The explanation of this irregularity is to be sought in the poverty of tbe parents and the great distances between the home and the school.


The schools of Finland are commonly in operation from the 1st of September to the middle of June, with a vacation of 4 weeks at Christmas. The popular schools must be open at least 30 weeks a year in order to get the state aid, the average of the last year being 33 weeks. Some of the special schools fix their terms according to the seasons and other circumstances. In the day schools the work is going on 6 days a week (except in some popular schools 5 days) and 4 to 6 hours a day.


The population of Finland being partly Finnish and partly Swedish, the schools too, as far as the language of instruction is concerned, are either Swedish or Finnish, depending on what is the mother tongue of the majority of the pupils. Occasionally both languages are used at the same school, as English and German in many schools of Ohio and other States. In the secondary schools the other mother tongue is a subject of instruction, so that the educated people generally understand and are able to speak both languages. At the university the professors, with two or three exceptions, lecture in Swedish. Russian is studied as a foreign language, there being only two Russian popular schools in Finland. These are situated at the eastern bouudary.


School architecture has not reached any high standard, most of the school-houses being old fashioned, very inconvenient, and uncomfortable. Many of the public schools are also located in rented houses, not at all adapted to the purpose of teaching; but improvement is being made. As for school furniture, the single or double seat chairs and desks on the American plan are very commonly introduced instead of the old long benches, with or without desks of the same length. The public schools, especially those of higher grade, are, as a rule, very well equipped with apparatus of all kinds. Most if not all of the schools have their own libraries for the use of the teachers and pupils; and, although in Fin. land as in America there is no royal road to learning, the metliods of teaching have during the last ten or fifteen years been much more rational. Oral instruction is much in use, perhaps too much. Corporal punishment is totally abolished in all secondary schools and many otbers, without any injury to the discipline, which is as good as in the old times when the head master was the birchen whip.


Although the previously mentioned schools are public, they are not all free, small tuition fees being charged in all secoudary schools and in many of the popular and special schools. Those fees amount, in popular schools, to 2 marks a year; in the Realschulen, to 12 or 24 marks; in the lyceums and ladies' schools, to 40 marks, (except in the ladies' school at Helsingfors, where the yearly fee is 80 marks;) and, in the polytechnic school, to 60 or 80 marks; but in all schools there are soine free places, nobody being excluded on account of poverty. Especially in the popular schools, only a part of the pupils pay, and in many of these schools no fees are charged. In the university and in many special schools there are no tuition fees at all.


T'he salaries of the teachers vary in the different schools. In the pop. ular schools in country places the average salary at present is 1,000 marks, (about $200;) somewhat more for the gentlemen and somewhat less for the lady teachers. The teachers of the popular schools in cities receive a little more. In the secondary schools, the ordinary male teachers receive 2,800 to 4,800 marks and the ladies 1,600 to 2,400. The rector or president of the school has, besides this, 300 to 1,000 marks The ordinary teachers of the polytechnic school are paid 4,200 to 0,000 marks and those of the teachers' seminaries 3,400 to 5,200 for males and 1,400 to 2,000 for females. At the university, ordinary professors receive 7,500 to 9,000 marks, the extraordinary professors 5,000 marks, the docentes 2,500 to 3,500 marks, and the special instructors in draw. ing, gymnastics, and music 3,000 marks. Besides this, the president of the university has 4,000 marks and the deans and inspectors of the faculties or nations receive 1,000 marks each. In connection with the salaries here given, it is to be recollected that the money has a much greater purchasing power in Finland than in America.

The state also pays teachers who have worked faithfully for 30 or 35 years their full salary as a yearly pension during life. In case of incurable sickness at an earlier time, a pension of smaller amount is allowed.


All the public schools of Finland are either wholly or in great part supported by the state. The popular schools are really town instituitions; but the state pays 600 to 900 marks to every male teacher and 400 to 600 marks to every lady teacher, depending on the time spent in school work. The ambulatory village schools are of private character and have no state aid. The towns supply the Realschulen, Sunday schools, and navigation schools, and their teachers, with rooms and fuel; but all other schools are, as a rule, wholly supported by the state. As

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