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the person who, being of good moral character, presents the best evidence of his or her knowledge and ability to teach.

The local supervision is vested in a school committee, elected by the inhabitants of the city or town in which the school is situated. The school committees of the popular schools (of which women may be and often are members) have in their hands the economical management of the schools and the appointment of teachers. Some of the cities have elected special superintendents of their popular schools. All ordinary or regular teachers hold office during good behavior, and assistant teachers for a year or a term.

The university and the special schools, except the schools for deaf mutes and for the blind, which are subordinate to the state board of education, have their separate authorities.


Reading and spelling are generally taught in the families or in the country by ambulatory village schools, which are under the supervision of a minister in each parish. These schools are of a very low grade, but they have until lately been the only opportunities offered for learn. ing in country places. Readiug Bible history and learning the catechism, generally by heart, are the oniy subjects taught, and the teacher, who moves from place to place and boards with the farmers whose chil. dren he or she teaches, does not know much more. In the cities primary instruction is given in permanent schools.

In 1863 a teachers' seminary was opened at Jyväskylä, and in 1866 a law was passed establishing public popular schools to give family and village school instruction in every commune or town. Since that time popular schools bave continually been growing up in different localities. The country schools are generally upgraded, having only one (male or female) teacher, but in the cities the popular schools are of two grades, lower and higher, each grade having one or more classes and teachers. In the lower grades boys and girls are taught together, but in the higher grades they generally have separate schools or separate hours. In 1871 there were in actual operation 140; in 1872, 192; in 1873, 257; and in 1874, 324 schools, of which 100 were located in the cities and 224 in the country. The number of teachers was, in 1874, 387, of whom 189 were men and 198 women. One hundred and fifty-two of the teachers were graduates of the teachers' seminaries and 25 had studied at the university, the rest having come from different occupations.

In all these schools, except the city schools of lower grade, there were taught religion, reading, spelling, and writing of the mother tongue, arithmetic, geography, and singing, and besides these some or all of the following subjects, viz: history, elements of natural philosophy and history, drawing, geometry, and gymnastics. The girls are, in most of the schools, instructed in needlework and the boys in some simple inanual work.


The schools of this grade have during the last five years been partly modified as to their course of instruction, in order to put them in accordance with the popular schools and meet different wants of life, the salaries of the teachers have been raised, and the names of the schools changed. The great grievance of these schools is the abundance of modern languages taught. There are both the “mother tongues,” (Finnish and Swedish,) Russian, for political and commercial reasons, and the three great languages of civilization, German, French, and English. All these languages are not taught in every school, but a great deal of time is nevertheless spent on grammars and vocabularies. The course of instruction embraces also, as in the popular schools, religion, which is taught in all grades of the schools. The pupils admitted to these schools must be at least nine years of age, (the average being ten to eleven years,) and pass an examination in Bible history and the Lutheran catechism, in the reading, writing, and spelling of the mother tongue, in the elements of grammar, in the four fundamental rules of arithmetic, and in geography. Most of the pupils attain these acquirements in private schools or under private tutors; very few hitherto in the popular schools.

(1) The Lyceums, including the old “higher elementary schools” and “Gymnasia,” carry their pupils (only boys) through seven classes, the highest of which occupies two years, to the university. The prin. cipal subjects taught, besides religion, Swedish, and Finnish, are Latin, five to seven hours a week in every class; mathematics, including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry; universal and Finnish history and geography; and German and Russian. Instruction is also given in natural philosophy and sciences, in logic, and as elective studies in Greek, French, drawing, singing, and gymnastics. In one lyceum at Helsingfors, called Reallyceum, Latin is an elective study and special attention is given to Russian and other modern languages.

Two of the lyceums, one Swedish at Helsingfors and one Finnish at Tavastehus, are called normal lyceums, because teacher candidates for any of the secondary schools, after having passed their examinations at the university, must spend one year at these institutions in pedagogical study and practice, under the direction of four head masters, in the subjects of religion, history and geography, mathematics, and languages.

In 1874 there were in all 18 lyceums, 9 of which were complete with seven classes, 7 had only the four lower classes, and 2 new ones, which are gradually becoming complete, only the two lowest classes.

(2) The Realschulen, or the old lower elementary schools, impart a more thorough instruction in the common or English branches of study than is given in the popular schools, and prepare their pupils for the polytechnic and other special schools. Much attention is paid to mathematics, natural philosophy, and drawing German and English are taught in all these schools, and in some of them Russian also. Instruction is also given in book-keeping. The number of these schools was, in 1874, 33, one being located in each of the cities of the country. The Realschulen are still under reorganization. Some of them are to have four classes, with a two years' course in the highest, and some only the four lower classes.

(3) In the Ladies' schools instruction is given in the following subjects, viz: religion, Swedish and Finnish, German and French, (either of them elective,) history and geography, arithmetic and elements of geometry, natural sciences, drawing, singing, gymnastics, and needle work. There were in 1874, in all, 7 public schools for ladies, one of them, at Helsingfors, being of a higher order, with seven classes, the others having only four classes. In the ladies' school at Helsingfors instruction is also given in the Russian language and in a separate class pedagogy is studied theoretically and practically by ladies who intend to be teachers in public or private ladies' schools.

All classes, with the exceptions named, have a course of one year each. Promotions from class to class are made only once a year, and, as many pupils do not meet the requirements, they have to remain two years in the same class.


The University of Finland was founded at Åbo, the former capital of the country, in 1640, and, in consequence of a disastrous fire, moved to Helsingfors in 1828. The government of the institution rests with the chancellor, the rector, (or president,) and the consistory. The present chancellor is the eldest son of the Emperor, represented at Helsingfors by a vice chancellor, formerly professor in jurisprudence and member of the senate. The rector is designated by the chancellor every three years out of three members of the faculty who are elected by the regular professors. The consistory, of which the rector is president, is composed of the regular professors. The rector and the deans of the faculties are a commission or board for discipline.

There are four faculties or schools, viz, theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and philosophy, which latter is divded into two sections, the his. torico-philological and the mathematico-physical. In each faculty there are several “ ordinary” or regular professors, and, when it is found to be necessary for the instruction of the students or profitable as regards scientific investigations, there are appointed "extraordinary” professors and docentes, all of whom must have acquired the diplomas of doctor in their respective faculties and publicly proved their capacity to undertake original scientific research. Besides these there are in the faculty of philosophy special “lecturers," or teachers of modern languages, and instructors in drawing, music, and gymnastics. In the fall term 1875 there were in the faculty of theology 4 ordinary professorships, (2 vacant;) in the faculty of law, ordinary professors and 1 extraordinary; in the faculty of medicine, 6 ordinary professorships (1 vacant) and 2 extraordinary, 5 docentes, and i anatomical prosector; in the faculty of philosophy, the historico-philological section, 10 ordinary professorships, (2 vacant,) 2 extraordinary, and 7 docentes; the mathematico-physical section, 7 ordinary professorships, (2 vacant,) and 7 privatim docentes. The teachers of modern languages were 8, and the instructors of drawing, music, and gymnastics, 3. In all there are 31 ordinary professorships, (7 vacant,) 5 extraordinary professors, 19 privatim docentes,* and 12 special instructors, or a total of 60 teachers actually engaged.

To become a university student by matriculation the candidate must pass an examination in all the branches taught in the lyceums and enroll himself in one of the four faculties, and also in one of the six nations into which the students are divided according to the division of the country from which they come. At the head of each nation is a pro. fessor, called inspector, appointed by the chancellor for three years, and a vice president, called curator, who is elected by the members from the graduates belonging to the nation. Each nation has supervision of the morals of its members and holds weekly meetings for literary exercises. Its disciplinary power extends to the exclusion of an immoral member for a period not exceeding two years from the university and from Helsingfors. Each nation taxes its members for necessary expenses, both for its special purposes and for tbe general purposes of the six nations; these, as a corporation, own a beautiful brick building, erected by subscriptions from the whole country. In this students' house there are no lodging rooms, but rooms are provided for meetings of the nations and faculties, large reading rooms, supplied with periodicals of different countries, (including America,) a large hall for festive occasions, and a library of 17,000 volumes.

As regards studies and internal life, the university is established on the Swedish or German, and not on the English-American plan. There are no lodgings provided for the students in the university buildings, no classes or required curriculum of studies, and no special text books. The instruction is given by lectures, and not by recitations. The student, after consultation with the dean of the faculty to which he belongs, is free to choose whatever studies he pleases and is referred to the best authors in the respective sciences; but the students who are not grad. uates of any faculty must regularly attend the lectures of at least two professors. Every ordinary professor lectures at least four hours a week and the extraordinary professor and the docentes two hours a

These are the Privatdocenten of the German universities. Authorized by the authorities to deliver lectures, under certain restrictions, on the same subjects which the regular professors teach, they form a very useful part of the instructing body of a German university, for which in this country we bave no eguivalent either in name or fact.

week. The lectures may also be and are often attended by persons not matriculated.

Each faculty awards, on approved examinations in the prescribed studies, its own diplomas, there being two degrees, that of candidate or master and that of licentiate or doctor in each faculty; but nobody can take a learned degree in the faculties of theology, medicine, and jurisprudence if he be not a graduate of the philosophical faculty. To get the diploma of doctor in any faculty the candidate is required to write and print, and before the professors of the faculty to publicly defend, a scientific treatise on some subject in which he has made original research.

Besides these learned degrees there are many examinations for special professions, for ministers, for lawyers and judges, for teachers, &c., which are exacted before the student can obtain any official appointment. The aspirants to these, comprising the greater part of the students, are not obliged to take any pbilosophical degree before entering their respective faculties, although many do so. In the faculty of medicine there are, however, no civil service examinations separate from those for the learned degrees, because every student of that faculty must have graduated in the faculty of pbilosopby.

In the fall term of 1875 there were 642 resident students at the uni. versity, exclusive of about 250 who were matriculated, but for various reasons absent from Helsingfors. No fixed time of residence being required for any examination, many students, on the ground of the high prices of living at Helsingfors or for other reasons, spend a part of their study time in the country as private tutors or studying in their homes; and many graduates, although not intending to take any higher degree and partly occupied by other business, continue to be members of the university in order to have the advantage of using its libraries, collections, and other apparatus of learning. Of these 642 students 146 were graduates of the philosophical faculty and partly also of some of the other faculties, 111 belonged to the faculty of theology, 151 to the faculty of jurisprudence, 61 to the faculty of medicine, and 319 to the faculty of philosophy, with 146 in the historico-philological and 173 in the mathematico-physical sections.

The university, which is the cherished pride of the people of Finland, is richly endowed. The funds of the university, exclusive of all buildings and their equipments, amounted in 1874 to 3,559,355 marks, (about $712,000 gold.) The total income of the university the said year was 855,881 marks, (about $170,000 in gold,) two-thirds of which were direct. ly or indirectly appropriated by the state. The expenses amounted the same year to 625,978 marks, (about $125,000 in gold,) viz: salaries, 371,313 marks; libraries and collections, 65,559 marks; repair of buildings, &c., 24,383 marks; and various purposes, 90,534 marks; thus leaving a surplus of income of 229,903 marks to be devoted to the increase of the funds.

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