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taverns in London, and which unquestionably existed in the early part of the reign of Edward the Fourth. Here, in the reign of Henry the Sixth, wine was sold for one penny the pint; no charge being made for bread. According to Stow, the Pope's Head had not improbably been a royal palace. In his time the ancient arms of England, consisting of three leopards, supported between two angels, were still to be seen engraved in stone on the walls. In this tavern, on the 14th of April

, 1718, Bowen, a hot-headed Irish comedian, was killed in a duel of his own seeking by his fellow actor, Quin. The site of the Pope's Head is pointed out by Pope's Head Alley, running from Cornhill into Lombard Street.

The house numbered 41, in Cornhill, is said to stand on the site of the one in which, on the 26th of December, 1716, Gray, the poet, first saw the light.

On the south side of Cornhill is St. Michael's Alley, so called from St. Michael's Church, the tower of which is so conspicuous an ornament of this part of London. In this alley, opposite the church, stood, in the days of the Commonwealth, the first coffee-house established in London.

Accordingy to Aubrey, it was opened about the year 1652 by one Bowman, coachman to Mr. Hodges, a Turkey merchant, by whom Bowman was induced to undertake the speculation. An original handbill, discovered by the late Mr. D’Israeli, sets forth:

“ The vertue of the coffee-drink, first publiquely made and sold in England, by Pasqua Rosee, in St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill, at the sign of his own head."

This Pasqua Rosee, it would seem, was a Greek servant whom the merchant had brought to England with him. In a curious broadside, entitled “A Cup of Coffee, or Coffee in Its Colours” (1663), the writer ridicules the new fashion as both a very effeminate innovation - a very indifferent substitute for that “sublime Canary," which warmed the souls of Ben Jonson, Beaumont, and Fletcher :

“For men and Christians to turn Turks, and think
To excuse the crime, because 'tis in their drink!
Pure English apes ! ye may, for aught I know,
Were it the mode, – learn to eat spiders too.
Should any of your grandsires' ghosts appear,
In your wax-candle circles, and but hear
The name of Coffee so much called upon,
Then see it drank like scalding Phlegethon;
Would they not startle, think ye? all agreed
'Twas conjuration both in word and deed !” etc.

Among other numerous broadsides which were thundered forth against the new drink may be mentioned “The Women's Petition against Coffee” [1674], where a complaint is preferred that “it made men as unfruitful as the deserts whence that unhappy berry is said to be brought; that the offspring of our mighty ancestors would dwindle into a succession of apes and pigmies; and, on a

domestic message, a husband would stop by the way to drink a couple of cups of coffee."

Close by, in Exchange Alley, on the south side of Cornhill, tea also was first sold and retailed for the cure of all disorders, by one Thomas Garway, tobacconist and coffee-man, whose name is still preserved in the well-known Garraway's Coffeehouse. The following handbill, as the late Mr. D’Israeli very justly observes, is more curious than any historical account which we possess of its introduction.

“Tea in England hath been sold in the leaf for six pounds, and sometimes for ten pounds the pound weight, and in respect of its former scarceness and dearness it hath been only used as a regalia in high treatments and entertainments, and presents made thereof to princes and grandees, till the year 1657. The said Garway did purchase a quantity thereof, and first publicly sold the said tea in leaf, or drink, made according to the directions of the most knowing merchants into those Eastern countries. On the knowledge of the said Garway's continued care and industry in obtaining the best tea, and making drink thereof, very many noblemen, physicians, merchants, etc., have ever since sent to him for the said leaf, and daily resort to his house to drink the drink thereof. He sells tea from 16s. to 50s. a pound.”

In St. Michael's Alley, as we have already mentioned, stands the church of St. Michael, Corn

hill, dedicated to the Archangel Michael. Although a place of worship appears to have existed on the spot previously to the Norman Conquest, we have no distinct notice of it till the commencement of the twelfth century, when we find the Abbot of Covesham making a grant of it to one Sperling, a priest, on condition of his paying an annual rent of one mark to the said abbot, and providing him with lodging, salt, water, and fire, during his occasional visits to London. The old church, with the exception of the tower, having been destroyed by the great fire, in 1672 the present building was erected after designs by Sir Christopher Wren. Half a century afterward, the tower was also found to be in a ruinous state, and accordingly it was taken down, and rebuilt in 1721.

The interior of St. Michael's Church is in the Italian style of architecture, divided into a nave and aisles by Doric columns and arches. By a strange anomaly, the tower is Gothic, being of that florid, or perpendicular style, which distinguished the latest period of pointed architecture in England. This noble tower -- faulty only in its occasional details, where the architect has mingled the Italian with the Gothic style -- is 130 feet in height, and is said to have been built in imitation of the beautiful chapel tower of Magdalen College, Oxford, erected in the fifteenth century. In the old church were interred the remains of the wellknown chronicler, Robert Fabian, a sheriff and

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