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Nor was the signal vain that shook the sky.
What fatal favor has the goddess won,
To grace her fierce, inexorable son ?
Perhaps in Grecian blood to drench the plain,
And glut his vengeance with my people slain.”

Then thus the god : “O restless fate of pride,
That strives to learn what heaven resolves to hide
Vain is the search, presumptuous and abhorr’d,
Anxious to thee, and odious to thy lord.
Let this suffice : the immutable decree
No force can shake: what is, that ought to be.
Goddess, submit; nor dare our will withstand,
But dread the power of this avenging hand:
The united strength of all the gods above
In vain resists the omnipotence of Jove.

The thunderer spoke, nor durst the queen reply
A reverent horror silenced all the sky.
The feast disturb’d, with sorrow Vulcan saw
His mother menaced, and the gods in awe;
Peace at his heart, and pleasure his design,
Thus interposed the architect divine:
“The wretched quarrels of the mortal state
Are far unworthy, gods ! of your debate :
Let men their days in senseless strife employ,
We, in eternal peace and constant joy.
Thou, goddess-mother, with our sire comply,
Nor break the sacred union of the sky :
Lest, roused to rage, he shake the bless'd abodes,
Launch the red lightning, and dethrone the gods,
If you submit, the thunderer stands appeased;
The gracious power is willing to be pleased.”

Thus Vulcan spoke : and rising with a bound,
The double bowl with sparkling nectar crown’d, *
Which held to Juno in a cheerful way,
“Goddess (he cried), be patient and obey.
Dear as you are, if sove his arm extend,
I can but grieve, unable to defend.
What god so daring in your aid to move,
Or lift his hand against the force of Jove ?
Once in your cause I felt his matchless might,

Hurl'd headlong down from the ethereal height; † * A double bowl, i.e. a vessel with a cup at both ends, something like the measures by which a halfpenny or pennyworth of nuts is sold. See Buttmann, Lexic. p. 93, sq. † - Paradise Lost," i. 44.

“ Him th' Almighty power
Hurl'd headlong flaming from th’ ethereal sky,
With hideous ruin and combustion."

Toss'd all the day in rapid circles round;
Nor till the sun descended touch'd the ground;
Breathless I fell, in giddy motion lost;
The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast;*

He said, and to her hands the goblet heaved,
Which, with a smile, the white-arm’d queen received.
Then, to the rest he fill'd; and in his turn,
Each to his lips applied the nectar'd urn,
Vulcan with awkward grace his office plies,
And unextinguish’d laughter shakes the skies.

Thus the blest gods the genial day prolong,
In feasts ambrosial, and celestial song.t.
Apollo tuned the lyre ; the Muses round
With voice alternate aid the silver sound.
Meantime the radiant sun to mortal sight
Descending swift, roll'd down the rapid light:
Then to their starry domes the gods depart,
The shining monuments of Vulcan's art:
Jove on his couch reclined his awful head,

And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed. * The occasion on which Vulcan incurred Jove's displeasure was this.-After Her. cules had taken and pulaged Troy, Juno raised a storm which drove him to the island of Cos, having previously cast Jove into a sleep, to prevent him aiding his son. Jove, in reve ge, fastened iron anvils to her feet, and hung her from the sky, and Vulcan, attempting to relieve her, was kicked down from Olympus in the manner described. The allegorists have gone mad in finding deep explanations for this amusing fiction. See Heraclides, “ Ponticus,” p. 463, sq., ed. Gale. The story is told by Homer himself in Book xv. The Sinthians were a race of robbers, the ancient inhabitants of Lemnos, which island was ever after sacred to Vulcan.

“ Nor was his name unheard or unadored

In ancient Greece ; and in Ausonian land
Men call'd him Mulciber; and how he fell
From heaven, they fabled, thrown by angry Jove
Sheer o'er the crystal battlements ; from morn
To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve,
A summer's day; and with the setting sun
Dropp'd from the zenith like a falling star
On Lemnos, th' Ægean isle ; thus they relate."

“ Paradise Lost," i. 738. # It is ingeniously observed by Grote, vol. i. p. 453, that " The gods formed a sort of political com.nunity of their own, which had its heirarchy, its distribution of ranks and duties, its contentions for power and occasional revolutions, its public meetings in the agora of Olympus, and its multitudinous banquets or festivals.'



THB TRIAL OF THE ARMY, AND CATALOGUE OF THE FORCES. Jupiter, in pursuance of the request of Thetis, sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon,

persuading him to lead the army to battle, in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles. The general, who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance, but fears the army was discouraged by his absence, and the late plague, as well as by the length of time, contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. Hé first communicates his design to the princes in council, that he would propose a return to the soldiers, and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. Then he assembles the whole host, and upon moving for a return to Greece, they unanimously agree to it, and run to prepare the ships. They are detained by the management of Ulysses, who chastises the insolence of Thersites. The assembly is recalled, several speeches made on the occasion, and at length the advice of Nestor followed, which was to make a general muster of the troops, and to divide them into their several nations, before they proceeded to battle. This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans, and in a large catalogue.

The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. The scene lies in the Grecian camp, and upon the sea-shore ; towards the end'it removes to Troy.

Now pleasing sleep had seal'd each mortal eye,
Stretch'd in the tents the Grecian leaders lie :
The immortals slumber'd on their thrones above;
All, but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove.*

To honor Thetis' son he bends his care,
And plunge the Greeks in all the woes of war :
Then bids an empty phantom rise to sight,
And thus commands the vision of the night.

· Fly hence, deluding Dream! and light as air, t
To Agamemnon's ample tent repair.
Bid him in arms draw forth the embattled train,
Lead all his Grecians to the dusty plain.


* Plato, Rep. iii. p. 437, was so scandalized at this deception of Jupiter's, and at his other attacks on the character of the gods, that he would fain sentence him 10 an honorable banishment. (See Minucius Felix, $ 22.) Coleridge, Introd. p. 154, v.ell observes that the supreme father of gods and men had a full right to employ a lying spirit to work out his ultimate Compare "

aradise Lost," v. 646. " And roseate dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. + Dream ought to be spelt with a capital letter, being, I think, evidently personified as the god of dreams. See Anthon and others.

" When, by Minerva sent, a fraudful Dream
Rush'd from the skies, the bane of her and Troy."

Dyce's “ Select Translations from Quintus Calaber," p. 10.

Declare, e’en now 'tis given him to destroy
The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy.
For now no more the gods with fate contend,
At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end.
Destruction hangs o’er yon devoted wall,
And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall.”

Swift as the word the vain illusion fled,
Descends, and hovers o'er Atrides' head;
Clothed in the figure of the Pylian sage,
Renown'd for wisdom, and revered for age :
Around his temples spreads his golden wing,
And thus the flattering dream deceives the king.

“Canst thou, with all a monarch's cares oppress’d,
O Atreus' son! canst thou indulge thy rest ?*
Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides,
Directs in council, and in war presides,
To whom its safety a whole people owes,
To waste long nights in indolent repose.t.
Monarch, awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear;
Thou, and thy glory, claim his heavenly care.
In just array draw forth the embattled train,
Lead all thy Grecians to the dusty plain ;
E’en now, o king ! 'tis given thee to destroy
The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy.
For now no more the gods with fate contend,
At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end.
Destruction bangs o'er yon devoted wall,
And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall.
Awake, but waking this advice approve,
And trust the vision that descends from Jove.”.

The phantom said; then vanish'd from his sight,
Resolves to air, and mixes with the night.
A thousand schemes the monarch's mind employ;
Elate in thought he sacks untaken Troy:
Vain as he was, and to the future blind,
Nor saw what Jove and secret fate design’d,
What mighty toils to either host remain,
What scenes of grief, and numbers of the slain !
Eager he rises, and in fancy hears
The voice celestial murmuring in his ears.
First on his limbs a slender vest he drew,
Around him next the regal mantle threw,

“ Sleep'st thou, companion dear, what sleep can close

Thy eye-lids?"_" Paradise Lost,” v. 673. + This truly military sentiment has been echoed by the approving voice of many, a general and statesman of antiquity. See Pliny's Panegyric on Trajan. Silius neatly translates it,

"Turpe duci totam somno consumere noctem.”

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The embroider'd sandals on his feet were tied
The starry falchion glitter'd at his side;
And last, his arm the massy sceptre loads,
Unstain’d, immortal, and the gift of gods.

Now rosy Morn ascends the court of Jove,
Lifts up her light, and opens day above.
The king despatch'd his heralds with commands
To range the camp and summon all the bands :
The gathering hosts the monarch's word obey:
While to the fleet Atrides bends his

In his black ship the Pylian prince he found;
There calls a senate of the peers around:
The assembly placed, the king of men express'd
The counsels laboring in his artful breast.

66 Friends and confederates! with attentive ear
Receive my words, and credit what you hear.
Late as I slumber'd in the shades of night,
A dream divine appear'd before my sight;
Whose visionary form like Nestor came,
The same in habit, and in mien the same.*
The heavenly phantom hover'd o'er my head,
* And, dost thou sleep, O Atreus' son ? (he said)
Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides,
Directs in council, and in war presides;
To whom its safety a whole people owes,
To waste long nights in indolent repose.
Monarch, awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear,
Thoe and thy glory claim his heavenly care.
In just array draw forth the embattled train,
And lead the Grecians to the dusty plain;
E’en now, O king ! 'tis given thee to destroy
The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy.
For now no more the gods with fate contend,
At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end.
Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall,
And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall.

This hear observant, and the gods obey!'
The vision spoke, and pass'd in air away.
Now, valiant chiefs ! since heaven itself alarms,
Unite, and rouse the sons of Greece to arms.
But first, with caution, try what yet they dare,
Worn with nine years of unsuccessful war.
To move the troops to measure back the main,

Be mine; and yours the province to detain.” * The same in habit, &c.

" To whom once more the winged god appears ;
His former youthful mien and shape he wears.

Drvden's Virgil, iv. 803.

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