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Had these Institutions been adopted Navy and Army in the same national at the tine Mr. Colquhoun first pressed design, that they too may partake of them upon the public, several millions its benefits, and that there may be of money would have been by this time an indjicement to spare a little while collected, the virtuous accumulations they can spare it) to prevent themof honest industry, the resort for the selves and their families from descend. period of need and distress : and it is ing into iodigence.” hazarding no theoretical conjecture to From these and very many other very say, that this deposit would have been valuable observations, Mr. Colquhoun the means of comfortable supply to very suggested that a National Deposit Bank many distressed families in the present should be established in the Metropolis, severe pressure, from the want of em with branches in certain districts in the ploymeot. This is not the place for country, conveniently situated to be eulogizing or enlarging upon the me- managed by a President and Directors, rits of Banks for Savings ; but I cannot entitling the individuals to the beneavoid quoting, from the Treatise on fits arising from their respective depoIndigence, the following lucid and use. ful observations relative to this sub. With a view of renderiog the Saving ject, which shew with what a pro Banks more connectedly, and at the phetic and masterly spirit Mr. Colqu. same time more universally beocficial, houn wrote on these Institutions twelve it is advisable that a general amalgamayears ago.

tion of the different Provident Banks " It is shewn in the progress of this throughout the Island should take place, work, that the virtuous poor are sub- according to the plan originally deveject to numerous casualties, incident to loped and fully detailed by Mr. Colgu. a state of civilization, by which they houn, in bis treatisema work which is retrograde into indigence, without any handled in a manner in some respects culpable cause. Å national system, new, and it contains, on other subjects which would enable this valuable part too, many suggestions which appear to of the community, from their own re be of vital importance to the improvesources, effectually to provide against ment of the morals, and consequently such a degradation, producing, unme

to the increase of the comfort and haprited misery and distress, would be a piness of the labonring classes of the godlike work. To this class contin. kingdom. gent aids are peculiarly applicable; and During the interval from 1806 to it is through this medium, under a 1813, Mr. Colquhoun appeared to have well-constructed national institution, employed himself in bis various official that security is to be afforded against duties, as a Police and Parocbial Magis the calamity of indigence, either in the trate, as Chairman of the Court of progress of human life, while Jabour Lieutenancy; in attending different remains in their possession, or in old Charitable Institutions; and particu. age, when it ceases to be produc- larly in collecting materials for his last tive.

great work on the Wealth, Power, and The great desideralum in political Resources of the British Empire. economy, is to lead the poor by gentle This work was published in the month and practicable means into the way of of August 1814, and a second edition betlering themselves. *

was called for in the month of March tem that shall not only convince them following: He appears to have been that they have a stake in the country, stimulated to proceed in this arduous as well as the rich; but that the Go and laborious undertaking, in the converament and the Legislature will place templation of the peace with France, that stake on so secure and respectable which took place in that year, for the a footing, that they may look up to it purpose of pointing out the various with certainly as a relief in time of resources wbich the nation possessed sickness, and a prop to old age; and for the occupation of a redundant posuccess will be the resultt-Include the pulation, augmented by the discharge

of men employed in the naval, military, * This admirable observation deserves to be written in letters of gold.

4 per cent, to the depositors, that one is + So completely verified has this been, inclined to believe it is taken from this hy Government Debentures issued to the book. Saving Banks bearing a regular interest of # Treatise on Indigence, c. iv. p. 129-3.

Establish a sys


and other departments of Goveriment. rangements, sacrifices nothing to outThis work, from the great mass of use ward sbew and ostentation, but much ful and well-arranged information which to rational, sober, and solid hospitality. it contains, will be perused with no in- During the long period of foriy eight considerable degree of interest by all years, that he has stood at the head who are well-wishers to the prosperity of a family, not only some of the most of the British Empire. The indefa. distinguished members of society, where tigable author has entered widely into be bas resided, but foreigners of high the great subject of Political Eco. rank, and respectable individuals, froin nomy, which has never been discussed almost every quarter of the British in the same manner. In his important Empire, have been, at different times, and useful details, he has comprised his guests. He had the honour to he almost every species of information kuown to the late Dr. Robertson, Mr. which the statesman, the country gen. Gibbon, Mr. Burke, and Dr. Adam tleman, the merchant, the manufac Smitb—the two Jast have partaken of turer, or the political economist, his hospitality ;- and at this time an strictly so called, may wish to acquire : assemblage of highly respectable and

- at the same time, as a general book intelligent persons of all ranks, from of reference on all subjects connected different quarters of the world, is with the prosperity of the country, generally to be found at his table. it must be considered as a very valu After a long life, devoted in a great able acquisition to British literature. measure to the public for the last thirtyIt has already been translated into the nine years, during which period Mr. German and some other foreign lan- Colquhoun has transacted business with guages, and has greatly attracted the all the Prime Ministers who have preattention of foreigners in elevated sta- sided over the affairs of the country, be, tions of life ; and there are just grounds now finding himself iocapable, from age for believing that it is highly appre- and declining bealth, to execute all the ciated by the statesmen of this country. different important duties, which, under It is impossible to examine this very im. the peculiar circumstances of a Magis. portant production, without being filled trate, be may be called upon to perwith astonishment at the great labour form, has considered it a duty he owed which must have been exerted in com his country, to make room for a sucpiling the Tables, and in bringing such a cessor of more bodily strength. In the variety of subjects, replete with truly full and unimpaired possession of all his useful information, under the eye of intellectual powers, which have been tbe reader.-Uoder wbatever circum $0 constantly exerted for many years, stance, and in whatever way, we con. he therefore, for the above reasons, template Mr. Colquhoun's powerful offered his resignation, as one of the and energetic efforts ; whether we look Magistrates assigned to preside at the to the well-timed and valuable produc. Public Office in Queen-square, in the tions of his pen,-whether we examine month of October, in the last year ; bis labours for the distressed, -whether but His Royal Highness the Prince we see him clothed with magisterial Regent did not accept it officially until power, in the dispensations of justice, the 5th of January ;-since which, Mr. -or superintending the erection and Colquboup has received an official let. wanagement of schools, we shall find ter from His Majesty's Principal Secrebis actions tending to one great ob. tary of State for the Home Departject, the general prosperity and im- ment, of which the following is a copy : provemant of his country: his efforts the original is is his Lordship's own have all contributed to meliorate the hand writing. condition of the poor, and to prevent “SIR, Whilehall, 5 January 1818. moral and criminal offences, by the As you have determined, from your proinotion of religious and moral ba. advanced age, to retire from the official bits, industry, education, knowledge, situation at the Police Establishment of loyalty, .. good government, and, in Westminster, which you have long useshort, all those relative and positive fully filled, I think it incumbent upon moral attributes and duties which me to express to you the high sense mainly tend to increase the wealth, entertained by His Majesty's Governpuwer, and resources of the British ment of your public services, and espeEmpire.

cially of the inanner in which you disMr. Colquhoun, in his domestic ar- charged your duty as a Magistrate.

I assure you, it is with great pleasure, Such then, up to the present period, that I express my concurrence io these has been the incessantly active scene seytiments ; and I beg you will accept through which Mr Colquhoun bas my best wishes for your health and past in a long and laborious life. – la happiness.

taking a retrospect of this extraordi. “ I am, Sir,

nary activity, both of body and miod, “ Your very obedient servant, it is impossible to say more than must (Sigued) SJDMOCTA." have been felt by the reader, whose

progress of perusai must have been treIt was naturally to be expected, as the quently surprised into a conteniplation due meed of active service for a long of the great force of spirit, extensiveperiod, not only to the public at large ness of views, benevolence of inten. but in the immediate district where he tion, and considerable enterprise, which resided, that the hearly good wishes of entered into all his actions, plaoued his neighbours would be expressed to from correct information, persever ugly, him on bis retirement : accordingly, continued, and finally successfully exethe united parishes of St. Margaret's cuted. With whatever important conand St. John's, Westminster, where sequences the business may have been Mr. Colquhoun had acted as a Magis- fraught, to whatever magnitude, either trate for twenty years, declared their unexpected or foreseen, it may have feelings towards bim in the following swelled, whether it involved the miglily words:

transactions of a great empire, or only

comprised the more trifting concerus of At a Meeting of the Governors and a privale station, bis mind beinig totally

Directors of the Poor of the Parishes absorbed in contemplating the means of of St. Margaret's and St. John's, West- success, the same unruffled pbilosophic minster, held at the Board Room on calmness tracked his progress to its comthe 15th January, 1818,

pletion. Like a broad and deep river, “ Mr. Joan Daniel, Church warden, in unshaken by the storms of heaven, waftthe Chair,

ing to their destination, for the benefit “The Mecling being informed, that of the owner, the rich stores with which Patrick Colquhoun, Esq. had retired it may be freighted—thus individually from the Public Ofice, Queen square, promoting tbe welfare of others—and, as one of the Magistrates thereof, and what is not a little remarkable, the same considering the essential serviccs ren industrious and gratuitous zeal marked dered to these parishes, for several years, his acts for the benefit of others as for from the assistance afforded by Mr. his own private emolument. And here Colquhoun where his aid as a Magis. I cannot deprive either the reader or trate could be useful, notwithstanding myself of the perusal of the followthe important duties which necessarily ing lives, highly poetic and descriptive, occupied a large portion of his tine, and so apposite to the subject, by Henry

ão It was resolved unanimously, James Pye, Esq. lale Poel-Laureale, “ That the most cordial thanks be wbo was long acquainted with the presented to Mr. Colquboun for his object of his eulogy, and therefore kind attention and assistance upon all was fully capable of appreciating the occasions to promote the advantage of character of bis friend, to whom also these Parishes, and for bis ready ac he was frequently indebted for advice cess and polite reception when the and assistance. Parish-Officers had occasion to consult

"I feel the just reproof-but, ah! how few bim.

The golden path, that prudence points, “ This Board sincerely hope that Mr. pursue; Colquhoun will, in his retireinent, expe Who know to join, in Wisdom's sacred rience that consolation to which he is

Band, entitled, from the reflection of having the head retentive with the lib’ral hand; unceasingly exerted himself in promot

Who safe their Bark from Avarice quicking the comfort and increasiog the hap

sands keep, piness of his fellow-creatures."

And the dire vortex of profusion deep; “ Resolved,

When such I view, who with forejudging “ That the foregoing Resolutions be Know how to scaiter and know when to sigued by the Clerk, and transmitted by him to Mr. Colquhoun,


Who by po selfish passion led aside (Sigued) “ Simon STEPHENSON.” On the false glare of ostentatious pride ;


No pleasure e'er in vain expense can find, It is not easy, however, to estimate While layish for the good of human kind; the pecuniary benefits the nation has Whose time, whose care, whose bounties derived from the suppression of the

now are given Free and extensive as the rains of Heaven, trade which had loog injured the com

excessive plunder and of the illicit Now like the lueid streams that silent flow, Sooth by their healing power domestic woe.

merce arising from the commercial io. Such worth I bless, as God's best, noblest

tercourse of the River Thames ; but Boon,

in a trade of upexaropled magnitude, And in the glorious Portrait hail Colqu- amounting (as Mr. Colquhoun has houn."'+

shewn) to above sixty millions annu. The same undeviating ardour of pure ally during the war, and producing an suit characterized his public proceed. annual revenue of more than ten milings-and the accuraie fidelity with lions, it will be immediately acknow.. which he has discharged the important ledged, that he was most beneficially and uusought-for trust of Diplomatic employed, when he bad the public spirit Agent in Great Britain for Hamburgh, and the boldness, even at the risk of his and ultimately for all the Hanseatic life, and under great obstacles, to atTowns, and tor some of the West India tack and annihilate as powerfully crimi, Colonies, so honourably conferred upon pal a confederacy, as ever was formed bim, evinces no sipall share of talent of a similar oature in any country, and in the intricacies of diplomacy; for by which the most extensive depredaduring a series of years when great tions were committed. The Secretary aud intricate commercial questions of State, in the House of Commons, must bave been agitated, he must in July 1900, on the Thames Police bave managed with considerable adroit. Bill, observed, that " Goods to the ness to reconcile jarring interests, to " value of sevenly millions of money preserve conciliation among the par “ could not be removed from place to ties, and to acquire to himself, by the place, without sufferivg great loss ; ability with which these affairs were “the great depredations actually comconducted, increased respect and esteem. “ mitted, however, were far greater than Be it recollected, too, that his diploma. “such unavoidable losses

great to tic exertions were made during the pe a degree which no maa unacquainted riod of an unexampled war, when the o with the subject could possibly concountry of his constituents was fre “ceive. The West India Merchants quently convuised by sanguinary bat “had been so sensible of this, that they tles, apd alternately in the possession “ had entered into a voluntary Associa. of the contending parties. Thus bis “ tion to protect their property, the extended and equitable view of com “ benefit resulting from which has been mercial concerns, with the cxperience astonishing. The public revenue upon and knowledge be had acquired in deli sugar was increased thirly thousand berating on these affairs of mankind, pounds annually, by the prevention of enabled him to soften, as far as the depredations on that arlicle, from the blind heat of passion would allow, the adoption of Mr. Colquhoun's plan." asperities of contending disputants.+ There are good grounds for belierThis country has felt largely and so- ing that it has considerably exceeded lidly the advantages of his labours; this amount, while the saving to the she has the satisfaction to know, as Planters and Merchants has been imhas been already stated, that his ser

This augmentation of public vices have not burlhened the public revenue, and saving to private indiwith the smallest pecuniary sum. viduals, have not been upon ove ar

ticle only, but upon coffee, rum, and • Verses on various Subjects, written indeed every species of goods importin the Vicinity of Stoke Park in 1801.

ed and exported ; and a considerable και εμπορία δε και δοξαν είχεν οιχειωμένη check has been also thus given to the τα βαρβαρικά και προξενύσα φιλίας βασιλέων nefarious trade carried on by the conκαι πραγμάτων ιμπείρας ποίοσα πολλών. pivance and assistance of the infe

The study of mercantile transactions is of rior Excise and Custom House Officers. considerable value; it gives to your own the advantages of other countries, conci | An Officer of Justice, standing close to liates the amity of the Rulers of states, and Mr. Colquhoun, was wounded by a shot produces a skilfal management in all mul. fired by the Rioters, who attempted to pull tifarious affairs, — PLUTARCH, Life of down the Marine Police Office, Wapping, Solon,

in October 1799.


Hence, in every way, has accrued large and distress, the aid of active beneadditional increase of the income of the volence. As an indefatigable Ma. country, and of benefit to individuals. gistrate, and as a polite writer in gene-These great advantages may be fairly, ral, Mr. Colquhoun is well known and with justice, included in the cata. throughout Europe. -I introduce him logue of Mr. Colquhoun's public ser. in this place as the founder and provices. — Upon the whole, if, through moter of various institutions for supthe medium of Mr. Colquhoun's per- plying the poor in distress with cheap sonal exertions, and literary labours, and nutritious articles of food, to an prejudices have been removed, and extent truly astonisbing, and without plans have been already executed, which which famine must have been superbave produced so much public benefit, added to poverty. The enumeration --if he has contributed, during a pe- alone of my friend's publications, must riod of public calamity and danger, evince the activity of bis benevolence, to tranquillize the minds of the mass with which his time and fortune have of the people, in a great metropolis, ever kept pace.+ May the reader en. and to prevent in a considerable de

+ In addition to the eleven different gree those excesses a scarcity of food publications already mentioned in the first often produces,-if, in addition to this, part of this Biographical Sketch, the folhe has devised plans, approved of by lowing list contains the titles of Mr. Colquvery high authority, for the improve- houn's other Works, besides many ephement of the Revenue, without increas. meral productions, of great use at the time ing the public burthens, while at the they issued from the press. same time they secure the person and 1. An important National Question property of the subject from violence relative to the Principle of Legisla. and fraud, and the public stores from tion introduced into the present Corn extensive spoliation, it may be said, Bill..::

. Lond. May, 1790 in the fullest force that the terms can

2. Reflections on the Causes which imply, that he has deserved well of bis have produced the present Distress in

Commercial Credit, with Suggestions country.

relative to the Means of remedying the The Compiler of this Biographical Evil in future...

1793 Sketch, craving the indulgence of the 3. An Account of the Rise and Proreader for the imperfect manner in gress and Present State of the Charity which it has been performed, cannot School, in the Parish of St. Leonard's, conclude it better than in the follow. Shoreditch

...... London, 1793 ing emphatic words of the late Dr. Lett. 4. Observations and Facts on Pub.

lic Houses, interesting to Magistrates som. “ When the importance of the mo

in any part of Great Britain, London, 1794

5. A Plap foraffording extensive Re. rals of the community, with its in

lief to the Poor, by raising a moderate fluence on individual as well as general Sum of Money by Subscription, to be happiness, is duly considered, one can laid out in redeeming Pledges of ho. not but contemplate a public charac nest industrious Families, who have ter, who, with unceasing exertion, en been compelled to Pledge their Goods deavours to promote every virtuous and Working Tools for Subsistence dur. and charitable sentiment, with grati- ing the late severe Weather, London, 1794 tude and reverence-A Magistrate

6. An Account of a Meat and Soup

.1795 clothed with power to enforce obe.


7. Suggestions favourable to the dience, but possessing benevolence more

Comfort of the Labouring People, coercive than power; who views with shewing how a small Income may be vigilance, to arrest its progress, every made to go far in a Family, so as to species of vice, and commiserates, as

produce a considerable Saving in the a man humanized by Christian amities, Article of Bread, Printed at the Pub. every deviation from rectitude, and lic Expense

... London, 1795 reforms while he pities, is a Being

8. Treatise on the Pojice of the Me. clothed with robes of divinity. In this tropolis, rxplaining the various Crimes point of view I introduce iny friend, and Misdemeanours which at present

are felt as a Pressure on the Commu. Patrick Colquhoun, Esq. whose exer

nity, and suggesting Remedies, London, 1793 tions point to every direction, where

Second Edition...

..1796 morals require correction, or poverty

Third Edition

1797 Fonrth Edition

1798 * Hints to promote Beneficence, Tempe

Fifth Edition..

.1799 rance, and Medical Science, Vol. 1. p. 923.

Sixth Edition...


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