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much questioned. Our opinion, however, is sanctioned by that of Bishop Lowth; who, on the subject of grammar, is instar omnium. “ Those," says the learned prelate, “ who would enter deeply into the subject of universal grammar, will find it fully and accurately handled, with the greatest acuteness of investigation, perspicuity of explanation, and clegance of method, in a treatise entitled Hermes, by James Harris, Esq. the most beautiful example of analysis that has been exhibited since the days of Aristotle."-We are informed, by the present noble editor, that what first led his father to a deep and accurate consideration of the principles of universal grammar, was a book which he held in high estimation, and was frequently quoted in his Hermes, the Minerva of Sanctius. To that writer he confesses himself indebted for abundance of valuable information ; of which it appears (continues his Lordship) that he knew well how to profit, and to push his researches on the subject of grammar to a much greater length, by the help of his various and extensive erudition.'

We shall now present our readers with the following short, but interesting, account of the manner in which Mr. Harris usually passed his time in this part of his life:

• From the period of his marriage until the year 1761, my father continued to live entirely at Salisbury, except in the summer, when he sometimes retired to his house at Durnford near that city. It was there that he found himself most free from the interruption of business and company, and at leisure to compose the chief part of those works which were the result of his study at other seasons. His time was divided between the care of his family, in which he placed his chief happiness, his literary pursuits, and the society of his friends and neighbours, with whom he kept up a constant and cheerful intercourse. The superior taste and skill which he possessed in music, and his extreme fondness for hearing it, led him to attend to its cultivation in his native place with uncommon pains and suc. cess; insomuch that, under his auspices, not only the annual musical festival in Salisbury flourished beyond most institutions of the kind, but even the ordinary subscription-concerts were carried on, by his assistance and directions, with a spirit and effect seldom equalled out of the metropolis. Many of the beautiful selections made from the best Italian and German composers for these festivals and concerts, and adapted by my father sometimes to words selected from Scripture, or from Milton's Paradise Lost, sometimes to compositions of his own, have survived the occasions on which they were first produced, and are still in great estimation. Two volumes of these selections have been lately published by Mr. Corfe*, organist of Salisbury cathedral; the rest remain in MS. in possession of my family. His own house, in the mean time, was the frequent scene

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of social and musical meetings; and I think I do not hazard too much in saying, that he contributed, both by his own conversation, and by the company which he often assembled at his house from various parts, to refine and improve the taste and manners of the place in which he resided.'

Mr. Harris was chosen a representative in parliament for the borough of Christ Church, in the year 1761, which seat he retained to the day of his death. In the following year, he accepted the office of one of the Lords of the Admiralty, whence he was promoted in 1763 to be a Lord of the Treasury: in 1774, he became Secretary and Comptroller to the Queen, and this appointment he held during the remainder of his life.

• Although assiduous in the discharge of his parliamentary duty, and occasionally taking a share in debates, Mr. Harris never contracted any violent spirit of party. He abhorred faction of every kind ; nor did he ever relinquish, for public business, those still more interesting pursuits which had made the delight and occupation of his earlier years. If they were somewhat intermitted during the sitting of parliament, he renewed them with increased relish and satisfaction on his return into the country. Those who saw him in London, partaking with cheerfulness and enjoyment of a varied and extensive society, and frequenting dramatic and musical entertainments, while, during his stay in Salisbury, he always exercised a respectable, but well-regulated hospitality, were surprized that he could have found time to compose and publish_in 1775 another learned work.' It contains, under the title of Philosophical Ar. rangements, a part only of a larger work that he had meditated, but did not finish, on the Peripatetic logic. So far as relates to the arrangement of ideas, it is complete ; but it has other objects also in view. It combats, with great force and ability, the atheistical doctrines of chance and materialism.'

The last work, which proceeded from the pen of this ingenious writer, was his Philological Enquiries; on which we bestowed, in our 66th volume, a tribute of sincere and merit ed praise. We then made an observation, the justice of which has since frequently occurred to us, “ that the character of the author stands forth to view in every page of his performance; marked with peculiarities indeed, but peculiarities of the most amiable and respectable kind. As we read, we seem listening to the conversation of an elegant scholar, a gentleman, a person of the greatest candour, sincerity, and worth ; desirous of impressing his own liberal sentiments on the minds of others.” Of this last production of Mr. Harris's pen, Lord Malmesbury observes : • It is a more popular work than


of his former ones, and contains rather a summary of the conclusions to which the philosophy See M. Rev. vol. liv. p. 244.


B 3

of the ancients had conducted them in their critical inquiries, than a regular and perfect system. The principles on which those conclu. sion depend are therefore omitted, as being of a more abstruse nature than was agreeable to his design ; which was to teach by illustration and example, not by strict demonstration. Indeed, this publication appears to have been meant not only as a retrospective vicw of those studies which exercised his mind in the full vigour of his life, but likewise as a monument of his affection towards many of his intimate friends. I cannot therefore but consider it as a pleasing proof of a mind retaining, at an advanced age, a considerable degree of its former energy and activity, together with, what is still more rarely to be, found, an undiminished portion of its candour and bene. • volence.

• Before this last volume was entirely concluded, my father's health had evidently begun to be very much impaired. He never enjoyed a robust constitution ; but for some time, towards the end of his life, the infirmities under which he laboured had gradually increased. His family at length became apprehensive of a decline, symptoms of which were very apparent, and by nonc more clearly perceived than by himself. This was evident from a variety of little circumstances, but by no means from any impatience or fretfulness, nor yet from any dejection of spirits, such as are frequently incident to extreme weakness of body, especially when it proves to be the forerunner of approaching dissolution. On the contrary, the same equable and placid temper which had distinguished him throughout his whole life, the same tender and affectionate attention to his sur. rounding family, which he had unceasingly manifested while in health, continued, without the smallest change or abatement, to the very last; displaying a mind thoroughly at peace with itself, and able, without disturbance or dismay, to contemplate the awful prospect of futurity!'

How exalted is the praise attributed in this passage, and how elegantly simple is the language in which it is conveyed !Mr. Harris died on the 22d of December 1780, in the 720 year of his age.

“ Peace to the mem'ry of a man of worth,

A man of letters, and of manners too,
Of manners sweet as virtue always wears,

When gay good-nature dresses her in smiles." We shall terminate our extracts with the character of this amiable scholar, as drawn by his son; which, we think, cannot be considered in the light of panegyric, though delineated by a partial hand. What Mr. Gibbon sayson the subject of dedications is in some measure applicable to biography. He observes that " there are but two kinds of dedications, which can do honoui either to the patron or author :--with the first, the present subject has no kind of connection :-" the other sort,” continues the historian, " is yet more honourable. It is dictated by the heart, and offered to some person who is dear to us,


because he ought to be so. It is an opportunity we embrace with pleasure of making public those sentiments of esteem, of friendship, of gratitude, or of all together, which we really feel, and which therefore we desire should be known.” If Lord Malmesbury had spoken in higher terms of commendation than the unbiassed opinion of the world could approve and sanction, yet even then it must be remembered that Mr. Harris " is dear to him, because he ought to be so.” In the motive, and in the relationship, we should acknowlege more than an excuse.

• The distinction (says Lord M.) by which my father was most generally known, while living, and' by which he is likely to survive to posterity, is that of a man of learning. His profound knowledge of Greek, which he applied' more successfully, perhaps, than any modern writer has done, to the study and explanation of ancient philosophy, arose from an early and intimate acquaintance with the excellent poets and historians in that language. They, and the best writers of the Augustan age, were his constant and never-failing recreation. By his familiarity with them, he was enabled to enliven and illustrate his deeper and more abstruse speculations; as every page almost of these volumes will abundantly testify. But his attainments were not confined to ancient philosophy and classical learning. He possessed likewise a general knowledge of modern history, with a very distinguishing taste in the fine arts, in one of which, as before observed, he was an eminent proficient. His singular industry empowered him to make these various acquisitions without neglecting any of the duties which he owed to his family, his friends, or his country. I am in possession of such proofs, besides those already given to the public, of my father's laborious study and reflexion, as, I apprehend, are very rarely to be met with. Not only was he accustomed, through a long series of years, to make copious extracts from the different books which he read, and to write critical remarks and conjectures on many of the passages extracted, but he was also in the habit of regularly committing to writing such reflections as arose out of his study, which evince a mind carefully disciplined, and anxiously bent on the attainment of self-knowledge, and self-government. And yet, though habituated to deep thinking and laborious reading, he was generally cheerful, even to playfulness. There was no pedantry in his manners or conversation, nor was he ever seen either to display his learning with ostentation, or to treat with slight or superciliousness those less informed than himself. He rather sought to make them partakers of what he knew, than to mortify them by a parade of his own superiority. Nor had he any of that miserable fastidiousness about him which too often disgraces men of learning, and prevents their being amused or interested, at least their choosing to appear so, by.common performances, and common events.

• It was with him a maxim, that the most difficult, and infinitely the preferable, sort of criticism, both in literature and in the arts, „was that which consists in finding out beauties, rather than defects'; and although he certainly wanted not judgment to distinguish and to prefer superior excellence of any kind, he was too reasonable to expect it should very often occur, and too wise to allow himself to be disgusted at common weakness or imperfection. He thought, indeed, that the very attempt to please, however it might fall short of its aim, deserved some return of thanks, some degree of approbation, and that to endeavour at being pleased by such efforts, was due to justice, to good-nature, and to good-sense.

Far, at the same time, from that presumptuous conceit which is solicitous about mending others, and that moroseness

' which feeds its own pridc by dealing general censure, he cultivated to the utmost that great moral wisdom, by which we are made humane, gentle, and forgiving ; thankful for the blessings of life, acquiescent in the afflictions we endure, and submissive to all the dispensations of pro. vidence. He detested the gloom of superstition, and the persecuting spirit by which it is so often accompanied : but he abhorred still more the baneful and destructive system of modern philosophy ; and from his early solicitude to inspire me with a hatred of it, it would almost scem that he foresaw its alarming approach and fatal progress. There is no obligation which I acknowledge with more thankful. ness ; none that I shall more anxiously endeavour to confer upon my own children, from a thorough conviction of its value and import. ance.

• My father's affection to every part of his family was exemplary and uniform. As a husband, a parent, a master, he was ever kind and indulgent ; and it deserves to be mentioned to his honour, that he thought it no interruption of his graver occupations, himself to instruct his daughters, by exercising them daily both in reading and composition, and writing essays for their improvement, during many of their younger years. No man was a better judge of what bélonged to female education, and the elegant accomplishments of the sex, or more disposed to set a high value upon them. But he had infinitely more at heart, that his children should be early habituated to the practice of religion and morality, and deeply impressed with their true principles. To promote this desirable end, he was assiduous both by instruction and example : being himself a constant attendant upon public worship, and enforcing that great duty upon cvery part of his family. The deep sense of moral and religious obligation which was habitual to him, and those benevolent feelings which were so great a happiness to his family and friends, had the same powerful influence over his public, as his private life. He had an ardent zeal for the prosperity of his country, whose real interests he well understood ; and in his parliamentary conduct he proved himself a warm friend to the genuine principles of religious and civil liberty, as well as a firm supporter of every branch of our admirable constitution.'

Though we have trespassed at some length, in this article, on the attention of our readers, yet we feel confident that the cxcellence of the character delineated, and the merit of the performance, will more than justify us. As we entertain the


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