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St. Olave's Church, by the side of his wife and brother.

In Hart Street, four doors from Mark Lane, stood, till within a few years, an ancient mansion styled in the old leases Whittington's palace, and said to have been the residence of Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor of London, whose tale is familiar to us from our childhood. On pulling down the old mansion to make room for some contemplated improvements, the following curious discovery was made. On removing the basement walls, the workmen came to a small brick chamber, the only opening to which was from the top. On breaking into it, it was found to contain many human bones, mixed with hair, and so disposed of as to afford much reason to believe that the chamber had been the scene of foul play. This impression was still further strengthened by the discovery of a dagger — about twelve inches in length, and with its point broken — which was found lying among the bones.

In Hart Street was born Lady Fanshawe, the authoress of the delightful personal “Memoirs" which bear her name. “I was born," she writes, “ in St. Olave's, Hart Street, London, in a house that my father took of the Lord Dingwall, father to the now Duchess of Ormond, in the year 1625, on our Lady Day, 25th of March." And she adds, " In that house I lived the winter times, till I was fifteen years old and three months, with

my very honoured and most dear mother.” Lady Fanshawe appears to have been an intimate acquaintance of the Duchess of Ormond, who, on one occasion, told her she loved her for many reasons, “and one was, that we were both born in one chamber."

CHAPTER VII.

ALDGATE, ST. BOTOLPH'S CHURCH, LEADENHALL

STREET, ST. CATHERINE CREE, ETC.

Derivation of the name Aldgate - Stow the Antiquary — His

Labours Ill Requited - Cruel Execution of the Bailiff of Romford — His Speech - Church of St. Botolph — Monuments in the Church - Defoe's Account of the Burial-pits in the Churchyard during the Plague - Whitechapel — Duke's Place — Priory of the Holy Trinity – Leadenhall Street Church of St. Catherine Cree - Persons Buried There Consecration of the Church by Archbishop Laud — Church of St. Andrew Undershaft Monuments — St. Mary Axe — Lime Street.

FENCHURCH STREET leads us into Aldgate, which derives its name from one of the principal gates of the city, — styled in the reign of King Edgar, Ealdgate, or Oldgate, — under which passed one of the Roman roads leading into London. In 1215, during the wars between King John and his barons, it was through this gate that the latter entered London in triumph ; when, after having secured the other gates, and plundered the royalists and Jews, they proceeded to lay siege to the Tower. Here, too, in 1471, during the wars between the White and Red Roses, the bastard Falconbridge presented himself at the head of a

formidable force, consisting of freebooters and partisans of the house of Lancaster, and demanded admittance into the city. After a fierce conflict the gate was forced by some of his followers; but the portcullis having been let down, they were all killed. The portcullis was then drawn up, and the citizens, sallying forth, repulsed their assailants with great slaughter.

Among the records of the city of London is a lease granting the whole of the dwelling-house above the gate of Aldgate to Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet, in 1374.

Close to the pump at Aldgate, at the junction of Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street, lived the indefatigable antiquary, John Stow, whose name no historian of London can inscribe without feelings of reverence and gratitude. He was bred a tailor, but gave up his occupation, and with it the means of living with ease and comfort, in order to be able to prosecute his beloved studies of history and antiquities. The manner in which his priceless labours were rewarded by his ungrateful countrymen is well known. « It was in his eightieth year,” writes Mr. D'Israeli, in his “Calamities of Authors," “that Stow at length received a public acknowledgment of his services, which will appear to us of a very extraordinary nature. He was so reduced in his circumstances that he petitioned James the First for a license to collect alms for himself! as a recompense for his

labour and travel of forty-five years, in setting forth the “Chronicles of England,” and eight years taken up in the “Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster," toward his relief now in his old age; having left his former means of living, and only employing himself for the service and good of his country. Letters-patent under the Great Seal were granted. After no penurious commendation of Stow's labours, he is permitted 'to gather the benevolence of well-disposed people within this realm of England : to ask, gather, and take the alms of all our loving subjects. These letters-patent were to be published by the clergy from their pulpit. They produced so little that they were renewed for another twelvemonth : one entire parish in the city contributed seven shillings and sixpence! Such, then, was the patronage received by Stow, to be a licensed beggar throughout the kingdom for one twelvemonth! Such was the public remuneration of a man who had been useful to his nation, but not to himself!" Stow died on the 5th of April, 1605, at the age of eighty, and was buried in the neighbouring church of St. Andrew Undershaft.

The old historian mentions a remarkable execution which he witnessed in the reign of Edward the Sixth immediately opposite to his own house in Aldgate. In those unsettled times it was a barbarous, and not uncommon practice, to put to death by martial law those who propagated

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