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other was Anna Maria de Hornes, Countess of Hornes, the friend and companion of the former. These ladies had long discovered a serious disposition of mind, and one of them, the Princess, had shown her liberality and humanity by affording an asylum in her dominions to persons who had been persecuted on account of their religion. Since that time they had looked favourably upon those doctrines which the Quakers taught; for R. Barclay, the celebrated Apologist, and B. Furley, who were then travelling on the Continent as ministers, had paid them a religious visit, and had been well received by them. , The object therefore of this letter (a very long one) was chiefly toafford them consolation, and to exhort them to constancy and perseverance in the way to which they had been thus providentially directed.
About this time William Penn came accidentally into the situation of a manager of colonial concerns in New Jersey in North America, a situation not only important in itself, but which produced the most important results ; for, by being concerned there, he was by degrees led to, and fitted for, the formation of a colony of his own. The way in which
he became so concerned was the following: Lord Berkeley, who was joint proprietor of New Jersey with Sir George Carteret, had in the preceding year sold his half share of it to John Fenwick in trust for Edward Byllinge. It was on this subject that the dispute arose between the latter, which William Penn has been just mentioned to have arbitrated, and which since that time he had by means of the most exemplary perseverance brought to an amicable issue. As soon as the adjustment took place, Fenwick in company with his wife and family and several Quakers embarked for America in the ship Griffith, and took possession of the land. Byllinge however, who had been drained of his money by the purchase, and who since the sailing of Fenwick had experienced misfortune, found himself unable to meet the pecuniary demands which were brought against him. He agreed therefore to deliver over his new property in trust for his creditors; but in consenting to do this, he had his eye fixed upon the friendly assistance of William Penn. He therefore supplicated the latter with the most earnest entreaty to become a joint trustee with Gawen Laurie of
London and Nicholas Lucas of Hertford, two of the said creditors, to carry his intention into effect. To this, but not till after much consideration, he assented; and thus, though he was in no way concerned in the
affairs of Byllinge, he came into the situa. tion described.
His new office requiring exertion, and this immediately, he was all at once overwhelmed in business. The first thing he did, in conjunction with the trustees, was to agree with Sir George Carteret upon a division of the province. They allotted to the latter the eastern part of it, which by this time was tolerably well peopled; and the western, in which no settlements had been yet made, they took in behalf of Byllinge to themselves. From this time the former took the name of East, and the latter that of West New Jersey, according to this their relative situation to each other.
This division having been made, they then subdivided their own portion into a hundred lots. Ten of these they gave to Fenwick as a repayment for time, trouble, and money advanced by him to Lord Berkeley, and the remaining ninety they reserved
for sale, for the benefit of the creditors of Byllinge.
The next step was to form a Constitution, for those who in consequence of purchase were to settle in the new land. This task, the most difficult, fell almost exclusively upon William Penn. He therefore drew up what he called Concessions, or terms of grant and agreement, which were to be mutually signed. The great outline of these may be comprehended in few words. The people were to meet annually to choose one honest man for each proprietary who had signed the Concessions. They, who were so chosen, were to sit in assembly. They were there to make, alter, and repeallaws. They were there also to choose a Governor, or Commissioner, with twelve assistants, who were to execute these laws, but only during their pleasure. Every man was to be capable both of choosing and being chosen.
No man was to be arrested, imprisoned, or condemned in his estate or liberty, but by twelve men of the neighbourhood.- No man was to be imprisoned for debt; but his estate was to satisfy his creditors as far as it would go, and then he was to be set at liber
ty to work again for himself and family.No man was to be interrupted or molested on account of the exercise of his religion.Such was the simple outline of the Concessions,“ by an adherence to which he hoped that he had laid a foundation for those in after ages to understand their liberty both as men and Christians, and by an adherence to which they could never be brought into bondage but by their own consent.”
Having made these and other arrangements, he and his colleagues gave notice of the same in a public letter, which they signed, and circulated through the kingdom. Through the medium of this, they particularly invited those who were of their own religious society to become the new settlers. They cautioned these, however, against leaving their country out of any idle curiosity, or rambling disposition, or improper motive, or to the violation of the feelings of their kindred, or of their religious unity as Friends. To this caution they annexed “A Description of West New Jersey," of its climate, soil, and produce, in order that none might be deceived, or have occasion afterwards to repent of their undertaking.