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Or far, oli far, from seep Olympus thrown,
Low in the dark Tartarean gulf shall groan,
With burning chains fix'd to the brazen floors,
And lock'd by hell's inexorable doors;
As deep beneath the infernal centre hurld, *
As from that centre to the ethereal world.
Let him who tempts me, dread those dire abodes :
And know, the Almighty is the god of gods.
League all your forces, then, ye powers above,
Join

all, and try the omnipotence of Jove.
Let down our golden everlasting chain †
Whose strong embrace holds heaven, and earth, and main
Strive all, of mortal and immortal birth,
To drag, by this, the Thunderer down to earth :
Ye strive in vain! if I but stretch this hand,
I heave the gods, the ocean, and the land;
I fix the chain to great Olympus' height,
And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight!
For such I reign, unbounded and above;
And such are men, and gods, compared to Jove."

The all-mighty spoke, nor durst the powers reply:
A reverend horror silenced all the sky;
Trembling they stood before their sovereign's look;
At length his best-beloved, the power of wisdom, spoke :

“O first and greatest! God, by gods adored !
We own thy might, our father and our lord !
But, ah! perinit to pity human state :
If not to help, at least lament their fate.
From fields forbidden we submiss refrain,
With arms unaiding mourn our Argives slain;
Yet grant my counsels still their breasts may move,
Or all must perish in the wrath of Jove."

The cloud-compelling god her suit approved,
And smiled superior on his best beloved ;

As far removed from God and light of heaven,

As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole."2" Paradise Lost." E quanto è da le stelle al basso inferno,

Tanto è più in sù de la stel'ata spera.”—Gier. Lib. i. 7. “ Some of the epithets which Homer applies to the heavens seem to imply that he considered it as a solid vault of metal. But it is not necessary to construe these epithets so literally, nor to draw any such inference from his description of Atias, who holds the lofty pillars, which keep earth and heaven asunder. Yet it would seer., from the manner in which the height of heaven is compared with the depth of Tar tarus, that the region of light was thought to have certain bounds. The summit of the Thessalian Olympus was regarded as the highest point on the earth, and it is not always carefully distinguished from the aërian regions above. The idea of a seat of the gods-perhaps derived from a more ancient tradition, in which it was not attached to any geographical site--seems to be indistinctly blended in the poet's mind with that of the real mountain.”—Thirlwall's Greece, vol. i. p. 217, sq.

Now lately heav'n, earth, another world
Hung o'er my realm, link'd in a golden chain
To that side heav'n.”_" Paradise Lost,” ii. 1004.

Book VIII.]

THE ILIAD.

187

Then call'd his coursers, and his chariot took ;
The stedfast firmament beneath them shook :
Rapt by the ethereal steeds the chariot rollid;
Brass were their hoofs, their curling manes of gold :
Of heaven's undrossy gold the gods array,
Refulgent, flash'd intolerable day.
High on the throne he shines : his coursers fly
Between the extended earth and starry sky.
But when to Ida's topmost height he came,
(Fair nurse of fountains, and of savage game,)
Where o'er her pointed summits proudly raised,
His fane breathed odors, and his altar blazed :
There, from his radiant car, the sacred sire
Of gods and men released the steeds of fire :
Blue ambient mists the immortal steeds embraced;
High on the cloudy point his seat he placed ;
Thence his broad eye the subject world surveys,
The town, and tents, and navigable seas.

Now had the Grecians snatch'd a short repast,
And buckled on their shining arms with haste.
Troy roused as soon; for on this dreadful day
The fate of fathers, wives, and infants lay.
The gates unfolding pour forth all their train;
Squadrons on squadrons cloud the dusky plain .
Men, steeds, and chariots shake the trembling ground:
The tumult thickens, and the skies resound;
And now with shouts the shocking armies closed,
To lances lances, shields to shields opposed,
Host against host with shadowy legends drew,
The sounding darts in iron tempests flew;
Victors and vanquish'd join promiscuous cries,
Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise ;
With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed,
And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide.
Long as the morning beams, increasing bright,
O’er heaven's clear azure spread the sacred light,
Commutual death the fate of war confounds,
Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds.
But when the sun the height of heaven ascends,
The sire of gods his golden scales suspends,*

* His golden scales.

“ Jove now, sole arbiter of peace and war,
Held forth the fatal balance from afar ;
Each host he weighs ; by turns they both prevail,
Till Troy descending fix'd the dcubiful scale.'

Merrick’s Tryphiodorus, v. 687, sqq. “Oh' Eternal, to prevent such horrid fray,

Hung forth in heav'n his golden scaies,

With equal hand : in these explored the fate
Of Greece and Troy, and poised the mighty weight
Press'd with its load, the Grecian balance lies
Low sunk on earth, the 'Trojan strikes the skies.
Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads ;
The clouds burst dreadful o'er the Grecian heads;
Thick lightnings flash; the muttering thunder rolls;
Their strength he withers, and unmans their souls.
Before his wrath the trembling hosts retire ;
The gods in terrors, and the skies on fire.
Nor great Idomeneus that sight could bear,
Nor each stern Ajax, thunderbolts of war:
Nor he, the king of war, the alarm sustain'd
Nestor alone, amidst the storm remain’d.
Unwilling he remain’d, for Paris' dart
Had pierced his courser in a mortal part ;
Fix'd in the forehead, where the springing man
Curld o'er the brow, it stung him to the brain;
Mad with his anguish, he begins to rear,
Paw with his hoofs aloft, and lash the air.
Scarce had his falchion cut the reins, and freed
The encumber'd chariot from the dying steed,
When dreadful Hector, thundering through the war,
Pour'd to the tumult on his whirling car.
That day had stretch'd beneath his matchless hand
The hoary monarch of the Pylian band,
But Diomed beheld; from forth the crowd
He rush’d, and on Ulysses call'd aloud

Whither, oh whither does Ulysses run ?
Oh, flight unworthy great Laërtes' son !
Mix'd with the vulgar shall thy fate be found,
Pierced in the back, a vile, dishonest wound ?
Oh turn and save from Hector's direful rage
The glory of the Greeks, the Pylian sage."
His fruitless words are lost unheard in air,
Ulysses seeks the ships, and shelters there.
But bold Tydides to the rescue goes,
A single warrior midst a host of foes ;
Before the coursers with a sudden spring,
He leap'd, and anxious thus bespoke the king:

“Great perils, father ! wait the unequal fight;

66

Wherein all things created first he weighed ;
The pendulous round earth, with bulanced air
In counterpoise ; now ponders all events,
Battles and realms. In these he puts two weights,
The sequel each of parting and of fight :
The latter quick up few, and kick'd the beam.".

“ Paradise Lost," iv. ogh.

These younger champions will oppress thy might.
Thy veins no more with ancient vigor glow,
Weak is thy servant, and thy coursers slow.
Then haste, ascend my seat, and from the car
Observe the steeds of Tros, renown'd in war,
Practised alike to turn, to stop, to chase,
To dare the fight, or urge the rapid race:
These late obey'd Æneas' guiding rein;
Leave thou thy chariot to our faithful train;
With these against yon Trojans will we go,
Nor shall great Hector want an equal foe;
Fierce as he is, even he may learn to fear
The thirsty fury of my flying spear.'

Thus said the chief; and Nestor, skill'd in war,
Approves his counsel, and ascends the car :
The steeds he left, their trusty servants hold;
Eurymedon, and Sthenelus the bold :
The reverend charioteer directs the course,
And strains his aged arm to lash the horse.
Hector they face; unknowing how to fear,
Fierce he drove on; Tydides whirl'd his spear.
The spear with erring haste mistook its way,
But plunged in Eniopeus' bosom lay.
His opening hand in death forsakes the rein;
The steeds fly back: he falls, and spurns the plain.
Great Hector sorrows for his servant kill'd,
Yet unrevenged permits to press the field;
Till, to supply his place and rule the car,
Rose Archeptolemus, the fierce in war.
And now had death and horror cover'd all ;
Like timorous flocks the Trojans in their wall
Inclosed had bled: but Jove with awful sound
Roll'd the big thunder o’er the vast profound:
Full in Tydides' face the lightning flew;
The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue ;
The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight;
And Nestor's trembling hand confessed his fright:
He dropp'd the reins: and, shook with sacred dread,
Thus, turning, warn’d the intrepid Diomed :

“O chief! too daring in thy friend's defence Retire advised, and urge the chariot hence, This day, aversè, the sovereign of the skies

*

* And now, &c.

“And now all heaven
Had gone to wrack, with ruin overspread;
Had not th' Almighty Father, where he sits

forescen.'

"_" Paradise Lost,” vi. 669.

*

Assists great Hector and our palm denies.
Some other son may see the happier hour,
When Grece shall conquer by his heavenly power.
'Tis not in man his fix'd decree to move :
The great will glory to submit to Jove.”

“O reverend prince ! (Tydides thus replies)
Thy years are awful, and thy words are wise.
But ah, what grief! should haughty Hector boast
I fled inglorious to the guarded coast.
Before that dire disgrace shall blast my fame,
O’erwhelm me, earth; and hide a warrior's shame!”
To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied :
Gods! can thy courage fear the Phrygian's pride ?
Hector may vaunt, but who shall heed the boast ?
Not those who felt thy arm, the Dardan host,
Nor Troy, yet bleeding in her heroes lost;
Not even a Phrygian dame, who dreads the sword
That laid in dust her loved, lamented lord.”
He said, and, hasty, o'er the gasping throng
Drives the swift steeds : the chariot smokes along;
The shouts of Trojans thicken in the wind;
The storm of hissing javelins pours behind.
Then with a voice that shakes the solid skies,
Pleased, Hector braves the warrior as he flies.
“Go, mighty hero! graced above the rest
In seats of council and the sumptuous feast :
Now hope no more those honors from thy train;
Go less than women, in the form of man!
To scale our walls, to wrap our towers in flames,
To lead in exile the fair Phrygian daries,
Thy once proud hopes, presumptuous prince ! are fled;
This arm shall reach thy heart, and stretch thee dead.”

Now fears dissuade him, and now hopes invite,
To stop his coursers, and to stand the fight;
Thrice turn'd the chief, and thrice imperial Jove
On Ida's summits thunder'd from above.
Great Hector heard ; he saw the flashing light,
(The sign of conquest,) and thus urged the

fight
“Hear, every Trojan, Lycian, Dardan band,
All famed in war, and dreadful hand to hand.
Be mindful of the wreaths your arms have won,
Your great forefathers' glories, and your own.
Heard ye the voice of Jove? Success and fame
Await on Troy, on Greece eternal shame.

* Gerenian Nestor. The epithet Gerenian either refers to the name of a place ne which Nestor was educated, or merely signifies honored, revered. Şee Schol. Vinet. in Il. B. 336 ; Strabu, viii. p. 340.

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