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used by the Christians, besides the un the Jews to occur about the 25th of wilhogness of the latter to appear as March. But since, according to the if celebrating the Judaic Passover, oc. Gregorian arrangement, the February casioned much confusion in the ob- of that year consisted only of 28 days kervance of Easter; so that we find instead of 29, which, according to the in the year 387 and 577, some churches regular order of Bissextile years, it celebrated the Easter on tbe 21st ought to have been), March became March, some on the 19th April, and anticipated a day, and that which, sonc on 25th April, in the same year. according to the regular arrangemeot, The Council of Nice, however, settled ought to have been March 25th, was the arrangement to be, that Easter must by this means called 261h ; consealways be kept on the 1st Sunday on or quently, that day is now considered after the full moon immediately fol as the commencement of the vernal lowing the vernal equinox.

quarter by the Jews, whose calculation This regulation gives rise to great of periods has remained undisturbed. differences in the dates of the respective 'This difference of calculation by which Basters in different years, so as to make the Christians fix the vernal equinox its range to be from March 22, which is every year on the 21st March, without the earliest possible day, to April 25th, regarding the additional day of leap which is the latest, for the full moon year, and the consideration bý the Jews and the equinox do not always occur of the equinox not taking place before at the same time, and the Easter must the 26th, is the principal ground of always be on Sunday: nay, if it even the discordance of the Easter and the sbould occur that the moon be full Passover. on the 21st March, the day of the Besides this, a difference exists with equinos, and although that day be respect to the calculation of the new Suoday, yet not being the Sunday after inoon, as attached to the lunar cycle the full moon, Easter is postponed till of 19 years, which, according to the the month following. The same pro- Julian period, was set down to concrastination of Easter takes place if sist of 6939 days 18 hours, but accordthe moon should be full after 12 o'clock ing to the Judaic arrangement of 235 og March 22d, if Ibal day should chance lunar months consists of 6939 days 16 : to be on Sunday, as it is considered the hours 32 minutes. By this error in Roop of tbat day, the lunar day being the Julian calculation, the day of new from 12 o'clock at noon to the follow moon was made to anticipate the truth ing, as the solar day is reckoned from by one day in 312 years ; and, in fact, midoight to midnight.

we fiud, that in the year 931 the golden From these preliminarios, it will very number was 9, and the new moon was clearly appear, that the discrepancies marked on the 25th of March; whereas continually occurring between the solar in 1623, the golden number being also aod lusar calculation must necessarily 9, the new moon was calculated as prevent the constant agreement of the being on the 21st of March. This irre period of the Christian Easter with the gularity induced Popc Gregory to reJewish Passover, although in general ject the golden number as a guide according to principle, they occur about whereby to calculate Easter, and sub. the same time: the difference is evi- stituted a scale of epacts for this pur. dent, that while the Christians calculate pose: but as these are regulated by according to the solar year, they are complete numbers, and cast off 30 days obliged to regulate their Paschal fese witbout regard to fractional parts, they tival by the moon; and while the Jews cannot be esteemed completely correct. calculate by the lunar year, they are

Froin what has been so particularly obliged to regulate their Passover by detailed, the arrangement by which the course of the sun ; a correction Easter is fixed, and its agreement or that proves mutually serviceable, and non-agreement with the Jewish Passfacilitates the ultimate agreement of over, can be made clear in few words ; years at the expiration of the several viz. that whenever the full moon occurs cycles.

between the 22d and the 26th of March, The Passover of the Jews can never Easter must always precede the Jewish take place until after the commence Passover by nearly a mooth, as neither meat of the spring quarter, wbich be of them can be celebrated but in the fore the year 1700 was calculated by Vernal season, which the Christians fix

the commencement of on the 21st of iron by heat and cold when confined beMarch, and the Jews on the 25th or tween buttresscs, which is found very 26th. A consideration of the minutiæ sensibly to affect bridges with small beretofore laid down will give a correct arches, and bow much more must it idea of the usual discrepancies of these large ones. Are there not principles festivals.

upon which iron bridges may be built to The precise circumstance of the dates counteract these defects : There cerof these festivals in 1818 occurred in tainly are. Or is this bridge to be a sort 1693, wben the Christians celebrated of secoud edition, in point of experise, Easter on the 22d of March, wbile the similar to one lately completed by the Jews kept the feast of Purim ; but the same principal operator, which the Abib yot being considered as having ar. purses of many yet severely feel. rived until the 25th, the year was inter A deceptive idea has been beld out as calated, and Passover observed on the au apology for the Soutliwark Bridge, 21st of April .

statiog, that when completed London According to calculations made on Bridge will be removed. But tbis, as a these premises, it will be found, that citizen, I deny: for what theo will beduring the nineteenth century, from cone of the property on Fishstreet-bill, similar causes, but with dissimilar dales, Bishopsgate street, and lanes and streets Easter will precede the Jewish Passover leading to London Bridge? No, no; Dearly a month in the following years ; London Bridge, bad as it is, must either viz. 1807, 1815, 1818,1826, 1837, 1815, be patched up or rebuilt, with a tempo1853, 1856, 1864, 1972, 1873, 1833, rary bridge alongside of it, whilst exe1891, 1894, cach of these years being cuting. I am one that acknowledge either the 8th, 11th, or 19ih of the the bad and decayed state of Londoni Jewish lunar cycle and embolismal year, Bridge: peither can any person deny it, of which the Christiau cpacls will be who will look at the engraved plan of found to be 20, 23, or 22.

the surveys made for the select committee of the House of Commons, by

Mr. Dodd, the engineer, as they will SOUTHWARK BRIDGE.

sce the whole of the south pier of the To the Editor of the Europeun Maguzine. great arch split in two places, and only

held together with bars of iron. As it ANY public animadversions have is the revenue of all bridges that pay

for their erection, I must confess I don't and Waterloo Bridges: but I have never see how the Southwark Bridge is to pay yet seen any on the Southwark Bridge, without a direct North and South road, now so nearly finished. Permit nie to and which it can never possess without state my opinion, in your publication, pulling down our ancient Guildhall of which is open to all parties

London ; besides, it being so nearly siIn the first place, why was the prin- tuated between two free bridges ; viz. ciple of that bridge similar to the iron Blackfriars and London, and being but bridge al Boston, with all its faults, as little more than a quarter of a mile the same engiveer who executed the one froin the latter, surely no one would is employed in the other, which, if any prefer paying, when they may so reabody will take the trouble to inquire, dily cross the river free of expense ; will be found, I believe, to be split in and although I am a great friend to nearly forty places, and the money ex bridges, I like to sce them placed pended in its repairs, it is said, to tall where they will be useful to the public. little short of its original cosl; this iv. By inserting this in your valuable formation I obtained during my last publication, you will oblige, journey through Lincolnshire.

Your constant reader, of this I am certain, that both struc

A CITIZEN. tures are hanging their dreadful heavy King-oireel, Cheapside, weights of iron on their buttresses, and Nov. 15, 1817. should this weigbt thrust them away, they must incvitably fall into the river, We have given a place 10 the precedas did Staines Bridge into the 'Thames, ing leller, in the hope of ils cliciling a and one at Yarm, in Yorkshire, into the reply from some one qualified to adroriver Tees. Another disadvantage is, care the cause of the Soulkwark Bridge. the contraction and expansion of the EDITOR.


MAR.Poplace upon the vauxhali


Totke Ediler of the European Magazine. at any rate it could not be wholly SIR,

unproductive of good. And here it Teisielos for inserbimited your eyes THB enclosed is submitted to your may be remarked, how short a time

does the circle of a year seem to be, cellent Miscellany, by

when retracing its finished course, but Your most obedient,

how fearfully long when looking for. Jar. 21, 1818.

ZAMANA. ward to the conclusion of the next.

This has generally been admitted to be RECOLLECTIONS.

one of the greatest blessings afforded “ Man has another day to swell the past,

to man, that he can recur so summarily And leads him near to little but his last."

to past pleasures, while tbe future are Byron's “ Lara," held in abeyance, and only bestowed “ IN slow and gradual decrease the from day to day, to confer a more last

ing and real joy on their unexpectant time-glass has exhausted its numerous sands, and in inverting its position to possessor. Yet bow few are there but

have sileutly sighed to break the ber. trace the course of another hour, a new fear has opened, and brings along with her immensurable plains, in all the wild,

mctical seal of futurity, and bound over it a thousand Recollections, many which Memory would gladly efface from tle dreaming how soon that radiant sun

ness of present ecstasy and delight, lit. her tablet, whilst few, if any, she can

which now enlivens would be over. DOW dwell on with uomized satisface shadowed with the clouds of darkness, fion." -Such was Eunomio's exclaina. tion upon the close of the last, and fraught with “ danger and distress." commencement of the present year. this in words which speak more to the

The sacred Evangelist hath expressed The feelings which attended it be feelings than the most studied language would gladly have exchanged for any

or oruamented style could have done, others, whicb, even of a more poig.

“ sufficient unto the day is the evil nant nature, would, he thought, per. thereof." This truth, however, did haps have been more tolerable. For the

not bear upon the thoughts of Eunomio one he had experienced, the other he could only anticipate. To sketch Eucontemplation of the future that he

at the present time, for it was in the nomio's character would be more than a difficult task, as few, if any, knew it recalled the past. An opportunity had intimately. It was, to draw a brief of the preceding year, to stimulate his

presented itself, in the commencement outline, a compound of virtue and vice; ambition, to rouse his exertions, and of candour and dissimulation, of good call into acliop his intellectual facul. principles and perverted action. He

ties. But had his ambitiou been im. possessed a feeling heart, which would pelled forward, had his exertions gained Dot willingly disturb another's peace; yet if that heart sustained an injury, strove to obiain the reward held out

energy, or his intellectual faculties he exulted in the gratification of the malice of revenge.

to their reach ? No-lainted by false

The worin will luro in writhing agony against the font actions, deluded by specious argu.

ments, he had spurned the means of of its beediess destroyer. He would

his aggrandisement in literary fame. listen to the undisguised tale of woc,

He had deeined it the reward only and, if bis means afforded it, dispense of the most servile drudge, the prize the humble pittance of his purse; but to the feigned wailing of assumed dise only of the meanest book-worm." lie

had heard, and fancied he had seen tress, he turned away with deaf and obdurate ear

it veritied, that the honour extended

not beyond the precincts where it was " In him inexplicably mixed appeared confined ; that it was a short-lived Mach to be loved and hated, souglit and reputation, which was not adequate feared."

BYRON. to the risk hazarded in its acquireTo return, however : in reviewing his ment. How far such a conclusion was course of life during the last year, much justified, he did not then stop to conoceurred to barrow up his iomost soul, sider-He did not give himself the while little appeared to tranquilise or trouble to fathoin the sophistry of the soften the review-yet he shrunk not argument, or weigh quietly and disfrom the task he had voluntarily im- passionately its component parts. He posed upon himself; it might speak did not consider by whom it was upa salutary lesson to his future conduct; held, or the materials upon which its Europ. Mag. Vol. LXXIII, Jan. 1818,


foundation was reared. He never sus. and dissipation. Nothing is more pected that disappointment would strive pleasing to the youthful mind, in ento undervalue the reward, and jucapa. tering upon life, or more seductive in city exert its utmost influence to keep appearance, than the caresses of acdown all others upon the same level quaintance, and respect of strangers. with itself. It appeared plausible on Án universal introduction to society a first view, and as such fixed his deter. is the first wish and object of a young mination. Subsequent reflection bas, man, which the former may be willing however, shewn him the fallacy of such from kindness to shew, while a personreasoning He has disappointed the able exterior, easy address, and ready fondly-raised hopes of allectionate pa. flow of conversation, may wrest it from rents, and defeated their most san the latter. Eunomio was not now, howguine expectations. Yet if these were ever, beginning life, as, from certain the only results, time might wear away circumstances, in an earlier period, he the recollection of them. But can be, had entered the world. He had seen while he thiuks as a man, or as a sen society, he had indulged in pleasure's sible being, ever forgive himself such revelry, and if not one of the foremost, uuwarrantable ivanity of character ? was at least vot the most unresisting Is it not the peremptory duty of every of her votaries. Still, however, he exman to soar above mediocrity, to strive perienced that the circle of his acin competition for the foremost prize, quaintance was increasing, and that to aim at the victor wreath. If indi- he was sailing on a more expansive vidual gratification cannot urge on sea of gaiety and fashion. Though be ward to the attempt, ought not the Roated with the tide, yet his spirits pride of family and kindred to assert a did not always rise in equal buoyancy. claim irresistible? It unquestionably The method and course of life was not ought ; for where exists such honour wholly congenial to his feelings. Each as that acquired by talent and genius? night of pleasure brought back its kinWhere such fame as that adjudged to dred day of ennui, and, like spirits merit, or bestowed on learning? For to the habitual drunkard, each added this purpose was

man endowed with draught seems only to cxhilarate, to reason, for this was it given him to create afterwards a weightier depresexplore the bidden treasures of 10 sion. In this state of life and temperevealed science-And this Eunomio rament of mind, an incident occurred, bad relinquished, had considered be- by whose consequences, if persisted in neath his notice. Strange infatuation! with all the ardour Eunomio commeoced which could hold captive the mind in it, his best prospects would have been such weak and slender chains. Con- marred, his future happiness would bave fined in this thraldom then, he suf- been for ever blighted and destroyed. fered to escape an opportunity of sig. This escape, so fortunate, he cannotaitrinalizing himself, which can never be bute to his own foresight, or assign to recalied. Yet let it not be supposed his own caution and wisdom. Led on that Evnomio indulged in slothful idle- by visionary schemes, he painted to ness, or despised literature.

On the himself, in glowing and vivid colours, contrary, he was greatly addicted to scenes, which, if prudence had posreadiog, and enjoyed the intercourse sessed any sway, or reason beld any of clever nuen. But his present regret controul over bis thoughts and actions, was, that he had not sirove to oblain would have instantly declared delusive, honour and reward when the oppor. and imaginary. At first view, all tunity offered ; that he had not aimed seemed fairy Tand, peopled with subat distinction, but had suffered bim. jects of his own arbitrary creation : but self to be numbered in the herd of the upon closer inspection, fertility yielded numerous many. Such was the circum- to barreoness,' beauty dwindled into stance that marked the commencement deformity, deceit resumed her station, of the preceding year in distinct cha- which had ovly mementarily been racters upon bis mind's memory. The usurped hy candour, and the creatures words of a great master may bere be realized by fancy, washed into the applied to Eunomio's conduct, “ Con- empty void of nothingness. Motives tempt previous to investigation." of delicacy compel the restraint of any Time now wore on, and Eunomio direct exposition of the nature of the changed the still silence of science and circumstance which is referred to, and literature for the busy scenes of pleasure wbicb must form a sufficient excuse for


any ambiguity in which the relation is sometimes succeed beyond the most clothed. This clear insight into the sanguine expectations of its employer ; nature of the affair in which he was get more frequently defeats its own about to engage, has been already said, intentions, and while preparing to en. was not produced by his own unassisted circle the unsuspecting victim in its discernment, or foresight. Prejudice intricate toils, entangles itself in diffiand misconception cannot, therefore, culties, which require more skill and be alledged to have caused this change ingenuity than it is master of, to rein bis sentiments, neither can caprice be move. Then, if ever, is the time, it brought forward in evidence agaiost must feel its own weakness, must too bim. Suspicion had sometimes invaded plainly perceive the dark and disgraceful his thoughts, but the hatred and aver- turpitude of its own ineffectual efforts. sion in which he held that most odious Then must the parent author loathe of buman passions, always impelled the nature of its production, and turn him to summon to his aid, the utmost with aversion and disgust from the offefforts be could master, in the combat spring of its baseness. Duplicity may of such an illiberal feeling. This libe

wear the form of honest candour, and rality of sentiment however has almost even for a while impose its smiles of become an outcast from the catalogue ingenuousness, but when the mask falls, of human virtues. In the modern day

all its bidden deformity appears more when dissimulation forms the consti

odious from its former concealment, tuent ingredient of nearly every cha. To support the character requires a racter, it may reasonably be questioned, more than coinmon address, and inti. whether candour and sincerity are not

macy with mankind. It does not admistaken notions, or mere words, mit of suddenly launching out into exwholly abstracted from human prac tremes, or privately receding into retice. To tread the same level with tirement. Its step must be continued society, the same babits must be and unvaried, experiencing no change, adopted, the

actions enter liable to no alteration. It demands tained, and rather than become the time, and place, and action, as its subdope and cheat of others, first exercise servient ministers, and skill and device upon them the experiment of your own as its directing counsellors. Can it be machinery That a frank and ingenu

wondered then that its success should ous disposition should only be gradually be so wholly disproportionate to its atdeveloped, and not reveal itself imme. tempts. That the main springs of the diately, is a truth which once would engine should so often clog and refuse bare staggered the most credulous dis to perform their functions? It indeed ciple. But all man's second nature, cannot, for these defeats ought to be now readily admits the force, and daily

calculated on and guarded against.-habit confirms the reality of the posi Happy then are they who, doomed to tion. Had Eonomio pursued this line be the victims of its machinations, are of conduct he would not now have released by its own inconsiderate folly, had to record this circumstance. Had

and avoid the destructive ruin into he studied human nature, and followed which it would plunge them by its own ber tbrough all her dædalean circuits, intemperate impetuosity. Like the and windings, had be not considered angler who, at the first nibble, snatches himself the standard by which he should his line with excessive eagerness, loses try the essay of others, be would not bis expected prey, so scheming, conso sensibly discovered the alloy which trivance, and deceit, rapidly pursuing was intermixed with the metal. But their first success, betray too manifestly be has gained a valuable experience; the object of their intentions, which it and though, perhaps, bought at the was otherwise their dearest interest to price of much feeling, yet the satis- conceal. Such Eunomio in the present faction he now derives, and still ex.

jostance discovered to be the case; and pects to derive, will amply repay the darkened indeed must bave been his dearest purchase. Throughout the visual organs had they not admitted the whole he never has bad cause to re ray of light which burst upon them. proach himself, except for his too To retire was then a duty iniperatively ready credulity, a pardonable error. imposed upon himself. He was already If any reproach is uttered, it must liberated by every rule of bonour, by recoil upon the author of the con. every principle of rectitude. Feeling trivance. Sch.ming contrivance will could iherefore no looger be permitted

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