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able gifts and endowments productive for the nation's benefit; this country will, with the blessing of Providence and wise governing counsels, remain a bulwark of labour's distinguished progress.
The labour of the increasing numbers of the people of this country forms one of the extraordinary raw materials that employment must be provided for; and whether it shall continue to be exerted upon cotton, posterity may know, but we cannot; though in our age and generation we may resolve at least to promulgate sound economical principles, and strive, in providing for the exigencies of our own time, to leave behind us the heir-loom of a national estate unencumbered with impediments to industry, the present and future source of wealth and comfort. It may be well to advert to the vast extension of trade and commerce which may be effected by moral as well as mechanical advancement. If the labouring classes of the United Kingdom were well educated, their superior attainments would be alike more profitable to their employers by increased skill, and a nearer approximation to perfection; and to themselves, not only in augmented rewards, but in the knowledge that would promote their general cornfort and each other's welfare; for could every worker be well clothed, dwell in abodes furnished with manufactured products, and all requisites for rendering the home fireside attractive, there would arise a universal demand for the results of labour beyond all precedent. If there be no higher motive for removing the lamentable ignorance which pervades many of the labouring classes amongst us, why does not even the censurable cupidity of the age remove the stigma?
In concluding my limited observations upon critton as an element of industry, I cannot withhold the expression of my gratitude to his Royal Highness Prince Albert for having become the champion of dit, manufactures, and of progress, and for the interest which he has evinced in this, as well as in every other branch of trade and commerce. For the royal visit, with which our beloved Sovereign, accompanied by her enlightened and distinguished Consort, recently honoured the nursery and abode of the cotton trade, I would record not only my own, but the dutiful thanks of Lancashire. A warmhearted and generous people manifested their joy and loyalty for the presence of their Monarch, and also for that recognition of their labour which had previously been almost unacknowledged by, and unknown to, the previous rulers of Great Britain.
To the Society of Arts, for its powerful aid in promoting the success of the late Exhibition, the industrial community of this, and of every country, is greatly indebted.
Another such Exhibition cannot be anticipated or expected by ourselves, but our successors may gather into a more splendid palace than we hava erected, their achievements of labour, mental and physical, excelling their fathers in every proficiency that can adorn and improve man's sojourn here, and contribute to his domestic comfort and the perfecting of his intellectual powers. To such "a consummation, so devoutly to be wished," may the heir apparent of the British throne direct his future energies—his royal parents being long spared to minister to the just wants of a faithful and devoted people; and may the sons of progress, from every country in an improving world, assemble under his auspices, again to proclaim from the side of another and more magnificent crystal fountain who there, in peaceful array, shall have most promoted the interests of art and industry, and the solid and enduring happiness of the whole human family.
ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE.
BY LEO H. GRINDON,
Defterei before the Manchester Excelsior Society, October, 1858. ]
Is looking for the origin of language, we naturally turn onreyes to the East, as the source of the human family, and thus the source of languages. People are very ready to account for the diversity of language, by referring to Babel and the dispersion of mankind; but you will see, upon reflection, that a Fast pumber of languages now spoken cannot possibly have had any connection with the Tower of Babel and the dispersion of mankind, because they have originated so very recently, in comparison with that event. The English, French, Spanish, and Italian Languages have existed only a few hundred years, and cannot therefore have originated, as such, at Babel. We naturally turn, then, to the East for the beginning of language, as well as for the beginning of the human race, and we find that the great families or stocks of languages, as they are termed, may be referred to those parts of Asia which are generally believed to have been the first inhabited by our species. It is better in an inquiry of this kind, which is so vast, to take some limited area that we can travel over with comfort and satisfaction in the course of one evening, such as the languages which appertain specially to Europe, and to those Asiatic nations with which we are ethnologically allied, -the group called the Indo-Germanic, which comprises five great families or sub-divisions, viz: the family of languages, of which the Sanscrit is the type; that of which the Græco-Latin is the type; the ancient Celtic, now extinct except in the Highlands, in Wales, in Brittany, and in some parts of Ireland; the great family known as the Gothic, comprehending all the truly Germanic languages; and lastly the Sclavonic. All these families of lane guages have a number of features in common, yet they have very marked differences; but the affinities quite outnumber the dissimilarities, and thus they are all brought together under this one name of the Indo-Germanic stock of languages. The word stock is a kind of generic term, including all these various families. We will assume, then, that we want to ascertain the origin of the various languges comprised in this Indo-Germanic stock, and how it is that they have divaricated, or spread abroad one from another in so wonderful a way as to have given us Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, English, and so forth. We must not, in speaking of tribes and languages coming from the East, consider that they came from the East as languages and as tribes.
These languages were not framed in the East any more than the tribes were born and brought up in the East, and sent forth collectively from the East. The tribes were developed into tribes in their gradual progress in the course of migration farther and farther westward or northward; and the languages grew up in course of time as the various peoples with whom they originated travelled farther and farther. Every language was many vears, probably many centuries, in growing. Languages and tribes of people are like trees, originating in little germs and gradually developing stems, branches, and leaves, and the other parts of the tree; all of which have their representatives in language. The most ancient family of the Indo-Germanie stock appears to be that of which the Sanscrit is the type; a language as ancient that exquisite compositions wero produced in it of the very highest class of literature, as far back as the time of the Emperor Augustus. Calidasa, the Shakspere of India, who flourished about the time of Augustus, shows in his poems, as did all his contemporaries, that the languare was then in perfection. There were earlier and less perfect forms, but the most finished specimens that have been preserved belong to that period. I be affinities between the ancient Sanscrit, which 15 long since ceased to be a spoken language, and de English language, are extensive and remarkable; There are affinities both in the structure of the words and even in the sense of particular terms. The Laglish word to kiss is properly the Sanscrit word
embrace, spelt certainly with different vowels, the same word essentially. With this ancient grage are included, as derivatives, many of those
spoken in India, and the adjacent countries. mately connected with them was the basis of great family which we now call the Græco
including the Greek language primarily, and atin or Roman language, the latter not to be ded as commonly a derivative from the Greek, 18 growing up simultaneously in the mouths of
great company of emigrants who moved ef Westward, and took possession of the penin
e now call Italy. Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin
or to have grown up at the same time; the lanSulge becoming Sanscrit with those people who re
ed in India; Greek with those who emigrated the Hellenic peninsula ; and Latin with those emoved still farther to the west. Why should come these three separate languages? Why he same original form become developed into such very different complexions, as we have se three great classes of languages ? or, to reConselves even to the Greek and Latin forms,
who removed it become thes did the same three such very in those three 8