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224 Mr. Tate's Reply to G. M. H.-Errors in the Naulical Ephemeris. [ March offered to heart-rending misery a hope singular, that, with the cancelnient of a that could never subtract an atom from long and troublesonie division, he should ils sum of bitterness. But let us bum exbibit bis plan to show the difference bly indulge the conviction, that diffe in figures. rent, very far different, was the result I shall further intrude upon your intended by St. Paul, remembering in time, sir, ouly to state, that the study of the bour of agonizing affliction, that complex arithmetic, as Mr. G. M. H. submission is the first duty of a Chris terms it, is neither my pursuit por tbe tian to his Creator, and that Christi object of my establishment. The only anity exalts patient submission to cheer- merit I can claim from my system of ful resignation, by inculcating the be- calculations, is that of arranging and lief, that those beings whose luss has explaioing numerous appropriated plans occasioned the death of earthly happi- of calculalions, which are practised by ness, will welcome our admission to the first accountants in various departperfect and immortal bliss, whose efful. ments of business, and possibly somegence shall brighten through eternity, times making a tiltle improvement, for infinity will impart the rays that and that I should probably not have conconstitute it.

M. A. R. sidered it necessary to take any notice

of Mr. G. M. H.'s observations, had MR. Tate's REPLY to MR. G. M. H. he not intimated that his abbreviated SIR,

plan bad been imported froin abroad, OUR Corresondent, Mr. G. M. H. and consequently its affording an op

having, in your Magazine for the portunity of shewing how very illlast month, expressed his incapability of founded tbe opinion is which some perseeing wherein one of the forms of cal sons have imbibed of the calculations culation used in this concern is meant used in some places of the continent, to supersede the old method, I beg far excelling ours in conciseness and leave, through the same medium, to i- simplicity. I am, Sir, form him, that it in no respect differs Your very obedient servant, from the usual plan of multiplying the finishing leademy, W. TATE. principal by the number of the days, Catealon Sirret. and dividing the product by 7:300; except in the substitution of a very casy and ingenious approximation, instead

To the Editor of the European Magazine. of the above divisor. With regard to the plan proposed by I womerous nautical readers to two

your that gentleman, the rule for which is most inaccurately expressed, it is nothing important errors of the equation of more than the working of a question in time, in the Nautical Ephemeris for proportion where the interest for 365 1818, priuted by the Board of Longidays, at 5 per cent, being as many shil. tude, and seven in the one for the year lings as there are pounds in the principal, 1819. It becomes of consequence these is required to find the amount of the errors should be known, as during the same sum for any other number of days; last year several vessels put into Portsand should the rate be any other than 5 mouill, out of their course, for the corper cent, adding to, or subtracting from rection of their chronometers; wbich the origioal suns, or either of the pro- appearance of error arose from the ducts, as many fifths as are requisite to misprint of the Epbemeris. proportion it to the given per centage.

1818. This plan, as well as mine, has long been practised in one of the first scbools for March 9, for 19 54 O read 9 54 0 calculation in the universe -I mean the May 8, 4 43 6 3 43 6 Stock Exchange; and I gave the pre

1819. ference to the one which I adopted, not

April 12, 1 53 0 058

13, 1 41 9 041 9 only as being inore simple, but as in

1 26 1 026 I many instances not requiring the ex.

1 10 6 0 10 6 pression of half the number of figures,

June 5, 1 2 2 which any of your intelligent readers

1 40 0 may determine, unless indeed be pos

2 400 sesses the head of a Zerah Colburn, or Dec. 1st, the letters “ add,” the top a Jedediah Buxton, and can perform of the columo page 134, should be the division by 365 with the appa “ subtract." rent conciseness of Mr. G. M. H.'s per I am, Sir, your obedient servant, formancc; and it certainly is a little cornhill, March 23. R. WEBSTER.


Min. Sec.

Min. Sec.




islands of ice, unusual in magnitude No. XLVI.

and number, occurred in the Atlantic,

many of them as far down as the fortieth A SELECT COLLECTION OF PUGITIVE PIECES. parallel of latitude. Some of these were “The mind of man not being capable of detached ice-berge, from a hundred to a

having many ideas under view at once, hundred and thirty feet above the surit was necessary to have a Repository to

face of the water, and several miles in lay up those ideas."-LOCKE.

circumference; others were flat islands To the Editor of the European Magazine. of packed ice, presenting so vast an exSIR,

tent of surface, that a ship from Boston A

T the present period, when the is said to have been three days entangled the intended expedition to discover a Newfoundland. The ship of the Unitas North-West Passage, I think it might Fratrum, proceeding to the missions on not be uninteresting to your Readers Old Greenland, was, last year, eleven if you were to insert in the Repository days beset, on the coast of Labrador, of your interesting Magazine ihe fol with the ice-bergs, many of which bad lowing extract from the Qurrterly huge rocks upon them, gravel, soil, and Reriew, giving an account of the dis- pieces of wood. The packet from Haliappearance of vast quantities of ice fax passed, in April last, a mountain of from the Coast of Greenland.

ice nearly two hundred feet in height, I ani, Sir,

and at least two miles in circumference. Your's, &c.

By accounts from Newfoundland, HaliMarch 3, 1818.

R. G. fax, and other northern ports of America,

it would appear, that greater quantities IT is generally admitted, that, for the of ice were seen in the months of May, last four hundred years, an extensive June, and July, than had ever been portion of the eastern coast of Old witnessed by the oldest navigators s Greenland has been shut up by an im- and that the whole island of Newfoundpenetrable barrier of ice, and, with it, Jand was so compleiely environed with the ill-fated Norwegian or Danish colo- it, that the vessels employed in the bies, which had been established there fishery were unable to get out to sea for more than an equal length of time to follow their usual occupations. The preceding that unfortunate catastrophe, source from which these enormous and who were thus cut off at once from masses proceeded could not be long all communication with the mother. concealed. It was well known to the country ;-that various attempts bave Greenland fishermen, that from Staabeen made from time to time to ap- tenhoek, the southern promontory of proach this coast, with the view of Old Greenland, an uninterrupted bar. ascertaining the fate of the unfortunate tier of ice stretched north-easterly, or colonists, but in vain, the ice being parallel pearly to the coast, approachevery where impervious: and that, all ing frequently to the very shores of hope being at length abandoned, that Iceland; and that the small island, part of this extensive tract of land which situated in lat. 71 deg. 11 min. long. faces the east took the appropriate name 5 deg. 30 min. W. called Jan Mayen's of lost Greenland.

Island (a sort of land-mark wbich those The event to which we have alluded engaged in the seal fishery always endeais the disappearance of the whole, or vour to makc), had of late years been greater part, of this vast barrier of ice. completely envcloped in ice; and that This extraordinary fact, so interesting from this point it generally took a more to science and humanity, appears to rest easterly direction, till it became fxed on po slender foundation. Both its dis. to the shores of Spitzbergen, from appearance from its long long-rooted the 76th to the 80th degree of latitude. position, and its re-appearance in a more The more central parts of this imsouthern latitude, bave been witnessed mense area of ice, wbich occupy the by various persons worthy of credit. pid-channel between Greenland and It had been observed in the summer Spitzbergen, separate from time to time months of the year 1815, and more into large patches, and change their particularly in those of 1816 and 1817, position according to winds and tides ; by ships coming from the West Indies but the general direction in which they and America, as well as by those going move with the current is from northout to Halifax and Newfoundland, that east to south-west, or directly towards Europ. Mag. Vol. LXXIII. Mar. 1818.



that part of Old Greenland where the of the Princess of Wales of Aberdeen, Danish colonics were supposed to be that “the reckoning in bis log-book established, and which are immediately was worked at the end of every watch, opposite to Iceland. Here it would

a practice which is also common among seoin those masses became a kind of British whalers after making the ice ; fixed nucleus, round which a succes and that “ both the master and mate sion of floating fields of ice attached were very intelligent navigators.”. themselves, till the accumulated bar. Since that time, we have received from rier, probably by its own weight and Hainburgh a copy of Captain Ocken's magnitude, and the action of the in- log, a chart of his route, and a letter peded corrent, at length burst its fet addressed by him to Messrs. Elliott and ters, and has been carried away lo the Co. of Hainburgh; from all which it southward. This at least appears to be appears, that he coasted Greenland with the most probable conjecture, though the land in sight, among loose ice, but another circumstance will hereafter be that the most northerly point which he adverted to, pot unworthy of attention, saw was 80 deg. N. latitude. in endeavouring to account for the phe But we have the direct testimony

of Mr. Scoresby the younger, a very It had been conjectured by philoso. intelligent navigator of the Greenland phers, that the remarkable chilliness of seas, for the disappearance of an imthe atmosphere during the two last sum. mense quantity of arctic ice. in a mers, and more particularly with west letter to Sir Joseph Banks, he says, erly winds, could only be owing to the “I observed on my last voyage (1817) accuinulation, or rather to the approxi. about two thousand square leagues mation of the polar ice to the south. (18,000 square miles) of the surface of ward. The reports of the Greenland the Greenland seas, included between fishermen, on their returo in August the parallels 74. deg. and 80 deg: per1817, connected with accounts of the fectly void of ice, all of wbich has ice seen in the Atlantic, corroborated disappeared within the last two years." this hypothesis. lu that month there And be further states, that though on appeared in the newspapers a paragraph, former voyages he had very rarely been statiog, that " in the course of the sea able to penetrate the ice, between the son, the commander of a brig from Bre- latitude of 76 and 80 degrees, so far to men, after making Jan Mayen's Island, the west as the meridian of Greenwich, in about 71 deg. N. stood to the west " on his last voyage he twice reached ward in quest of seals ; that in 72 deg. the longitude of io deg. west ;” that in he found land to the westward ; that he the parallel of 74 deg. he approached the then sailed nearly due porth along this coast of Old Greenland ; that there was coast without seeing ice, observing the little ice near the land ; and adding, bays and inlets and other appearances

" that there could be no doubt but of the land, till he came to lat. 81 deg: he might have reached the shore, bad 30 min. when he found that he could he had a justifiable motive for navi. steer to the westward, which he did gatiug an unknown sea at so late a for several days; that he then lost season of the year.” He also found sight of land, and directed his course the sea so clear in returning to the to the southward and eastward, and in southward, that he actually landed on 78 deg. N. fell in with the first fisbing Jan Mayen's Island, which is usually vessels he bad seen.” We took some surrounded with a barrier of ice, and pains to ascertain the truth of this state- brought away specimens of the rocks. ment, and fouud it corroborated in Another faci deserves to be men. almost every particular by five different tioned. Dr. Olinthus Gregory, who masters of whalers belonging to Aber- sailed from Shetland to Peterhead in deen and to London, to whom, at the Neptune of Aberdeen, on her relurn different times, Olof Ocken (the per- from the fishery, is said to have reportson alluded to), master of the Eleanora ed, that Driscole, the master, not only of Hamburgh (not of Bremen), had landed on the east coast of Greenland given an account of the course which about the latitude of 74 degrees, but he steered along the eastern coast of found and brought away a post bearing Grceoland, from Jan Mayen's Island an inscription, in Russian characters, to the degree of latilude above-men- that a ship of that nation had been tioned ; and it appears, from the joint there in the year 1774; which post, testimony of the captain and surgeon with its inscription, was scen on board

by Dr. Gregory. It would seem indeed doubt on this question. The Isle of that the northern part of the east coast Ely was named, in the early times of of Greenland has been approached at the Normans, lle de Vignes, the bishop various times by different nations of which received three or four tons of Dutch, Davies, and English. Hudson, wine, yearly, for his tenth. So late in 1607, saw the coast pearly in the as the reign of Richard II. the little same latitude as that where Driscole park at Windsor was appropriated as is supposed to have landed; and actually a vineyard, for the use of the castle : sent a boat on shore in 80 deg. 23 min. and William of Malmsbury, asserts, that It is from Hudson's “Hold with Hope," the vale of Gloucester produced, in the in about 72 degrees, to Cape Farewell, twelfth century, as good wine as many that the ice fixed itself to the laod from of the provioces of France. “ There is which it has recently been detached. no province in England hath so many,

That this is the case we can stale or such good vineyards, as this counfrom the best authority: - Intelligence try, either for fertility or sweetness of was received at Copenhagen, from Ice the grape; the wine whereof carrieth land, in September last, of the ice hav no unpleasant tartness, being not much ing broken loose from the opposile inferior to French in sweetness.” It is coast of Greenland, and floated away remarkable enough, that in a park near to the southward, after surrounding the Berkeley, in this country, tendrils of shores, and filling all the bays and creeks vines are found springing up yearly of that isiand; and this afflicting visita among the grass, from one of which tion was repeated in the same year : a cutting is now Mourishing in the gara circumstance hitherto unknown to the den of Sir Joseph Baoks.

But wine pidest inhabitant.

is known to have been made in Enge

land at a much more recent period. [The writer then attempts to antici. Among the MS. notes of the late Peler pate the effect of this great revolution Collinson (to whom the European world of nature on the climate of this coun.

is indebted for the introduction of some try :-)

of its choicest plants), is the following The invention of the thermometer memorandum im" Oct. 1812, 1765, I and the registry of the temperature are went to see Mr. Roger's vineyard, at of too recent a date to enable us to com Parson's Green, all of Burgundy grapes, pare the state of the atmosphere, before and seemingly all perfectly ripe. I did and after the accumulation of ice on the not see a green half-ripe grape in all coast of Greenland! but there are rea this great quantity. He does not exsons for believing that, previous to the pect to make less than fourteen hogsfifteenth century, England enjoyed a heads of wine. The branches and fruit warmer summer climate than since that are remarkably large, and the vines period. It is sufficiently apparent that, very strong.” These facts completely at one time, vineyards were very com. set aside the idea that the vineyards mon in England; and that wine, in very of England were apple-orchards, and considerable quantities, was inade from that the wine was cider. them. Tacitus states, that vineyards Nor is England the only country were planted by the Romans in Bri- that has lost its wincs by deteriora. tain ; and Holinshed quotes the per tion of climate ; as the followiag fact, mission given by Probus to the natives on which we can depend, testifies :to cultivate the vine, and make wine “ Between Namur and Liege, the Meuse from it. The testimony of Bede-the flows through a narrow valley, which, old notices of tythe on wine, which for picturesque scenery and high culwere common in Kent, Surrey, and tivation, is perhaps unequalled by any other soutbern counties—the records country in the world. The richest cornof suits in the ecclesiastical courts fields and plantations of tobacco, and the inclosed patches of ground attached other luxuriant vegetables, occupy the to pumerous abbeys, which still bear space on both sides close to the river ; the name of vineyards—the plot of while hop plantations and a series of ground called East' Smithfield, which vineyards are seen creeping towards the was converted into a vineyard, and held very summit of the rocks on the left by four successive constables of the bank, The vineyards appeared to be Tower, in the reigns of Rufus, Henry, in a most luxuriant state when I saw and Stephen, “ to their great emolu them (in September, 1817), but there -ment and profit,,' scem to remove all was not a single bunch of grapes on

any of them. I had conversation with the rest. That cause being now remany of the people, who all assured me, moved, we are disposed to join in the that formerly they made most excellent recommendation of the Latin poetwins, both red and white ; but that for

Inserc nunc, Melibae, pyros, pune ordino the last seven years they had not made

viteis." a single bottle ; yet they still went on from year to year in the cultivation of

We subjoin the following article, exthe vine, in the hope that favourable tracted from the Literary Gazelle of the seasons might again return to

hat they 28th of February. had known them; or, which would be still better, to what they are said to

Extract from an unpublished. Letler bave been some forly or fifty years

of the Naturalist Mi. Von Chamisso, ago." But to us, at least, a prospect

the Companion of Ollo l'on kurzebue. far more gloomy than the incre loss

It is addressid to a friend in Berlin, of wine had begun to present itself, “ We have,” he writes, “ experi. by the increasing chilliness of our sum enced uone of the dangers and hardmer months. It is too well known, ships in the North for which I was that there was not sufficient warmth prepared, and our voyage was like a in the summer of 1816 to ripen the party of pleasure. In Bebring's Straits grain ; and it is generally thought, that there is no strong current. Along the if the ten or twelve days of hot weather American coast there extend large sand. at the end of June last had not occurred, banks before the bigher land ;-the sea most of the corn must have perished. is here shallow, and the whole Strait This come more home to the business along this coast may perhaps be one day and bosoms of the present generation, filled up by them, so as to render it than the loss of "those golden days possible to go to America by land. when Bacchus smiled upon our hills.” " The difference in the depth found It was sufficiently alarming to be told by Cook and by us, is altogether too that “ Pomona is about to desert our great to be ascribed to this gradual orchards ; and that on ground where filling up; but Cook only saw the Amethe clustering vine once flourished, the rican coast at a distance, and marked it apple has, of late years, scarcely ri. as uninterrupted on bis map; wbereas pened, and that “it is now sixteen the lower land is broken by many years since the orchards bave afforded a creeks, and in the 13° of north latitude plentiful crop ;” that " at no very re we penetrated into Kotzebue's Sound to mote period, our posterity may, in the length of Norton Sound, from the all probability, be in the same situa. back of wbich we were not far distant: tion in regard to cider that we here a chain of original land surrounded now placed in with respect to wine ; On the south side of the entrance, when the apple-tree, like the vine, will we, however, left one inlet into the low only afford a penurious supply of sour land unexplored, wbich, as is said by the fruit, and will be cultivated in forcing natives, leads, in nine days of their navihouses to supply the tables of the gation, into the open sea. According rich."

to our experience, it may be hoped, From these melancholy forebodings, that it would be possible to penetrate however, we fuel ourselves considerably into the Icy Sea without doubling the relieved by the removal of the principal Icy Cape, which consequently (like the cause, in the destruction of the vast Terra del Fuego) would be separated fields of ice, of which we have been from the main fand. Then, depending speaking; and think it is not unreason. on the accounts of Mackenzie and able to presume, that our summer cli. Hearne, we might penetrate through mnate (and winter too, when the wind Repulse Bay into Hudson's Bay. This blows from the western quarter) may would be highly interesting to geohenceforward improve; for though we graphy and the knowledge of the earth, are aware that the changes of tem but not open any new road to naviga. perature depend on a variety of causes, tion. But as the intrepid adventurer yet the single effect of an atmosphere wiro should undertake it, would find chilled and condensed over a surface the sea open for two months at the of at least 50,000 square miles of ice, most, he must be prepared to winter rushing directly upon the British Islands several times in these high latitudes, from the westward, may have been Besides, the fogs which hang over tbe equal in its diminishing power to all sea during the summer months, would



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