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Provincial Lellers : Containing an Ex- sion from the Faculty of Theology, by a

posure of the Reasoning and Morals decree in January 1656. The defence of the Jesuils. By Blaise Pascal, which he made was not in itself very Originally published under the Name satisfactorily written, and some of his of Louis de Montalte. Translated friends intimated their wish to M. Pasfrom the French. To which is added, cal, with whom they had become reA l'iew of the History of the Jesvils, cently acquainted, and of whose talents and the late Bull for the Revival of they had formed a very just idea, that the Order in Europe. 8vo. pp. 388. be would write something upon the subThe name of Pascal (that prodigy ject. This occasioned his first letter, of parts, as Locke calls him),” says Mr. which being much admired, was soon Dugald Stewart,* “ is more faniliar to succeeded by others, uoder the fictimodern ears than that of any of the tious name of Louis de Montalte; the other learned and polished anchorites consequence was, the Jesuits became who have rendered the sanctuary of the objects of ridicule and contempt Port Royal so illustrious. Abstract

to all Europe. ing from his great merit in mathe It is quite needless to accumulate matics and in physics, his reputation testimonies in favour of the extrarests chiefly on the Provincial Letters;' ordinary mcrit of this work, othera work from which Voltaire, notwith. wise the encomiums of numerous Freoch standing his strong prejudices against writers might be introduced ; and our the author, dates the fiscatus of the elegant Gibbon is said to have posFrench language; and of which the sessed so enthusiastic an admiration same excellent judge has said, “Mo. for the book, that he was accustomed liere's best comedies do not excel them to read it through once every year. in wit, nor the compositions of Bossuet Amongst those, bowever, who are in sublimily."" The author was ori. always entitled to marked attention, ginally induced to compose and pub. must be ranked d'Alembert, whose Jish them by a very casual circum

words are

as follow: This masterstance. Accustomed frequently to visit piece of pleasantry and eloquence diå sister, who had taken the veil in the verled and moved the indignation of monastery of Port Royal, he was intro. all Europe at their (the Jesuits) es. duced to the society of some celebrated pense. In vain they replied, that the

Jansenists, particularly M. Arnauld, who greatest part of the theologists and bad recently been engaged in a dispute monks had taught, as well as them, with the doctors of the Sorbonne. The the scandalous doctrine with which they subjects of difference related chiefly were reproached. 'Their answers, 'ill. to those points of faith which have written and full of gall, were not read, continually divided Arminians and Cal. while every body knew the Provincial vinists in the Protestant community: Letters by heart. This work is so much the Jesuits being allied in sentiment the more admirable, as Pascal, in com to the former, and the Jansenists to posing it, appears to have theologised the latter. The Jesuits had selected five two things which seemed not made for propositions from a posthumous work the theology of that time, Janguage, of Jansen, or Jansenius, Bishop of and pleasantry. The(French) language Ypres, wbich his adherents believed was very far from being formed, as we

to contain the doctrine of the scriptures may judge by the grealer part of the and the fathers on the litigated articles works published at that time, and of "of faith, and procured their condemna- which it is impossible to endure the tion by the Faculty of Theology at reading. In the Provincial Letters," Paris, and by Pope Innocent the Xib. there is not a single word that is grown Arnauld published a letter in 1655, in obsolete ; and that book, though writ. 'which he declared that the condenined ten above a hundred years ago, seems as propositions were not to be found in the if it had been written bui yesterday. book of Jansenius, and then proceeded A considerable portion of the merit to controvert the Jesujlical notion of of this performance consists in the in. efficacious grace. Being at this time a genious manner in which Pascal has member of the Sorbonne, violent aller- brought togelher the extravagant cations arose ; and as his adversaries maxims of the principal Jesuitical wriwere in power, they procured his expul- ters, so as to make ihem appear truly

ridiculous. He does not, as Voltaire * Suppleinent to Ercyc, Brit, vol, i. p.). (who otherwise bestows upon him great

praise) insinuates, collect his citations in itself an object of considerable interfrom a few individuals, whose senti est; and it is impossible to look over ments are unwarrantably adduced as eitber this number, or any one of those a fair specimen of the principles of which have preceded it, without feeling the whole Society, for he uniformly that a store of exceedingly valuable appeals to the very best of their wri- information has been collected from ters, and particularly to the lwenty-four many perishable repositories, to be here elders, who were so designated on ac concentrated and laid up in excellent count of the entire confidence which order, not only for the improvement of the whole body of the Jesuits reposed the present age, but for the instruction in their statements. In fact, Pascal of posterity. adopted no other than the usual and We shall subjoin a curious paper authorised method of obtaining the

on the Origin of Pamphlets. real opinions of any extensive society. If in their own publications of their inost

THE ORIGIN OF PAMPALETS." eminent men be not the proper stan

“ I look upon Painphlets," says a dard of appeal, by what other means

writer of the 17th century,

as the can their opinions be obtained ? Be. eldest offspring of paper, and entitled sides, none of their writings were issued to claim the rights of primogenitorship without the sanction of the superiors of even of bound volumes, however they their order. One peculiarity of these may be shorter lived, and the younger " Letters” it is impossible to perceive brother has so much outgrown ine through the medium of a translation. elder. In as much as arguments do The words selected by the writer are now, and 101c especially did, in the uniformly the purest which the language minority of our erudition, not only furnished; and according to the testi so much more rarely require a larger mony of Voltaire, “not a single word compass than pamphlets will comprise, occors, savouring of that vicissitude to but these being of a more facile, more which living languages are so subject. decent, and simple form, suitable to the Here then we may fix the epocha when character of the more artless ages, they our language may be said to have seem to have been preferred by our assumed a settled form.” The conver modest ancestors for the communication sational form in which the subject is of their sentiments, before book-writing treated, precludes that oratorical ele became a trade, and lucre and vanity gance and Ciceronian low which de let in deluges of digressory learning lights the ear. A certain sprightliness to swell up unwieldy folios. Thus i and humour constitute their chief cha. find, not a little to the honor of our racteristics, interspersed with passages subject, no less a person than the reof grave instruction, which prove that

nowned Alfred collecting his sage prePascal wrote for a higher purpose than cepts and divine sentences, with his own to furnish a comedy, or to gratify a royal hand, iuto quaternions of leaves malignant feeling. After all, a severe stitched together, which he would critic might detect in this work some eplarge with additional quaternions, minor faults of composition, as

as occasion offered ; yet sceined he to dundances and repetitions, unless, as is keep his collection so much within the most probable, even he should be too limits of a pamphlet size, however much occupied with its

bound together at last, that he called it beauties.

by the name of his “ Hand-book”because he made it bis constant com.

pavion, and had it at hand wherever he The PAMPALETEER; containing the

went. Best Pamphlets of the Day, with ori “ It was, however, the grand contro ginal Pamphlets, &c. No. XX. Sep. versy between the Church of Rome and tember, 1817.

the first opposers thereof, which seems This useful undertaking has estal:lished to bave laid the foundation of this kind itself so firmly in public opinion, that of writing, and to have given great our police can do little more than credit to it at the same time, as well by repeat the general tribute to acknow the many eminent authors it produced Tedged merit. The preservation, in a in church and state, as the successful cheap and handsome form, of excellent detection and defeat thereby befailing work's which are so liable, as single those religious impostures which had pamphlets are, to be misused and lost, is so universally enslaved the minds of

re

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men. Nay, this important reformation themselves) ye are they bebeld, by has been much ascribed to one little politic or penetrating eyes, as therpamphlet only, which a certain lawyer mometers of state, foreshowing the of Gray's Ion, (obliged to dy into temperature and changes of govern. Germany for having acted in a play ment, with the calenlures approaching which incensed Cardinal Wolsey) com therein; and even preservatives to be posed there, and conveyed by means bad against them, would the active of Lady Anne Boleyn, to the perusal of be as unanimous to prevent, as the Henry VIII. at the beginuing of this speculists have been industrious to prog. rupture; the copies whereof were nosticate the same." strewed about at the king's procession The writer of this essay proceeds to Westinipster; the first example, to remark on the great price given as some think, of that kind of appeal to for pamphlets which were become scarce. the public. How the Cardinal was “ There never was a greater esteem, nettled thereat, how he endeavoured or, better market; never many to stile and secrete the saine, bow eager searches after, or 'extravagant it provoked the pen of the bigotted purchasers of, scarce pamphlets, than Lord Chancellor (Sir Thomas More), in the present times, which have been how glaringly it was affixed in the made evident either from the sales front of the prohibited book, and yet of them in general: as that of Tom how it captivated the said king's affec. Britton, the celebrated small-coal maa tion and esteem, may not only be of Clerkenwell, who, besides his chepresumed from the purport, but gathered mical and musical collections, had one from the accounts which our ecclesiasti- of choice pamphlets, which he sold to the cal histories bave given thereof. It late Lord Somers, for upwards of 500L. ; would be endless to specify how much and more especially Mr. Anthony Colthis province was benceforward cul. lins, the last year, whose library consist. tivated by prelates, statesmen, and ing principally of pamphlets, and those authors of the first rank, not excepting mostly controversial, and mostly mo. majesty itself, in the several examples dern, is reported to bave sold both parts which might be produced of the said of it for 1500l.; or whether we descend Henry VIII., King James, and Charles; into particulars, and consider the ex. the second of whom thought so honor. orbitant value set upon some single ably of these painphlet performances, pieces, as the topographical pamphlets that be deemed one of his own writing of John Norden, the surveyor, which so much above huwan patronage, as before they were reprinted often sold to make a dedication of it to Jesus for 40s. a-piece ; the Examination Christ."

of Sir John Oldcastle, which I hare England, through its spirit of known sold for three guineas, though liberly, has been the most fruitful gleaned from Fox's Book of Martyrs; country for the production of pamph. the Expedition of the Duke of solets ; so the period which has been most merset into Scotland, also has been fruitful in tiem, was that of the civil sold for four guineas, though totally wars in the reign of Charles I. Indeed, inserted in Hollinshed. From the grand in all disorders and coinmotions, it is collection of pamphlets which was natural to have recourse to the most ex. made by Tomlinson, the bookseller, peditious intelligence and redress, lest from the latter end of the year 1640 delay should be more dangerous than to the beginning of 1660, it appears the deficiency of them; or they super. there were published in that space nearly auuated before they were born. For thirty thousand several tracts; and that while some persons are labouring in the these were not the complete issue of paroxyms of contention, were others that period there is good presumption, pondering long.winded cxpedients of and, I believe, proofs in being. 'Not. accommodation, and prescribing vo withstanding it is enriched with pear Jumes for a recipe, the dose would come a hundred manuscripts, which, nobody too late for the disease, and the very then (being written on the side of preparation thereof disable its efficacy. the royalists) would venture to put into Therefore are pamphlets, and such sort print, the whole, however, is progres. of tracks, ritest in great revolutivus; sionally and uniformly bouod in upwards which though looked upou by some as of two thousand volumes, of all sizes. paper-lanterns set a-flying to be gazed at The catalogue, which was taken by by the multitude, (illumioating whom, Marmaduke Foster, the auctioneer, conthay hare pot always escaped the fames sists of twelve vols. in folio; wkorein

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every piece has such a punctual register who have taken the like method to and reference, that the smallest, even of assuage the effects of their discredit. a single leaf, may be readily repaired to able conduct; among whom are not thereby They were collected no doubt wanting those who, having penuriously with great assiduity and expense, and made their plaister too scaut for the Dot preserved in those troublesome sore, have rather multiplied than times, without great danger and dif. subtracted from their own disgrace; ficulty; the books being often shifted and industriously exposed their folly by from place to place, out of the army's the imperfect concealment of their vice. reach. So scarce were many of the These had not tbe affected tenderness pamphlets, even at their publication, for their own reputations it seems, that Charles J. is reported to have even of the Turks and barbarians; not giveo ten pounds for only reading one that exquisite apprehension of this over (which he could no where else durable discipline, which may visit the procure) at the owner's house in St. sins of the fathers on their children Paul's Church-yard.

unto the third and fourth generation : • The extraordinary price of pam as not the love, so neither the fear. phlets already mentioned, would' na of men of letters, which is noted in one turally excite our deliberate inquiry of the wisest Roman Emperors, by the into what has been most extraordinary historian of his life, (Lampridius in in the contents of them ; but so multi. Alexandro Severo) and by one of our farious are the subjects, that it cannot own authors in these words: be expected I should enumerate them

He feared less a hundred lances, then in the narrow limits of an epistolary Th’impetuous charges of a single pen: address. What do most attract the

Well knowing attention of mankind, are those dreaded scourges of a mal-administration, com Parva necat morsu spatiosum vipera taurum. monly, though perhaps sometimes too " I shall leave it for others to discuss, indiscriminately, bearing the contume whether this sort of writing is more lious denominative of libels. It matters inclinable to Nourish, and to take Jittle wbether it be reasonable or not, deeper root, by the ventilations of tbat such writings as duly expose vil resentment; or wither and die away in lainly should themselves be vile; or the shades of disregard: but this we that some persons, who have been

may observe, that some charges are unjustly injurious by any other means, of such a convincing, clinging nature, may not be justly injured by this; but that they are found not only to strike it is obvious to all who know the all apology or contradiction dumb, but disproportion of riches and power in to stick longer upon the names of the this world, that there are crimes not accused than the flesh upou their bones.' to be blasted, and criminals not to Thus Philip the Second's wicked employ. be branded, by other means. And ment, treacherous desertion, and bar. since the lashes of reason will reach barous persecution of bis secretary, where tbose of justice cannot; since Antonio Perez, upraids bim out of truth will project defamation from the the author's Librillo, through all Europe actions of oppresive rulers, as uncon to this day. Mary, Queen of Scots, has' trolledly as the sun does the shadows not yet göt clear of Buchavan's Delecfrom opacous bodies, the redress of the tion. Robert, Earl of Leicester, cannot: effect is to be sought for in the cause ; shake off Father Parson's Green Coat. and we should apply the salve to the George, Duke of Buckingham, will minds which received the provocation; not speedily outstrip Doctor Eglishan's pot, empiric like, seek to staunch them Fore-runner of Revenge.

Nor was by binding up the weapons which re Oliver Cromwell far from killing him. turned it. Nay, we read that the self at the pamphlet which argued it Emperor Charles V.; Francis I. of to be No Murder, lest it should perFrance; and even Solyman, the Grand suade others to think so, and he perish Turk; with Barbarossa, the Pirate'; by ignobler hands than his own. and several other potentates, all con " In this manner did some take the descended to become tributary to the liberty of calling these personages to satyric muse of Pietro Aretino; whom, account for their misdeeds, even while notwithstanding it is not very probable they were living. Avd with regard they had any way personally exasperated. to that most memorable usurper last Som also in our story might be named, mentioned, thus was a celebrated writer,

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of ours for immortalizing him : When description of their mysterious valley we fix any infamy on deceased persons, is faithfully drawn. The adventure of it should not be done out of any hatred the Duke d’Albe, who, hy so wonderful to the dead, but out of love and charity an aecident, discovered this small coto the living ; that the curses that only lony, is also an historical fact. All these remain in men's thoughts, and dare not details, so curious and interesting, are come forth against tyrants, because they to be found in the Dictionary of Moréri, are tyrants, while they are so, may in the travels of M. de Bourgoing (an at last be for ever settled and engraven author of much celebrity from his fideupon their memory, to deter all others lity). Several Spanish writers have also from the same wickedness. The mis- spoken of these people, and all their chief of tyranny is too great, even io the accounts perfectly agree. This small shortest time that it can continue and fortunate republic existed in all it is endless and insupportable if the the happivess of its obscurity, and was example be to reign too. If it were blessed in being uuknown to the rest possible to cut tyrants out of all history, of the world, even, so late as 1806 ; and to extinguish their very names, but it is doubtful whether, since that I am of opinion it ought to be done; epoch, it bath been disturbed by the but since they have left behind them sanguinary war which desolated Spain. too deep wounds to be ever closed One would faio believe, that, defended up without a scar, at least let us set by its rocks, preserved by its poverty, a murk on their memory, that men ambition did not deign to enslave and of the same wicked inclinations may corrupt it. be no less affrighted with their lasting There is nothing, however, historical ignominy, than cuticed by their mo. in this work, except the details respecte mentary glories.”

ing the Battuécas; every thing else is “ How little soever these sentiments fiction. The author has endeavoured may be thought to need corroboration, to give some interest to the valley of I datter myself the following reply the Battućcas ; but in admiring the inof our late excellent Queen Mary ought nocence of their manners, in criticisiog not here to be forgotten, when some our own, bis object was not to satirize of her courtiers would have incensed civilization ; on the contrary, his deher against Monsieur Jurien, who in his sign has been to prove, that heroic viranswer to Father Maimburg, that he tue, which is nothing but the happy exmight the belter justify the reformation ercise of a strong mind, is never to be in Scotland, made a very black represen met with where there is nothing to come tation of their Queen Mary—Is it not bat, and is never to be found but in the a shame,' said one of the company, midst of every species of seductions, • that this man, without any cousideration wbich unite to overcome and annihiof your royal person, should dare to late it, and, consequently, must be throw such infamous calumnies on a sought for in a state of civilization. queen from which your Royal Highness Placide, the young Battuécas, and is descended.--- Not at all,' replied this the hero of this romance, is not a ingenuous princess,' for is it not enough savage without reflection or judgment; tbal, by fulsome praises, kings be lulled nor is he a misanthrope, who sees every aslcep all their lives; but must flattery thing on its dark side only. He is aniaccoinpany them to their graves ? bow mated with benevolence to all mankind, shall then princes fear the judgment -enlightened by the truths of Christianof posterity, if historians were not ity,-he possesses that true cultivation allowed to speak the truth after their of mind, which gives perfection to our death !"

moral ideas. Endowed with the happiest organization, born with an ardent

imagination, and a noble and feeling Placide : A Spanish Tale. In Two

heart, he is suddenly thrown into the Volumes. Translated from

Les Bultuécas of Madame De Genlis. of our arts and sciences, and entirely

great world without knowing the secrets By Alexander Jamieson. 12ino.

ignorant of our follies, our customs,

and our manners. · He is then alterEvery thing which is said in this work nately astonished and confounded by respecting the Battuécas, their origin, enthusiasm and indignation. His centheir singular history, their character, sures and praises are never exaggerated, their inanuers, &c. is strictly true. Tho yet their energy would not be patural in

Pp. 434.

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