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Ad Pyrrham.

To the Edilor of the European Magazine.


DY inserting the following Life of Qnis multâ gracilis te puer in rosa

Marshal Vaubon in your excel. Perfusus liquidis urgent odoribus

lent Miscellany, you will oblige, Grato. Pyrrha, sub autro?

Your's, Cui flavam relig?s comam

London, March, 1818.

W. L. Simplex munditiis ? &c. &c.

SEBASTIAN LE PRESTRE, son of Ad Mariam Deiparam.

Urban Le Prestre, lord of Vaubon, was born the 1st of May, 1633. He first

bore arms at thc age of 17. His taQuis fæno recubans, in gracili tenes lents, and his extraordinary genius for Invexus tenoris te, pia, fasciis

fortification, immediately made him Blundus. Virgo, puellas ?

known, and covered hiin with eclat Cui primos adhibes cibos

at the siege of St. Menehoud, in 1652. Dives munditiis ? &c. &c.

Vaubon had served till then under the

Prince de Conde, General of the SpaIn Juliam Burinen.

nish army, against France. Having been

taken by a party of the French, CardiODE VII. LIB. 2.

nal Mazarin endeavoured to engage him

in the service of the King: and he Ulla si juris tibi pejerati

succeeded with very little trouble,” Pæna, Barine, nocuisset unquam. Dente si nigro fieres, vel uno

says Fontenelle, “ with a man born the Turpior ungui

most faithful subject in the world." Crederem-Sed tu simul obligasti

This year, also, Vaubon served as engiPerfidum votis caput, enitescis

neer at the second siege of St. MenePulchrior multo, juvenum que prodis houd, which was retaken by the royal Publica cura, &c. &c. &c. arny. He was employed afterwards as

engineer at the siege of Stenoi, in 1654 ; Christi ad Peccalorem.

of Landrecies, in 1655; of Valenciennes,

in 1656; and of Montmidi, in 1657, PARODIA IX. LIB. 2.

The year after he principally conducted Ulla si juris tibi pejerati

the sieges of Gravelines, Ypres, and Culpa, peccator, doluisset unquam

Oudenow. Cardinal Mazarin, who neMente, si tantum fieres vel una

ver bestowed rewards undeservedly, Tristior hora

gave him a considerable one, and acPlauderem-ged to simul obligasti Perfidum votis caput, ingemiscis

companied it with praises, which, acOb scelus nunquam, scelerumque prodis

cording to the character of Vaubon, Publicus autor, &c. &c. &c. were much more acceptable. After

the peace of the Pyrenees, this young

engineer was occupied either in de In Buechum.

molishing or constructing fortresses. ODE XXII. LIB. 3.

He had already acquired a number of

new ideas in ihe ari of 'fortification Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui Plenum. Quæ in numero, aut quod agor in

—an art so necessary, and so little

known before. He bad aiready seen specus Velox mente novâ ; quibus

much, and with a very good eye ; and Antris, egregie Cæsaris audiar

be constantly augmented his experience Æternum meditans decus

by reading. When the war was kindled Stellis inserere et consilio Jovis, &c. &c. again, in 1667, he was the principal

conductor of the sieges which the King Ad Christum.

carried on in person. He received PARODIA XXIII, LIB 2.

at the siege of Douay a musket-shot

in the cheek, but that did not make Quo me, Christi, feram mali Plenum. Quæ in numero, aut quos fugiam 1668, in planning the fortifications of

him apply less. He was occupied, in in specus Pressus mole gravi? Quibus

the fortresses of Franche-comté, FlanAntris ob maculam criminis occultar ders, and Artois. The King gave him Æterdam meditans facem

the command of the citadel of Lisle, Iofernum effugere, et simplicium Stygis ? which was about to be buill, and was &c. &c.

the first government of that kind in


France. When the peace was was thought impregnable. In 1688, he cluded at Aix-la-Chapelle, his labours, directed, under the orders of Monsieur, were not less than during the war. the sieges of Philipsbourg, Manheim, He went into Peidmont with Louvois, and Franckendabl. That Prince regave the Duke of Savoy designs for compensed him for his services, by Ferue, Verceil, and Turin, and received giviog him four pieces of cannon, of from that Prince bis portrait, enriched his own choice, to place at his chawith diamonds. The war of 1672 fur- teau ; a privilege unknown till then. bished him with new opportunities for His bad health having incapacitated displaying his genius. He conducted all him for business in 1690, be repaired the sieges at which the King was pre- tbe involuntary idleness which it bad sert It was at that of Maëstricht, in occasionod, by the capture of Mons 1673, that he first made use of a singu.' in 1691, of Namur in 1692, by the lar method for the attack of fortresses. siege of Charleroi, in 1693, by the He changed the aspect of that terrible defence of Lower Brittany against the and important post of war. He still designs of the English in 1694 and continued bis inventions, which were 1695, and afterwards by the siege of exceedingly, numerous, and all tended Ath in 1697. The succession to the to bis principal point, the preservation throne of Spain having renewed the of men. In 1677, Valenciennes was war, he went to Namur in 1703, where taken by assault, and the attack was be received the baton of Marshal of made in broad day-light. This coun. France. About the conclusion of the sel was given by Vaubon, to prevent year, he took Vieux-Brisack, which the soldiers from mistaking one another did not cost him inore than three hunfor the enemy, and that the night might dred men. This siege finished his bril-.. not favour the pusillanimous. Accord. liant career. The title of Marshal of ing to the ancient custom, attacks were France produced the inconveniences always made during the night. Lou vois which he had foreseen : he remained and five of the French Marsbals wisbed useless, and his dignity was a charge to preserve the old metbod; but Louis to him. La Feuillade baving been em, the Xivih, struck by the reasons of ployed to reduce Turin, Vaubou offered Vaubon, adopted the new. At the to serve as a volunteer in his army. siege of Cambray, which followed that

“ I hope to take Turin in Cobora's of Valenciennes, Vaubon did not con manner," boldly said this inexpecur in the opinion for attacking the rienced young man, in refusing the half-invon of the citadel. Dumetz, assistance of that great man, who could a brave, but haughty and passionate alone assist him. The siege not having, man, persuaded the King to defer the advanced, Louis the XIVih consulted attack no longer. It was then that

Vaubon, who again offered his assist-, Vaubon said to the King, “ You may “But, Marshal,” said the King perhaps lose at this attack men who to him, “ do you tbink that this emare of more value than the place." ployment is beneath your dignity ?” Dumetz carried his point; the half - Sire,” replied Vaubon, “my dig, moon was attacked and taken : but the nity consists in serving the state. "I enemy recovered themselves with great shall leave the baton of Marsbal at spirit, retook it, and the King lost more the gate, and I shall perhaps assist than four bundred men and forty oili the Duke de La Feuillade in taking cers. Vaubon two days afterwards at

the city. This virtuous man having tacked it in forni, and forced it to sur been refused, for fear of disgusting the render, without losing more ihan three General, was sent to Dunkirk, and men. The King promised another time recovered, by his presence, the frightto let him act according to bis own ened ininds of the citizens. He died, opinion. The peace of Nimeguen re the year after, on the 30th of March nioved the arduous task of taking fort. 1707, of an inflammation of the chest, resses, but gave him a great number at the age of 74, after having superto fortify: lle planned the fort of intended the repairs of three hundred Dunkirk, his niaster-piece. Strasburg ancient fortresses, and having conaud Cassel were afterwards his most structed thirty-three new ones, having considerable works The war which been present at one hundred and forly. recommenced in 1682, obtained for him spirited engagements, and baving conthe glory of taking Luxembourg, which ducted fifty-three sieges,



For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. vices; condemned to a reprobate mind;

and so far lost, as even to deny their AN ESSAY ON FREE-WILL.

Creator? A truth which the weakest S the will and affection being not degree of reason never fails to find out.

disposed according to moral rec Has not a celebrated genius, by plausititude, argues pot that moral rectitude ble sophistry and artfully blending is impossible, but undeniably proves the falsehood with truth, seduced many into depravity of human nature ; so dissen the error of his subtle and dangerous sion among mankind, concerning truth, opinions ?-We are told man is perfect, argues not that there is no truth, but as be ought; so he is, considering that exposes the weakness and fallacy of he is infected with original sin, and huinan understanding. We can as lit- justly suffers the consequences of it: tle doubt the reality of moral rectitude but be speaks not with relation to that ; and truth, as of our own existence he means, man is absolutely perfect, as and the existence of God; for moral he ought to be created ; for he says, duties and moral natures are inse that the degree of weakness we labour parable.

under is necessary to the order and welFree-will makes a moral nature. being of the universe; and that even God has endued mankind with free will, pride is the root of virtue, and makes and a voluntary power in the exercise of the greatest part of a whimsical somemany functions, but yet has limited thing, which he calls happiness. That a them, perhaps more narrowly than some just subordination of the creature is are willing to believe. He seems to have necessary to the order and welfare of reserved a providential right over the the universe, nobody will deny; and most free faculties of soul and body, consequenily, one kind must be weaker which he exerts occasionally, according than another, in a descending gradation to the good or bad use the creature from the greatest to the least; but this makes of his freedon ; or to promote does not imply oppressive strength in those ends which his wisdom deter one, nor miserable weakness in another, mives to accomplish. Hence it fre for then it would not be a just subquently happens, that the race is not to ordination : but weakness (which we the swift, nor the battle to the strong; may complain of without accusing Heano, nor the wisdom of salvalion to men ven) is quite a differen thing: the of the most extensive learning and weakness we mean, is the inability of quickest thought. A gracious in liuence nature to fill the circle it is placed of the Almighty Spirit is vecessary to in ; i. e. want of power to sustain its preserve the tone and vigour of the condition with pleasure, and to promuscles, bones, and sinews, in the pro secute its true eud and happiness withsecution of their uses; and no less to out pain and error. This is emphatical direct and quicken the mind in dis weakness, so little necessary to the cerning fruibs, especially truths that order of nature, that it is the very conduce to true virtue and happiness. substance of disorder and confusion; In this state of apostacy there broods it concludes all that we mean by natural a dubious mist on the sacred way be. evil; which indeed is a proper scourge tween us and happiness, which cannot for wanton impiety, but never can reabe pierced by the acutest eye, without sonably he thought necessary to the a due regard to God's glory. Making a order and existence of the universe ; good use of the freedom and faculties he as if it were not easy for God to make has given already. conciliates God's his creatures perfect and happy. Pride, favour, which infallibly guides the weak. when the word is used for zeal and resoest soul to the knowledge of happiness Jution in the observance of our duty, is a and virtue; and the most vigorous un- glorious temper; but pride, properly so derstanding without that divine influ- calted, and which is his meaning, did ence, is but like the gigantic strength never in this world make any creature of a madman, which aggravates bis own happy, but many miserable

Indeed, misery, and bastens bis own destruc for a while it may flatter imagination, tion. I am sorry to think the world has like a dream; but, at the approach of known so many examples of the kind truth, away vanishes the false enchant. last mentioned. Have we pot known ing vision, and leaves nothing behind many, too many, reputed highly for wit but a kcener sense of misery. Pride, and sagacity, who bave been abandoned like weakness in nature, was the oric to their own foilies and impious dc- ginal cause of all moral evil, and the

reason of natural evil is still the main about, as if in a whirl-pool and that the spring of rebellion, and the detestable clashing of the pieces of loose ice against -author of that bloodshed and devas- each other on any extraordinary agita

tation which migh overwhelmed the tion of the waves, is altended with a * world. Now let us make a reflec- roaring so loud, that a man who is near

tion. We arc endued with freedoin, it can hardly hear the sound of his own which yet is subject to the government voice. They mention that at midnight, of Divine Providence, to whose mer. when they were in 78° 18' north lati ciful assistance we must also be indebted tude, the sun was as bright as at noonfor the recovery of its rectitude, and day. the continuance of integrity. This as July 13th, 1773, they anchored in sistance (as we understand from plain Smearingburgh Harbour, at Spitsbergen, facts, and the testimony of holy scrip- where they remained five or six days, to ture) is only granted on condition that take in fresh water. The country is we make a good use of the talents first stoney, and, as far as can be seen, full committed to our charge, to the glory of mountains, precipices, and rocks ; of the Giver. Then how careful should between these are bills of ice, generated, we be to do our best towards that end, as it should seem, by the torrents that which is the only way to obtain divine fow from the melting of the snow on favour, wbich alone must perfect our the sides of those towering elevations, weak and miserable nature, which per- which being once congealed, are confection is true happiness. It is evident, tinually increased by the snow in winter, the only road to happiness is to glo. and the rain in summer, which often rify God. The right and natural em freezes as soon as it falls. By looking ployment of reason is to execute the on these hills, a stranger may fancy a Divine will voluntarily; and the true thousand different shapes of trees, cashappiness of a rational creature is to tles, churches, ruins, ships, whales, delight io that employment.

monsters, and all the various forms that T. HILL. fill the universe. Of the ice-bills there

are seven that more particularly attract

the notice of a stranger; these are Tolhe Editor of the European Magazine. known by the name of the Seven Ice

burgs, and are thought to be the highest IT T is now nearly 45 years since any of the kind in that country. When the

ships have been titted out by govern- air is clear, and the sun shines full upon ment to explore the northern regions. these mountains, the prospect is incon. The last expedition for that particular ceivably brilliant. They sometimes put purpose was on the 4th June, 1773, when on the bright glow of the evening rays the Hon. Commodore Phipps (the eldest of the setting sun, when refected upon son of Lord Mulgrave) in his Majesty's glass, at his going down ; sometimes ship Racehorse, 350 tons burthen, ac they appear of a bright blue, like sapcompanied by Captain Lutwych, in the phire, and sometimes like the variable Carcass sloop, burthen 300 tons, sailed colours of a prism, exceeding in lustre on a voyage for making discoveries to the richest gems in the world, disposed wards the North Pole, and to find out a in shapes wonderful to behold, all glit. north-east passage into the Pacific tering with a lustre that dazzles the Ocean.

eyc, and fills the air with astonishing I do myself the pleasure of sending brightness. you a few extracts from an account of The ice-bird at Spitsbergen is a very that voyage, whereby it does not ap- beautiful little bird, but very rare ; be pear that any thing particular happened is in size and shape like a turtle-dove, till they arrived at Spitsbergen. Ontheir but his plumage, when the sun shines way thither, they remarked - That upon him, is of a bright yellow, like the the vicissitudes of heat and cold are golden ring in the peacock's tail, and more frequent in the northern, than in almost dazzles the eye to look upon it. the more southerly latitudes, and that Most of the birds are water-fowl, and it often changes from temperate to ex seek their food in the sea. The other treme cold, and that very suddenly. inhabitants of this forlorn country are Sometimes it was with difficulty they white bears, deer, and foxes; how these could keep any course, for the drifts of creatures can subsist in the winter, when ice came so thíck, as to whirl the ships the whole earth is covered with snow, Europ: Mag. Vol. LXXIII. Mar. 1818.

2 F



and the sea locked up in ice, is hardly smells like muscles. It is an aquatic,
to be conceived. it has been said, and rises in height in proportion to the
iodeed, that when the ocean is all frozen depth of water in which it is found.
over, and no sustenance to be procured There are other plants and herbs, but
in this country, they travel southerly to these are the chief of flowers, the
the warmer climates, where food proper white poppy seems the principal.
for them abounds in the immense forests They found no springs of fresh water
of the northern continent; but whoever in Spitsbergen ; but in the valleys, be-
considers the vast distance between tween the mountains, are mavy little
Spitsbergen, and the nearest parts of rills caused by the rain and melting of
the northern continent, will be as much the snow in summer; and from these
at a loss to account for the subsistence rills the ships are supplied. Some are
of these creatures in their journey, as of opioion ihat this water is unwhole-
in the desolate region where they un some, but they are more pice than wise,
doubtedly remain. The bear is by far for the whaling people have drank it for
the best accommodated to the climate ages, and have found no ill effects from
of which he is an inhabitant; he is the use of it. Ice taken up iu the mid-
equally at home on land and water, and dle of these seas, and thawed, yields
hunts diligently for his prey in both ; also good fresh water. The air about
in summer he tinds plenty of food from Spitsbergen is never free from icicles.
the refuse of the whales, sea-borses, and if you look through the sun-beans
seals, which is thrown into the sea by transversely as you sit in the shade, or
the whalers, and cover the shores during where you see the rays confined in a
the time of wbaling ; but the question body, instead of dark motes, as are seen
will still recur, how the race of them here, you see myriads of shining parti-
subsisted before the whale.fishery bad cles, that sparkle like diamonds; and,
existence, and before men found the when the sun shines hot, as it some-
way to this inbospitable sbore. Dis times does, so as to melt the tar in the
quisitions of this kind, as they are be seams of the ships, wbeu they lie shel-
yond the reach of human comprehen. tered from the wind, these shining
sion, serve only to raise our admiration atoms seem to melt away, and descend
of that omnipotent Being to whom vo like dew.
thing is impossible.

There is no difference between night
But the inost wonderful thing of all and day in the appearance of the atmo.
is, how the deer can survive an eight sphere about Spitsbergen, one being as
months' famine. Like ours, they feed light as the ocher, only when the sun is
upon nothing that can be perceived, but to the north ward, you may look at him
the vegetables which the earth sponta. with the naked eye, as at the moon,
neously produces; and, yet, for eight without dazzling. The fogs here come
months in the year, tbe earth at Spits. on so suddenly, that from bright sun.
bergen produces neither plant, herb, shine, you are presently involved in such
shrub, or blade of any kind of grass obscurity, that you can hardly see from
whatever. The means of their subsis one end of the ship to the other.
tence must, therefore, remain among After experiencing many difficulties,
the secrets of nature, Amphibious they did not proceed further than 80%
creatures abound the most about the 47' north latitude, where both ships
sounds and bays of Spitsbergen, and they were completely enclosed in the ice, on
seem best adapted to endure the cli- every side, as far as they could see. It

was now thought adviseable to make The plants that are most conmon in one desperate attempt to extricate the Spitsbergen are, scurvy.grass and crows. ships, by cutting a channel to the westfoot; there are, besides, small house. ward into the open sea. Their ice-saws, Jeak, and a plant with aloe-leaves, an axes, sledges, poles, and the whole herb like stone.crop, some small snake. group of sea tools, were, in an instant, weed, mouse-ear, wood-strawberry, pe- all employed in facilitating the work ; riwinkle, and an herb peculiar to the but, after cutting through blocks of country, which they call the rock.plant. splid ice, from eight to fifteeu feet deep, The leaves of this plant are in shape and coming to others of many fathoms, like a mao's tongue, about six feet long, that exceeded the powers of man to of a dull yellow colour; the stalk is separate, that was laid aside, as a hoperound and smooth, and of the same co less project; and another, more pro. lour with the leaf; it rises tapering, and mising, though not less laborious,

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