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as of some other illustrious men, that at his birth Ode XIII.] In the year 1751, appeared a very a swarm of bees lighted on his lips, and fed him splendid edition, in quarto, of “ Memoires pour with their honey. It was also a tradition concern- servir à l'Histoire de la Maison de Brandebourg, ing him, that Pan was heard to recite his poetry, à Berlin et à la Haye;" with a privilege signed and seen dancing to one of his hymns on the moun- Frederic; the same being engraved in imitation tains near Thebes. But a real historical fact in his of hand-writing. In this edition, among other exlife is, that the Thebans imposed a large fine upon traordinary passages, are the two following, to him, on account of the veneration which he ex- which the third stanza of this ode more particupressed in his poems for that heroic spirit, shown larly refers: by the people of Athens in defence of the common “ Il se fit une migration” (the author is speakliberty, which his own fellow-citizens had shame-ing of what happened of the revocation of the edict fully betrayed. And as the argument of this ode of Nantes) “ dont on n'avoit guere vu d'exemples implies, that great poetical talents, and high senti- dans l'histoire: un peuple entier sortit du royaume ments of liberty, do reciprocally produce and assist par l'esprit de parti en haine du pape, et pour recach other, so Pindar is perhaps the most exemplary cevoir sous un autre ciel la communion sous les proof of this connection, which occurs in history. denx especes : quatre cens inille ames s'expatrieThe Thebans were remarkable, in general, for a rent ainsi et abandonneront tous leur biens pour slavish disposition through all the fortunes of their detonner dans d'autres temples les vieux pseaumes commonwealth ; at the time of its ruin by Philip; de Clement Marot.” P. 163. and even in its best state, under the administration “ La crainte donna le jour à la credulité, et of Pelopidas and 'Epaminondas: and every ove l'amour propre interessa bientôt le ciel au desio knows, they were no less remarkable for great dul- des hommes." P. 242, ness, and want of all genius. That Pindar should have equally distinguished himself from the rest of his fellow-citizens in both these respects seems somewhat extraordinary, and is scarce to be accounted for but by the preceding observation.
HYMN TO THE NAIADS. Stanza III. Line 28.] Alluding to his “ Defence of the People of England” against Salmasius. See particularly the manner in which he himself speaks of that undertaking, in the introduction to his reply to Morus.
THE ARGUMENT, Stanza IV. Line 35.] Edward the Third; from The nymphs, who preside over springs and rivuwhom descended Henry Hastings, third earl of
lets, are addressed at day-break, in honour of Huntingdon, by the daughter of the duke of Cla
their several functions, and of the relations which rence, brother to Edward the Fourth.
they bear to the natural and to the moral world. Stanza V. Line 36.] At Whittington, a village on
Their origin is deduced from the first allegorical the edge of Scarsdale in Derbysbire, the earls of
deities, or powers of Nature; according to the Devonsvire and Danby, with the lord Delamere,
doctrine of the old mythological poets, concernprivately concerted the plan of the Revolution.
ing the generation of the gods and the rise of The house in which they met is at present a farm
things. They are then successively considered, house; and the country people distinguish the
as giving motion to the air and exciting summerroom where they sat, by the name of “ the plot
breezes; as nourishing and beautifying the veting parlour.”
getable creation; as contributing to the fullness Book 17. Ode VII, Stanza II. Line 5.] Mr. Locke
of navigable rivers, and consequently to the died in 1704, when Mr. Hoadly was beginning to maintenance of commerce; and by that means, distinguish himself in the cause of civil and religi
to the maritime part of military power. Next ous liberty: lord Godolphin in 1712, when the
represented their favourable influence upon doctrines of the Jacobite faction were chiefly fa
health, when assisted by rural exercise: which voured by those in power : lord Somers in 1716,
introduces their connection with the art of amid the practices of the non-juring clergy agajust
physic, and the happy effects of mineral medithe protestant establishment; and lord Stanhope cinal springs. Lastly, they are celebrated for in 1721, during the controversy with the lower the friendship which the Muses bear them, and house of convocation.
for the true inspiration which temperance only Ove X. Stanza V.] During Mr. Pope's war
can receive: in opposition to the enthusiasm of with Theobald, Concanen, and the rest of their
the more licentious poets. tribe, Mr. Warburton, the present lord bishop of Gloucester, did with great zeal cultivate their friendship; having been introduced, forsooth, at the meetings of that respectable confederacy: a O'er yonder eastern hill the twilight pale favour which he afterwards spoke of in very high Walks forth from darkness; and the god of day, terms of complacency and thankfulness.
With bright Astræa seated by his side, same time, in his intercourse with them, he treated Waits vet to leave the ocean. Tarry, Nymphs, Mr. Pope in a most contemptuous manner, and as Ye Nymphs, ye blue-ey'd progeny of Thames, a writer without geuius. Of the truth of these who now the mazes of this rugged heath assertions his lordship can have no doubt, if he re- Trace with your fleeting steps; who all night long collects his own correspondence with Concanen, a Repeat, amid the cool and tranquil air, part of which is still in being, and will probably be Your lonely murmurs, tarry: and receive reinembered as long as any of this pielate's wr.t- My offer'd lay. To pay you homage due, 19 ings:
I leave the gates of Sleep; cor shali my lyre
Too far into the splendid hours of morn
And o'er the vale of Richmond, where with Thames Engage your audience: my observant hand Ye love to wander, Amalthea pours Shall close the strain ere any sultry beam Well-pleas'd the wealth of that Ammonian hoin, Approach you. To your subterranean haunts Her dower; unmindful of the fragrant isles Ye then may timely steal; to pace with care Nysæan or Atlantic. Nor canst thou, The humid sands; to loosen from the soil
(Albeit oft, ungrateful, thou dost mock The bubbling sources; to direct the rills
The beverage of the sober Naiad's urn, To meet in wider chamels; or beneath
O Bromius, O Lenæan) nor canst thou Some grotto's dripping arch, at height of noon 20 Disown the powers whose bounty, ill repaid, 90 To slumber, shelterd from the burning heaven. With nectar feeds thy tendrils. Yet from me,
Where shall my song begin, ye Nymphs? or end? Yet, blameless Nymphs, from my delighted lyre, Wide is your praise and copious-First of things, Accept the rites your bounty well may claim, First of the lonely powers, ere Time arose,
Nor heed the scoffings of the Edonian band. Were Love and Chaos. Love the sire of Fate; For better praise awaits you. Thames your sire, Elder than Chaos. Born of Fate was Time, As down the verdant slope your duteous rills Who many sons and many comely births
Descend, the tribute stately Thames receives, Devour'd, relentless father: till the child
Delighted; and your piety applauds; Of Rhea drove him from the upper sky, 29 And bids his copious tide roll on secure, And quell'd his deadly might. Then social reign'd For faithful are his daughters; and with words The kindred powers, Tethys, and reverend Ops, Auspicious gratulates the bark which, now And spotless Vesta ; while supreme of sway His banks forsaking, ber adventurous wings Remain'd the cloud-compeller. From the couch Yields to the breeze, with Albion's happy gifts Of Tethys sprang the sedgy crowned race, Extremest isles to bless. And oft at morn, Who from a thousand urps, o'er every clime, When Hermes, from Olympus bent o'er Earth Send tribute to their parent: and from them To bear the words of Jove, on yonder hill Are ye, 0 Naiads: Arethusa fair,
Stoops lightly-sailing; oft intent your springs And tuneful Aganippe; that sweet name,
He views: and waving o'er some new-born stream Bandusia ; that soft family which dwelt
His blest pacific wand, “And yet," he cries, 209 With Syrian Daphne; and the honour'd tribes 40 · Yet," cries the son of Maia, thong reclose Belov'd of Pæon. Listen to my strain,
And silent be your stores, from you, fair Nymphs, Daughters of Tethys : listen to your praise. Flows wealth and kind society to men.
You, Nymphs, the winged offspring, which of old By you my function and my honour'd name Aurora to divine Astræus bore,
Do I possess ; while o'er the Bætie vale, Oans; and your aid beseecheth. When the might | Or through the towers of Memphis, or the palms Of Hyperion, from his noontide throne,
By sacred Ganges water'd, I conduct l'nbends their languid pinions, aid from you The English merchant: with the buxom fleece They ask: Favonius and the mild South-west Of fertile Ariconium while I clothe From you relief implore. Your sallying streams Sarmatian kings; or to the household gods Fresh vigour to their weary wings impart. 50 Of Syria, from the bleak Cornubian shore, Again they fly, disporting; from the mead Dispense the mineral treasure which of old Half ripen'd and the tender blades of corn, Sidonian pilots sought, when this fair land To sweep the noxious mildew; or dispel
Was yet unconscious of those generous arts Cratagious streams, which oft the parched Earth Which wise Phænicia from their native clime Breathes on her fainting sons. From noon to eve, Transplanted to a more indulgent Heaven." Along the river and the paved brook,
Such are the words of Hermes : such the praise, Ascend the cheerful breezes: hail'd of bards O Naiads, which from tongues celestial waits Who, fast by leared Cam, the Æolian lyre Your bounteous deeds. From bounty issueth power: Solicit; nor unwelcome to the youth
And those who, sedulous in prudent works, Who on the heights of Tibur, all inclin'd 60 Relieve the wants of nature, Jove repays
150 O'er rushing Anio, with a pious hand
With noble wealth, and his own seat on Earth, The reverend scene delineates, broken fanes, Fit judgments to pronounce, and curb the might Or tombs, or pillar'd aqueducts, the pomp Of wicked men. Your kind unfailing urns Of ancient Time; and haply, while he scans Not vainly to the hospitable arts The ruins, with a silent tear revolves
Of Hermes yield their store. For, O ye Nymphs, The fame and fortune of imperious Rome.
Hath he not won the unconquerable queen You too, O Nymphs, and your unenvious aid Of arms to court your friendship? You she owns The rural powers confess; and still prepare The fair associates who extend her sway For you their choicest treasures. Pan commands, Wide o'er the mighty deep; and grateful things Oft as the Delian king with Sirius holds 70 Of you she uttereth, oft as from the shore 140 The central beavens, the father of the grove Of Thames, or Medway's vale, or the green banks Commands his Drvads over your abodes
Of Vecta, she her thundering navy leads To spread their deepest umbrage. Well the god To Calpe's foaming channel, or the rough Reinembereth how indulgent ye supplied
Cantabrian surge ; her auspices divine Your general dews to nurse them in their prime. Imparting to the senate and the prince
Pales, the pasture's queen, where'er ye stray, Of Albion, to dismay barbaric kings, Parsues your steps, delighted ; and the path The Iberian, or the Celt. The pride of kings With living verdure clothes. Around your haunts Was ever scori’d by Pallas: and of old The laughing Chloris, with profuseth hand, Rejoic'd the virgin, from the brazen prow Throw; wide her blooms, her odours. Still with you Of Athens o'er Ægina's gloomy surge, 150 Pum ma seeks to dwell: and o'er the lawns, 81 To drive her clouds and storms; o'erwhelming all
The Persian's promis'd glory, when the realms Wafts to his pale-ey'd suppliants; wafts the seeds Of Indus and the soft Jonian clime,
Metallic, and the elemental salts
(yoon When Libya's torrid champain and the rocks Wash'd from the pregnant glebe. They drink: and Of cold Imaüs join'd their servile bands,
Flies pain; Mies inauspicious care: and soon To sweep the sons of Liberty from Earth.
The social haunt or unfrequented shade In vain : Minerva on the bounding prow
Hears lo, lo Pæan; as of old, Of Athens stood, and with the thunder's voice When Python fell. And, O propitious Nymphs, Denounc'd her terrours on their impious heads, Oft as for helpless mortals I implore And shook ber burning ægis. Xerxes saw : 160 Your salutary springs, through every urn 250 From Heracleum, on the mountain's height Ob shed your healing treasures. With the first Thron'd in his golden car, he knew the sign And finest breath, which from the genial strife Celestial; felt unrighteous hope forsake
Of mineral ferınentation springs, like light His faultering heart, and turn'd his face with shame. O'er the fresh morning's vapours, lustrate then
Hail, ye who share the stern Minerva's power; The fountain, and inform the rising wave. Who arm the hand of Liberty for war :
My lyre shall pay your bounty. Scorn not ye And give to the renown'd Britannic name
That humble tribute. Though a mortal hand Tu awe contending monarchs: vet benign, Excite the strings to utterance, yet for themes Yet mild of nature: to the works of peace Not unregarded of celestial powers, More prone, and tenient of the many ills 170 I frame their language; and the Muses deign 240 Which wait on human life. Your gentle aid To guide the pious tenour of my lay, Hygeia well can witness ; she who saves
The Muses (sacred by their gifts divine) Froin poisonous cates and caps of pleasing bane, In early days did not my wondering sense The wretch devoted to the entangling snares Their secrets oft reveal: oft my rais'd ear Of Bacchus and of Comus. Hiin she leads
In slumber felt their music: oft at noon To Cynthia's lonely haunts. To spread ihe toils, Or hour of sunset, by some lonely stream, To beat the coverts, with the jovial horn
In field or shady grove, they taught me words At dawn of day to summon the loud hounds, Of power, from death and envy to preserve [inind, She calls the lingering slugyard from his dreams: The good man's name. Whence yet with grateiul And where his breast may drink the mountain breeze, And offerings unprofan'd by ruder eye, 2.0 And where the fervour of the sunny vale 181 My vows I send, my homage, to the seats May beat upon his brow, through devious paths Of rocky Cirrha, where with you they dwell: Beckor his rapid courser. Nor when ease, Where you their chaste companions they admit Cool ease and welcome slumbers have becalm'd Through all the ballow'd scene: where oft intent, His eager bosom, does the queen of health
And leaning o'er Castalia's mossy verge, Her pleasing care withhold. His decent board They mark the cadence of your confluent urns, She guards, presiding; and the frugal powers How tuneful, yielding gratefullest repose With joy sedate leads in: and while the brown To their consorted measure: till again, Ennæan dame with Pan presents her stores;
With emulation all the sounding choir, While changing still, and comely in the change, And bright Apollo, leader of the song,
260 Vertumnus and the Hours before him spread 191 Their voices through the liquid air exalt, The garden's banquet; you to crown his feast, And sweep their lofty strings: those powerful strings To crown his feast, О Naiads, you the fair
That charm the mind of gods : that till the courts Hygeia calls: and from your shelving seats, Of wide Olympus with oblivion sweet And groves of poplar, plenteous anos ye bring, Of evils, with immortal rest from cares : To slake his veins : till soon a purer ride
Assuage the terrours of the throne of Jove; Flows down those loaded channels; washeth off And quench the formidable thunderbolt The dregs of luxury, the lurking seeds 198 Of unrelenting fire. With slacken'd wings, Of crude disease; and through the abodes of life While now the solemn concert breathes around, Sends vigour, sends repose. Hail, Naiads: hail, Incumbent o'er the sceptre of his lord 270 Who give, to labour, health; to stooping age, Sleeps the stern eagle; by the number'd notes, The joys which youth had squander'd. Oft your Possess'd; and satiate with the melting tone: Will I invoke; and, frequent in your praise, (urns Sovereign of birds. The furious god of war, Abash the frantic Thyrsus with my song.
His darts forgetting, and the winged wheels For not estrang'd from your benignant arts That bear him vengeful o'er the embattled plain, Is he, the god, to whose mysterious shrine
Relents, and sooths his own fierce heart to ease, My youth was sacred, and my votive cares
Most welcome ease. The sire of gods and men, Belong; the learned Pæon. Oft when all
In that great moment of divine delight, His cordial treasures he hath search'd in vain; Looks down on all that live; and whatsoe'er When herbs, and potent trees, and drops of balm He loves not, o'er the peopled earth, and o'er 080 Rich with the genial influence of the Sun, 211 The interminated ocean, he beholds (To rouse dark Fancy from her plaintive dreams, Curs’d with abhorrence by his doom severe, To brace the nerveles arm, with food to win And troubled at the sound. Ye Naiads, ye Sick appetite, or hush the unquiet breast
With ravish'd ears the melody attend Which pines with silent passion) he in vain Worthy of sacred silence. But the slaves Hath prov'd; to your deep mansions he descends, Of Bacchus with tempestuous clamours strive Your gates of humid rock, your dim arrades, To drown the heavenly strains; of highest Jove He entereth; where empurpled veins of ore Irreverent, and by mad presumption fir'd Gleam on the roof; where through the rigid mine Their own discordant raptures to advance Your trickling rills insinuate. There the god 220 With hostile emulation. Down they rush 290 From your indulgent hands the streaming bowl From Nysa's vine-empurpled cliff, the dames
Of Thrace, the Satyrs, and the unruly Fauns, pheus, where he is called Protogonos, or the firstWith old Silenus, reeling through the crowd begotten, is said to have been born of an egg, and Which gambols round him, in convulsions wild is represented as the principal or origin of all these Tossing their limbs, and brandishing in air external appearances of Nature. In the fragments The ivy-mantled thyrsus, or the torch
of Orpheus, collected by Henry Stephens, he is Through black smoke flaming, to the Phrygian pipe's named Phanes, the discoverer or discloser ; who Shrill voice, and to the clashing cymbals, mix'd unfolded the ideas of the supreme intelligence, and With shrieks and frantic uproar. May the gods exposed them to the perception of inferior beings From every unpolluted ear avert
300 in this visible frame of the world; as Macrobius, 'Their orgies! If within the seats of men,
and Proclus, and Athenagoras, all agree to interWithin the walls, the gates, where Pallas holds pret the several passages of Orpheus, which they The guardian key, if haply there be found have preserved. Who loves to mingle with the revel-band
But the Lore designed in our text, is the one selfAnd hearken to their accents; who aspires existent and infinite mind, whom if the generality From such instructors to inform his breast
of ancient mythologists have not introduced or truly Wich verse; let hiun, fit votarist, implore
described in accounting for the production of the Their inspiration. He perchance the gifts world and its appearances; yet, to a modern poet, Of young Lyæus, and the dread exploits,
it can be no objection that he hath ventured to Nay sing in aptest numbers : he the fate 310 differ from them in this particular; though, in Of -ober Pentheus, he the Paphian rites,
other respects, he professeth to imitate their manind naked Mars with Cytherea chain'd,
ner, and conform to their opinions. For, in these And strong Alcidez in the spinster's robes,
great points of natural theology, they differ no less Nay celebrate, applauded. But with you, remarkably among themselves, and are perpetually O Saiads, far from that unhallow'd rout,
confounding the philosophical relations of things Must deell the wan whue'er to praised themes with the traditionary circumstances of mythic Invokes the immortal Muse. The immortal Muse history: upon which very account, Callimachus, To your calm habitations, to the care
in his hymn to Jupiter, declareth his dissent from Corycian or the Delphic mount, will guide
them concerning even an article of the national Ilis footsteps; and with your unsullied streams creed; adding, that the ancient bards were by no His lips will bathe: whether the eternal lore 321 ineans to be depended on. And yet in the exordium Of Themis, or the majesty of Jove,
of the old Argonautic poem, ascribed to Orpheus, To mortals he reveal; or teach his lyre
it is said, that “ Love, whom mortals in latter The unenvied guerdon of the patriot's toils,
times call Phanes, was the father of the eternally In those unfading islands of the bless'd,
begotten Night;" who is generally represented by Where sacred bards abide. Hail, honour'd Nymphs; these mythological poets, as being herself the paThrice bail. For you the Cyrenaic shell
rent of all things; and who, in the Indigitamenta, Behold, I touch, revering. To my songs
or Orphic Hymns, is said to be the same with CyBe present ye with favourable feet,
pris, or Love itself. Moreover, in the body of this And all profaner audience far remove.
Argonautic poem, where the personated Orpheus
itself in a state of perpetual vicissitude; how the NOTES
Heaven had its boundary determined; the generation of the Earth; the depth of the ocean; and
also the sapient Love, the most ancient, the selfTHE HYMN TO THE NAIANS.
sufficient; with all the beings which he produced
when he separated one thing from another.” Which VER. 95. ...... Love .......
noble passage is more directly to Aristotle's purElder than Chaos.] Hesiod, in his The- pose in the first book of his metaphysics than any opony, gives a different account, and make Chaos of those which he has there qnoted, to show that the eldest of beings; though he assigns to Love the ancient poets and mythologists agreed with neither father por superior: which circumstance is Empedocles, Anaxagoras, and the other more sober particularly mentioned by Phædrus, in Plato's Ban- philosophers, in that natural anticipation and comquet, as being observable not only in Hesiod, but mon notion of mankind concerning the necessity of in all other writers both of verse and prose : and mind and reason to account for the connection, on the same occasion he cites a line from Parme- motion, and good order of the world. For, though nides, in which Love is expressly styled the eldest neither this poem, nor the hymns which pass under of all the gods. Yet Aristophanes, in The Birds, the same name, are, it should seem, the work of affirms, that “ Chaos, and Night, and Erebus, and the real Orpheus; yet beyond all question they are Tartarus, were first; and that Love was produced very ancient. The hymns, more particnlarly, are from an egg, which the sable-winged Night depo- | allowed to be older than thé invasion of Greece by sited in the immense bosom of Erebus.” But it Xerxes; and were probably a set of public and somust be observed, that the Love designed by this lemn forms of deyotion: as appears by a passage comic port was always distinguished from the in one of them, which Demosthenes hath almost other, from that original and self-existent being literally cited in his first oration against Aristogithe TO ON or Al'AOON of Plato, and meant oply ton, as the saying of Orpheus, the founder of their the morrros or second person of the old most holy mysteries. On this account, they are Grecian trinity; to whom is inscribed an hymn of higher authority than any other mythological among those which pass under the name of Or- l work now extant, the Theogony of Hesiod himself
not excepted. The poetry of them is often ex- the gods, informs us, that by Jupiter was meant tremely noble; and the mysterious air which pre- the vegetable soul of the world, which restraineri vails in them, together with its delightful impres- and prevented those uncertain alterations which sion upon the mind, cannot be better expressed Saturn, or Time, used formerly to cause in the than in that remarkable description with which mundane system. they inspired the German editor Eschenbach, when Ver. 30. Then social reign'd.] Our mythology he accidentally met with them at Leipsic: “ Tbe- here supposeth, that before establishment of the saurum me reperisse credidi,” says he, “ et pro- vital, vegetative, plastic nature, (represented by fecto thesaurum reperi. Incredibile dictu quo me Jupiter) the four elements were in a variable sacro horrore afflaverint indigitamenta ista deorum: and unsettled condition; but afterwards, well-disnam et tempus ad illorum lectionem eligere cogebar, posed and at peace among themselves. Tethys quod vel solum horrorem incutere animno potest, was the wife of the Ocean; Ops, or Rhea, the nocturnum ; cum enim totam diem cousumserim Earth ; Vesta, the eldest daughter of Saturn, Fire; in contemplando urbis splendore, et in adeundis, and the cloud-compeller, or Z:ùs vegadnyisémns, the quibus scatet urbs illa, viris doctis; sola nox res- Air: though he also represented the plastic printabat, quam Orpheo consecrare potui. In abys- ciple of Nature, as may be seen in the Orphic sum quendam mysteriorum venerandæ antiquitatis hymn inscribed to him. descendere videbar, quotiescunque silente mundo, Ver. 34. ...... the sedgy-crowned race.) The riversolis vigilantibus astris et luna pedrempitze istos gods; who, acccording to Hesiod's Theogony, were hymnos ad manus sumsi."
the sons of Oceanus and Tethys. Ver. 25. Chaos.] The unformed, undigested mass Ver. 36.
from them, of Moses and Plato: which Milton calls
Are ye, 0 Naiads.] The descent of the
Naiads is less certain than most points of the Greek “ The womb of Nature."
mythology. Homer, Odyss. xiii. xual Adós. Virgii, in
the eighth book of the Æneid, speaks as if the Ib. Love, the sire of Fate.] Fate is the universal | Nymphs, or Naiads, were the parents of the rivers: system of natural causes; the work of the Omni- but in this he contradicts the testimony of Hesiod, potent Mind, or of Love; so Minucius Felix: “Quid and evidently departs from the orthodox system, aliud est fatum, quam quod de unoquoque nostrum which representeth several nymphs as retaining to deus fatus est." So also Cicero, in the first book every single river. On the other hand, Calimachus, on Divination : “ Fatum autem id appello, quod who was very learned in all the school-divinity of Græci EIPMAPMENHN; id est, ordinem seriemque those times, in his hymn to Delos, maketh Penus, causarum, cum causa causæ nexa rem ex se gignat the great Thessalian river-god, the father of his -ex quo intelligitur, ut fatum sit non id quod Nymphs: and Ovid, in the fourteenth book of his superstitiose, sed id quod physice dicitur causa Metamorphosis, mentions the Naiads of Latium as æterna rerum.” To the same purpose is the doc- the immediate daughters of the neighbouring rivertrine of Hierocles, in that excellent fragment con- gods. Accordingly, the Naiads of particular rivers cerning Providence and Destiny, As to the three are occasionally, both by Ovid and Statius, called Fates, or Destinies of the poets, they represented by a patronymic, from the name of the river to that part of the general system of natural causes which they belong. which relates to man, and to other mortal beings: Ver. 40.
Syrian Daphne.] The grove of for so we are told in the hymu addressed to them | Daphne in Syria, near Antioch, was famous for its among the Orphic Indigitamenta, where they are delightful fountains. called the daughters of Night, (or Love) and, con- Ib.
...... tribes trary to the vulgar notion, are distinguished by the Belou'd by Paon.) Mineral and medicinal epithets of gentle, and tender-hearted. According springs. Pæon was the physician of the gods. to Hesiod, Theog. ver. 904, they were the daugh- Ver. 45.
the winged offspring.) The ters of Jupiter and Themis; but in the Orphic Winds; who, according to Hesiod and Apollodorus, Hymn to Venus, or Love, that goddess is directly were the sons of Astræus and Aurora. styled the mother of Necessity, and is represented, Ver. 46. Hyperion.] A son of Cælum and Tellus, immediately atter, as gorerning the three Destinies, and father of the Sun, who is thence called, by and conducting the whole system of natural causes. Pindar, Hyperionides. But Hyperion is put by
Ver. 26. Born of Fate was Time.] Cronos, Saturn, Homer in the same manner as here, for the Sun or Time, was, according to Apollodorus, the son of himself. Cælum and Tellus. But the author of the hymns Ver. 49. Your sallying streams.] The state of the gives it quite undisguised by mythological lan- atmosphere with respect to rest and motion is, in guage, and calls him plainly the offspring of the several ways, affected by rivers and running Earth and the starry Heaven; that is, of Fate, as streams; and that more especially in hot seasons: explained in the preceding vote.
first, they destroy its equilibrium, by cooling those Ver. 27. Who many sons
parts of it with which they are in contact; and Derour'd.] The known fable of Saturn secondly, they communicate their own motion : devouring his children was certainly meant to imply and the air which is thus moved by them, being the disso'ution of natural bodies; which are pro- left heated, is of consequence more elastic than duced and destroyed by Time.
other parts of the atmosphere, and therefore fitter Ver. 28. the child
to preserve and to propagate that motion. Of Rhea.] Jupiter, so called by Pindar. Ver. 70). Delian king. ] One of the epithets of Ver. 29. drove him from the upper sky.] That Apollo, or the Sun, in the Orphic hymn inscribed Jupiter dethroned his father Saturn, is recorded by to him. all the mythologists. Phurnutus, or Cornutus, the Ver. 79. Chloris.] The ancient Greek name for author of a little Greek treatise on the nature of Flora.