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will supply us with this fact in sup. A young man may bave reapod suffiport of such a conclusion, that we cient benefit from an excellent edy. generally see a young man who has cation bestowed apop him by his pa. Thrown off all regard for parental ad. rent's liberal kindness, to be able to monition, plunging deeper and deep- acquit himself with credit in the assoer into the guilty excesses of a .viciations of men, and to acquire a eer. cious inclination, and setting at nought tain degree of repute for his intellectual every authority, both human and di- acquirements; be may pride bimself vine.
upon the high opinion which he supTo this commandment is attached a poses others have formed of his abicondition of providential mercy- lities, and he may feel himself comLeogth of days is promised to the pious paratively superior to his compeers ja observer of it.
any situation or employ in wbich he Long life, G, can then only be may be placed-he may have a certain considered as a blessing when it is off-hand facility of conversation and accompanied with a consciousness of may even render bimself necessary to baving fulfilled our religious and mo those wbo, are not so well informed, ral duties. Without this it becomes or have not possessed the same opporo a curse, for then we are placed un tunities as bimself-he may carry. an der the judicial ban of ihe divine exterior of self-satisfaction, and may, wrath, and we increase our guilt with affect to consider bis future prospects out one efficacious interval of repentant of advancement as dependent upon his reflection. It is no contravention, own powers of exertion ;-but, G, therefore, of this command, that the if he has to accuse himself of filial dis. vicious may live longer than the vir. obedience-if he has augmented the tuous member of society ; for the lin- burdens of a parent struggling with the gering remnant of a life passed in the sorrows of life-if he has heaped upon, gratification of vice, is that portion of a that parent's calamity the additional miserable existence which by its pains grief of a child's ingratitudeif he has and privations involves the self-con- abused the indulgence, rejected the ad. demned sufferer in the most hopeless monitions, scorned the reproofs, and anticipation of a dreaded hereafler : laughed at the anxieties of him who . a state of foreboding wretchedness, cherished such an ingrate in his infancy, which do prosperity, however exten watched over his youth, nurtured his sive in possession, has power to pre- miod, gave him every elementary boon veot or alleviate.
of education, opened to him an access to If, therefore, you should meet, among progressive attainments, and, in order to the wealthiest or the gayest of this lit him for some eligible station, has world, persons who have broken through · trespassed upon his own pecuniary re.. every amiable qualification which serves sources, even to the consequent im.. to support the union between the pa- ' plication of his convenience—that sou reot and the child, you will grossly de cannot feel himself justified, either in ceive yonrself if you suppose them to be his own heart, or in the sight of Goo. the happiest ; it is as impossible for And when his insensibility to-filial ohli. them to be truly happy, as it is for gation becomes kuown to the commu. the body to be in health joder the nity in which he moves, neither bis influence of any organic disease;-—and talents, nor his extrinsic acceptability by a more intimate knowledge of their of general intelligence, will ensure bim real coudition, you will find more cause the respect or afectionate esteem. of for pity tbau for envy.
society. And I will take upon me to It has ever been my opinion, G assert, that to be beloved by the that retribution begips in this lifo ; and for one virtuous qualification of the I am well persuaded, that it may be heart, is a more honourable testimony traced throughout many of the adverse to our character, than to be praised by circumstances of our personal or re the wise for a thousand intelligent prolative situation ;--so that no man can perties of the understanding. If it be wilfully violate one of the Divine laws, said of a young man, that he is a good and persist in the violation, without son, an obedient considerate child, the experiencing, sooner or later, in the grateful and affectionate comforter of forfeiture of some part of his worldly a father's declining years,-more is said case, this retributive progress of divine to bis bonour thau if he were declared judgment.
to be the greatest genius aud the pro.
foundest scholar of his age ;-for by the Gon, Prosuryiss, govsãou árulis former expression of public opinion, he and doubtless he is rightly so classed, is instantly introduced into the world, since he who contemns the law of God with the assent of the estimable part of by opposing the authority of his parents it, as a youth of mwral worth ; as one is guilty of ingratitude to boih-for who can be depended upon, and who de- those whom we love, we delight to obey serves encouragement for his goodness -aod there cannot be a stronger eviof beart ; tbe friends of virtue will take dence of hatred than the disobedience him by the hand, and the votaries of of jugratitude. vice will pay him tbe homage of onwil. But here, perhaps, you will stop me Jing acquiescence in his advancement. with alarm, and will ask me, “ How I Ja shori, G-, such is the universal can apply all this as advice to you ?” feeling in behalf of filial affection, that I hope, G-, and it is a hope wbich is good and bad mēo alike insist upon it as recorded in my morning and evening indispensable in a child at every age- petitions to the Throne of Grace in Heathens and Christians are equally your behalf, that it never will apply to agreed upon it-nay. indeed, I think it you—but I am aware, that when a may be said. that the former had much young man becomes the arbiter of his more exalted notions of this domestic own condition in life, and this convirtue than what the latter seem to dition withdraws him from the per have displayed in lbeir conderct. This, sonal intercourse, and necessarily, there however, certainly must nol ve ascribed fore, from the relative influcoce of a to my defect in Christianity, which has parent, that he is apt to allow other mblimed the morality of ihe Heathen views of things to take possession of his into a spiritual obligation, and has mind, and is by degrees seduced into the made it a debt which we not only owe adoption of sentiments which he choosos to our fellow-creature, but to the Divi- to try by the modern test of their nity Himselt :-No! it may rather be acceptability with his associates, rather regarded as a consequence of the present than by the old-fasbioned standard of state of civilization, by which we see that morality which had been industhe human mind brought into a state of triously inculcated into his heart, while, forwardness thatgives to the faculties and in the docility of his early days, it manners of the youth of our day a certain was open to parental dictate ooly. precocity which leads to a self-reference lo such a case, words lose their pris. that shews itself more frequently in a tine meaning, and are perverted into a disputatious than an obedient disposi- sense quite opposite to that which be tion : - and when we are in the habit of had been once taught to attach to hearing the dogmata of unbelief upheld them-he will hear them laughed at and argued for by stripling infidels, we by his gay companions ; and the former cannot wonder, if while the doctrines plastic nature of his heart, which bent of our Faith are thus insulted, that its it in willing attention to the will of precepts should first be questioned and a parent, he will find to be the subthen disregarded.
ject of their derision and reproach. I bare said, that there inore spi: Authoritative precept of any kind be rituality in Christian morals than could will be told is nothing but * possiblý subsist in those of the Hea. des potism"- and if he falls into any thens; yet it is worthy of remark, tbat breach of moral decorum, the comamong these the Romans attached a plaint on the part of a parent will be degree of impiety to the disobedience called " illiberal”-" Pohl" they will of the child towards the parent; and tell him, “the old fellow has forgotton by the word impius branded the cri- that he was
once young himself.” minality with an infamy which was sure And as to all restraint or conformity to meet with universal execratiou. to such precept, be will learn, that Tbis word, which in this instance they “ Obedience is abject submission, and applied as unnatural and disobedient, surely he is old enough to be his own was also, as you well know, synonymous master !”-(It will be well, G-, if he with wicked and cruel. It would seeni, be wise enough.)– Now these maxims then, ibat even among Heathens a dis.. continually repeated in bis ears, and obedicut child was looked upon as a urged upon his adoption by the prosmonster ; aod the Apostle of the Gen- pect of some desired gratification; to tiles, when writing to the Roma con secure wbich be nust step aside from Forte, ranks bim among tbc baters of the former course of bio prudential
Lellers from a Father to his Son in a Public Office. Letter IX. [Jan. reserve, is very likely to carry him est destination of our being, and not away with the tide of uuwarrantable to regard, is to be negligent of our pursuits and improvident engagements, own happiest interests and those of so. and to wean hiin by degrees from all ciety. Religion, my dear Gdependence upon, or concern for, the teaches us, that we are not only the monitory opinion and counsel of those mortal inhabitants of this world, but who would fain prevail upon him to also the immortal expectants of the keep in the good old paths of virtuous next; and therefore we have not only consideration in which they brought to calculate for our advancement in
the one, but to provide and prepare I know, G—, that you have suffi- for our condition in the other. "If here cient knowledge of the folly of such we would be prosperous, hereafter we procedure, not to pronounce yourself may be blest - whoever, therefore, neghastily the advocate of its propriety ; lects and despises the obligations of but if this knowledge be not accom his Christian character, or adinits them panied with a proportionate degree of only as matters of secondary concern, resolution, you will be imperceptibly and to be submitted to his temporal drawn wilhin its vortex. I would, views, will sooner or later discover his therefore, spare you the violent strug
What this error is, it shall be gles which must ensue should you find the purpose of my next letter to point yourself likely to be so dangerously out to you :-in that I shall take up the implicated ; and while you are forming subject as it peculiarly applies to young to yourself friends (as the courtesy men conditioned as you are :--and I of the world calls thens) among the bespeak your patient cousideration of less thinking part of the community, it, upon this ground, that what we can I have gone thus far in my present alone depend upon at our death, it is subject, that your application of it, indispensable we should cultivate during te tibi reddat amicum. · And believe our life :--and none but the most fool
dear G-, a young man is never ish part of mankind would stake upon more his own friend than while he the possession of a moment the hopes retains the friendship of the good and of eternity. This moment is as unwise. That he should do so, you will certain in youth as it is in age, and admit may be the anxiety of a parent; the risk therefore is equally greatand this anxiety will plead in favour of for one of those moments of which our my present letter, and substantiate the years consist, must be the last; and claim of its subject to your naturer when this shall be, neither you nor Teflection ;--for be assured of this, I can take upon ourselves to deternot a single individual who has any mine. One thing we know, that while title to either of these qualities will be we live we have duties to perform, found among the defenders of unfilial both towards God and man, and those neglect, either as it refers to the advice which we owe to him must not be of a parent or to that atiention which thrown aside for the fulfilment of those is due to the parent himself. But there which we owe to our fellow-creatures js another reason for ny present ad. -so that in whatever station of life dress to you: I have io iny former we may be placed, whether we be letters written to you merely as an , young or old, religion demands froin employè, and in reference to the value us an essential portion of our concero. of your time as it respects your offi- -In my next, therefore, I shall encial prospects and your hopes of rising deavour to convince you, that he who in the world ; and a young man who calls himself a Christian should prove enters it without the help of pecu- himself to be so, and that no condition niary resources, and the iofluence of of life is exempt from the obligation. interest, ought to consider Time as -- What I have written in this letter his banker, and ludustry as bis patron. I have designed as introductory of this
There are, however, two other sub topic, and as preparing the way for jects of importance to which it is my more solemn reflections than what the duty to call your attention, as they former part of my communications affect your personal and relative respon contain. sibilities-You are, G, a Christian Do not conclude that I am about and a citizen-both relations compre to present you with a sermon, this hend privileges and duties which dot I leave to the ecclesiastic; I would to know, is to be ignorant of the high- only strengthen the conviction which
I hope I have formed in your mind, which will clearly show the source of that so long as you have a father upon the variety of its periods. earth, you are bound to reverence his The arrangement of the Jewish Calenadvice, as the result of maturer judg- dar is certainly a surprising phenomement and greater experience tban what non ; it has held out the test of ages, a youtb at your age can possibly pos. to prove its correctness ; while every sess ; and that it is incumbeat upon other system has either necessarily been you to keep in mind, that you have subjected to amendment, as the Julian á Father in Heaven, who, as your Crea- period by Pope Gregory the Xllllh ; tor and Preserver, ought to bave a con remains faulty this day, as the stant place in your thoughts, as He, Mahometan and indian : this wonder. whom to know, is the profoundest wis ful arrangeinent, which correctly keeps dom, and to obey, is the chief hap the regular lunar festivals concordant pioess, aod ought to be the constant with the solar period, during so great parpose of our life. And while the pre a length of time, is by the Jews firmly eepts of the former are given with a believed to have been of Divine origin, just reference to that obedience which and to have beeu handed down by Moses you owe to the latter, I would wil. to the Sanhedrim; who kept it as a sacred singly trust, that the affection which mystery until after the destruction of prompts them will be accepted with Jerusalem : when the regular official that cordial acquiescence which your promulgation of the appearance of the good sense induces me to expect as new moon, from the report of the dele. the porest proof of it, and as substan. gated inspectors delivered to the synod, tiating my most consolatory satisfac- ceased, and the system of calculation tion.
W. was published for the use of the na
tion, now dispersed in various distant
countries. To the Editor of the European Magazine.
The Jewish year consists of 12 lupar SIR,
months, which if divided into strict We following question having more equal divisions would yield an allotpublic, in various ways, it may possibly parts of an hour to each month, and prove amusing to your readers to see it altogether form a lunar year of 35+ considered in the following form : if days 5 hours and 45 parts.' This, howyou think it not unworthy your atten ever, is 10 days 21 hours on your parts less tion, you will give it a place in your than the amount of the Jewish solar iostructive aŭd entertaining Magazine. year. Your's, &c.
J. V. But as, in the arrangement of a CaFenchurch-buildings, Jan. 9, 1818. lendar for the common purposes of life,
these fractional parts cannot be atQUESTION.
tended to, it was deemed expedient to WHY does the Easter of 1818 oc form an alteroation of 29 days to one cur a month earlier than the Jewish month and 30 days to another, making Passover, when most commonly these together 59 days, the amount of twice festivals are held in the same week 29 days 12 hours ; the remaining frac-and which indeed seems to be the pro- tional parts are likewise disposed of per period ?
by being carried to account, and form. REPLY
ing a future addition. From the accuBecause the different calculations mulation of these fractions, as well as wbich guide the arrangement of the on account of the necessity of detersolar year, as followed in the formation mining on the fitness of certain days of the Christian Calendar, are opposed for peculiar holy days, a systematic to those of the lupar year, as adopted by arrangoment is made out for the regulathe Jews, this must naturally produce tion of each annual order of festivals, discrepancies in different stages of the and the year is accordingly fixed to diferent cycles, however they may be contain either 353, 354, or 355 days made to accord in the end.
each, and the enibolismal year either la order to make this clearly under of 383, 381, or 385 days : a month of stood, it will be necessary to explain 30 days being in such years intercathe nature of the Jewish Calendar, and lated. tbed to compare with it the results of This intercalation of a month occaIbe Christian calculation for Easter; sionally, to make up the deficit of a
of the year.
Janar year with the solar, was obliged to according to either node of reckonbe attended to, on account of the cele. ivg. bration of the feast of the Passo ver ; This important test of the agreement which is commanded to be held in the of the Jewish lunar y car with the mooth of Abib, that is the spring, in Christian or astronomical solar gear, order to commemorate the exact period is the result of the express law laid when the children of Israel were delic down in holy writ for the observance of vered, and took their departure from the Passover in the month of Abib, Egypt; and it is accordingly appoiuted or the Spring. Hence the regulation to be celebrated on the 15th day of the of the Jewish Calendar has ever been, lunar month called Nissan, being the day so to manage the intercalation, that of the full moon.
the 16th day of the month of Nissan From the known deficiency of near shall always occur after the vernal equi11 days of the lunar year to that of nox. Tbus the order of the embothe solar, it is evident, i hat unless some lismal gear can be very clearly underregulation was instituted to prevent it, blood : for as in the course of 3 years this festival, celebrated in the lunar the deficiency of the lugar year com. montb Nissan, would every year occur pared to the solar will prove to be at a different season, and cvery year 32 days 15 hours per tot parts, a mooth anticipating 11 days would, instead of of 30 days must be added to that year, its proper appointment in Abib, or the to briogʻthe account nearly equal, or Spring, gradually go through all the the Passover would occur a month beother seasons : an instance of such a fore the vernal scason, contrary to the consequence is to be observed in the express law on that head. Mahometan feast of the Bniram, which The remaining, 2 days 15 hours et long regularly runs through all the seasons parts are carried on to the account
of the following years, till their accuIn order, therefore, to obyiate this mulation make an intercalation ncces. difficulty, and to equalise the lunar with sary at the end of the 6th year, and the solar year, a period of 19 years the great remainder at that period again was calculated, and called the Lunar occasion an additional mionth to be Cycle; and as the deficiency of that required at the end of the 8th year ; period, compared with 19 solar
and so on in order. amounted to 206 days 6 hours to parts, The Cbristian Calendar is founded which make 7 luvar months, that time on the solar year; and the period set. was divided and dispersed among the tled by Julius Cæsar, called Julian, 19 lunar years, and a mooth of 30 days consisted of 365 days 6 hours; which, was intercalated in tbe order of the however, eventually proved a mis. 8d, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th taken arrangement, and was corrected year of each cycle ; so that at the by Pope Gregory the XIIIth in 1582, ond of this period the number of days who cast off 10 days from the then both of the solar and lunar period are date, and justituted an amended cal. found to be equal, and the situation culation of 365 days 5 hours and 49 of the moon in the heavens to return minutes. This account, however, diftu the same point.
fers from the Jewish calculation of The cycle of the sun is 28 years,
Rab Ada, who makes the average length at the end of which the days of the of the solar year to be 365 days 5 hours months return to the same days of the 55 minutes and oto parts of an hour. week, and the sun to the same point In early times, the regulation of the of the heavens. It therefore follows, Christian Calendar and the fixing of the that as the cycle of the moon is 19 period of Easter was long a matter of years, and that of the sun 28, that in doubt and difficulty. The commemora. 532 years both sun and moon return tion of the resurrection, which is the to the same point in the heavens with primary object of that festival, ought respect to each other : and this is called in strictoess to be held at the same the Dionysian Cycle.
period of the year at which it is said By this means, at the end of each to bave occurred; and as this was dar. Janar cycle of 19 years, the solar and ing the Paschal week of the Jews, the Juoar years are brought to be nearly coincidenee of these feasts seenus ne equal in point of time, and the num cessary ; but the lunar calculation ber of days of this cycle will prove which guides the Jewish year being to be 6930 days 16 hours 32 minutes, quite different from the solar period