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expelled from his kingdom by the Turks. The last notice which we discover of the Tower Royal is in the reign of Richard the Third, when it was granted to John, first Duke of Norfolk, who made it his residence till the period of his death on the memorable field of Bosworth, in August, 1485.

Within a short distance from the Tower Royal is Garlick Hill, on the east side of which stands the parish church of St. James's Garlick Hythe, so called from its vicinity to a garlic-market, which was anciently held in the neighbourhood. This is another of Sir Christopher Wren's edifices, and is entirely devoid of architectural merit. The date of the foundation of the old edifice is lost in antiquity. We only know that it was rebuilt by Richard Rothing, Sheriff of London, in 1326; that it was destroyed by fire in 1666, and again rebuilt between the years 1676 and 1682. Anciently this church appears to have been often selected for the burial of the lord mayors of London. Here were interred John of Oxenford, vintner and lord mayor in 1341; Sir John Wrotch, lord mayor in 1360 ; William Venour, in 1389; William More, in 1395 ; Robert Chichley, in 1421; and Sir James Spencer, in 1527. Among other persons who were interred in the old church, and whose monuments were destroyed by the fire of London, was Richard Lions, a wine-merchant and lapidary, who was beheaded by Wat Tyler and the rebels in Cheapside in the reign of Richard the Second.

Here too were monuments to more than one of the great family of the Stanleys, whose residence, Derby House, afterward converted into Herald's College, stood in the immediate neighbourhood.

In the Spectator (No. 147) there is an interesting notice of St. James's Garlick Hythe. Addison, speaking of the beautiful service of the Church of England, remarks, “Until Sunday was se'nnight, I never discovered, to so great a degree, the excellency of the Common Prayer. Being at St. James's Garlick Hill Church, I heard the service read so distinctly, so emphatically, and so fervently, that it was next to an impossibility to be unattentive. My eyes and my thoughts could not wander as usual, but were confined to my prayers.

The Confession was read with such a resigned humility; the Absolution with such a comfortable authority; the Thanksgivings with such a religious joy, as made me feel those affections of the mind in a manner I never did before.The rector of the parish at this period was the Rev. Philip Stubbs, afterward Archdeacon of St. Albans, whose fine voice and impressive delivery are said to have been long remembered by his old parishioners.

CHAPTER III.

QUEENHITHE, BAYNARD'S CASTLE, HOUSES OF THE

NOBILITY, BLACKFRIARS, ETC.

Derivation of the Name of Queenhithe — Celebrated Residents

in Baynard's Castle - Mansions near Paul's Wharf – Monastery of the Black Friars — Repudiation of Queen Catherine - Queen Elizabeth at Cobham House – The Fatal Vespers Blackfriar's Bridge — Fleet Ditch — Strongholds of Thieves - Palace of Bridewell - Alsatia – Execution of Lord Sanquhar.

CONTINUING our route along Thames Street, we shall point out, as we pass along, the particular sites on the banks of the river which are associated either with the history, the manners, or the romance of past times. We have hitherto strolled from Billingsgate as far as Queenhithe; we will now continue from Queenhithe to the Temple Garden.

Queenhithe, Queenhive, or Queen's Harbour, on the west side of Southwark Bridge, ciently called Edred's Hythe; and, as far back as the days of the Saxons, was one of the principal harbours or quays where foreign vessels discharged their cargoes. According to Stow, it derived its more ancient name of Edred's Hythe from one

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Edred, who had been a proprietor of the wharf. We have evidence that it was royal property in the reign of King Stephen ; that monarch having bestowed it upon William de Ypres, who, in his turn, conferred it on the Convent of the Holy Trinity within Aldgate. In the reign of Henry the Third it again came into the possession of the Crown. In consequence of the harbour-dues being the perquisite of the Queen of England, it obtained particular favour ; foreign ships, and especially vessels which brought corn from the Cinque Ports, being compelled to land their cargoes here. From its connection also with the Queen of England it obtained its name of Ripa Regina, or Queen's Hythe. For centuries it maintained a successful rivalry with Billingsgate. From Fabian, however, who wrote at the end of the fifteenth century, we learn that in his time the harbour-dues of Queenhithe had so fallen off as to be worth only £15 a year. A century afterward, Stow speaks of it as being almost forsaken.

Opposite to Queenhithe, on the north side of Thames Street, is situated the parish church of St. Michael, Queenhithe, an edifice erected by Sir Christopher Wren on the site of a very ancient church destroyed by the fire of London. In 1181 we find it denominated St. Michael de Cornhithe, Queenhithe being probably occasionally styled Cornhithe from the quantity of corn which was landed there from the Cinque Ports.

The church contains no monuments of any

interest; nor, with the exception of its small but elegant spire, and some fine carved fruit and flowers on the doorway next to the pulpit, has it much artistical merit.

A little beyond Queenhithe is Paul's Wharf, which derives its name from its vicinity to the great cathedral of St. Paul's.

Close to this spot stood the mansion occupied by Cicely, youngest daughter of the haughty and powerful baron, Ralph de Neville, first Earl of Westmoreland, and widow of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, in whose ambition originated the devastating wars between the White and Red Roses. She was the mother of a numerous family, of whom seven survived to figure prominently in the stirring times in which they lived. When this lady — the granddaughter of John of Gaunt - sat in her domestic circle, watching complacently the childish sports, and listening to the joyous laughter of her young progeny, how little could she have anticipated the strange fate which awaited them ! Her husband perished on the bloody field of Wakefield; her first-born, afterward Edward the Fourth, followed in the ambitious footsteps of his father, and waded through bloodshed to a throne; her second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, perished at the battle of Wakefield; the third son, "false, fleeting, perjured Clarence,” died in the dungeons of the Tower; and

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