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is given an account of an exhibition derived from the British words Crum, by two Isawie, * who do not appear or Crom, bending, and llech, a stone to have been adepts in the art of fas- that is flat and bends downwards. cinating these serpents ; for I have fre. Their original destination has not been quently seen them inanage and charm clearly known; some antiquaries bay. the Bouska much more adroitly than ing supposed them to have served as those who exhibited at Rabat before altars for sacrifices; and others to have Riley, although its bite is inore deadly, been erected as sepulchral memorials. and its strength considerably greater, of these several are dispersed through than that of the El Effah !

I am, Sir,

Though the subterraneous temple
Your most obedient servant, cannot be said to be exclusively pe-
JAMES G. JACKSON. culiar to this country, yet the sister

kingdom cannot boast of any one so .

large, or in such perfect preservation, IRISH EXTRACTS.

as the one at New Grange, near Slane and Drogheda. (Described p. 34.)

On the lands of Ballymacscanlan, in the county of Louth, is a large rath,

and on it a great stone, having in the CUSTOMS, CHARACTER, AND MANNERS

centre a cross with four smaller ones. About thirty yards from the rath is

an entrance into a cave running under (Continued from puge 35 )

the rath, but it has not been explored.

Tradition calls this the tomb of Mac

He rude pillars, and cromlechs, At the same place are three great

erected by the ancient inhabit. pillars supporting a pouderous impost : ants of our island, most probably for ihis was the penisile monument of the religious purposes ; of the same date Nortberns. It is called the Giant's are many of the tumuli and carneds Load, being brought altogether from a dispersed over the face of the country. neighbouring mountain by a giant, Many, because some are evidently mi according to tradilion. litary works of a much more modern At Templebrien, in the county of date. The coustruction of stone tem Cork, is a circle of nine upright stones ples and cromle, he has gencrally been placed round a tenth in the centre, and attributed to the Druids, but without about twenty feet to the north-west any cerlainty of proof The former stands an eleventh. consisted of one or inore circles of rude At Roscarbury are some of the stones set upright, surrounded by a

Druids' caves ; and there St. Fachditch and rampart, the first being dug nao very early founded a see and liteon the inside of the circle, by which rary seminary. peculiarity they are distinguished froin At Lismore is a Druid Cave, and military works, where the dilches are there was also a celebrated school and usually dug on the outside, as a guard cathedral; and near the latter was the against the enemy.

See Abury in residence of an anchoret from the reWiltshire. Stonehenge, a work of motest time. He was the genuine sucgreater art, and consequently of a much cessor of the Draidic Semnotheist. later era.

Not far from the church at Temple. Next to the stone temples conie that brien is a slone circle with a central species of monument called Cromlech, pyrainidal pillar, and not far distant

a third.

A few paces from the last are very correct resemblances : they are there is an artificial cave, probably, said to be very numerous on and about the

says Smith, a sepulchre, or the retreat south foot of the Atas mountains and bor.

of the Priest, or Druid, who belonged der of the Desert, where these were caught

to the Pagan temple. when yoring, and where they often attack both men and beasts,"

At Skirk, in the Queen's County, Vide Rilru's Shipwreck and Captivity

is a Pagan fane. It is situated on a in the Grent Desert, page 550).

loriy bill, which has an extensive range * Disciples of Seedy ben Isa, whose sinc. for the eye, as Ci Erk contracted into wary is at Fas, and who possess the art of

Skirk intiinales. Jis area is surrounded fascinating serpents.

with a deep intrenchmucut, and within is

a pyramidal stone six feet high, with This is twenty-two feet by twelve, and the stumps of others that made the lighted by three windows, one at the temple. Towards the east is a crom east and two at the south ; the arches lech, and to the north an high keep, or pointed, and decorations Gothic: these, exploratory fort ; and contiguous is the with the tower, are later additions. parochial churcb.

The roof is of stone, and carried up In the early ages of Christianity like a wedge. The stones which cover churches were not common; the bishop it are not large, but so well bedded and clergy resided together in cathedra, in mortar, that after many centuries which was the episcopal see, and where this roof transmits neither light por afterwards a cathedral church was con water. There is a well in an octagon structed. This was founded on the ruins enclosure, with some emblematic fresco of some celebrated Pagan temple; as paintings, and a bath supplied from the that of Kildare in a Druidic grove, well. The cryptical sepulchres and orathat of Derry is the same, those of tories in Gregory of Tours and Bede Roscarbury and Lismore near Druidic are the exact archetypes of ours. These caves, and Clogbar in a Druidic stone were secured from vulgar approach circle. - The case was the same with by doors and chancels ; the supplicant every ancient see in Ireland.

was permitted only to put his head into Stone roofed churches of the ancient a litile window, and there invoke the frisb. Stone inclosures or closes, in the saint, and take with his fingers a pinch East, called Mandræ. The word ori. of the sacred dust. gioally imported a sheep fold, and was Near the church of Portaferry stands applied to those monastic buildings a chapel; a coarse building of an odd wberejo the arcbimandrite presided contrivance, being a room thirty-seven over his disciples, as the shepherd super feet in length, sixteen broad, and twenty intended the flock in his fuld. There high, covered with a coved arch stone, are many of these mandræ dispersed so close and firmly cemented, that it over this kingdom; one remarkable does not appear to admit any water, is Dun Aengus. This is in the greater Adjoining is a similar structure, divided isle of Arran, on the coast of Galway, into two apartments. situated on a high cliff over the sea, There is a very ancient overground and is a circle of monstrous stone with crypt in an island of the Shannon, not out cement.

far from Killaloe. - Near the cathedral of Killaloe is a Malachy O'Morgair, about 1135, stone-roofed chapel ; in it were pro. erected at the Abbey of Saul two stonebably deposited the relics of St. Flan. roofed crypts, seven feet high, six long, nan, though afterwards transferred to and two and a half wide, with a small the cathedral. The first structures of window at one side. tbe Ostmea in Ireland, and the first But that of the greatest magnitude buildings with mortar, were stone and best architecture is Cormac's Cbaroofed chapels for relics.

pel, at Cashel. This is certainly one of The church of St. Doulach, situated ihe most curious fabricsin the kingdom. about foor wiles to the east of Dublin, It is a regular church, divided into nave on the road to Malahide, is a curious and choir, the latter narrowing in structure. It is forty-eight feet long, breadth, and separated from the forby eighteen wide. There is a double mer by a wide arch. Under the altar, roof, the external which covers the tradition places the bones of St. Cor. building, and thal which divides the mac. upper from the lower story. You enter STONE Crosses. We have in this this crypt through a small door to the island an infinite variety of crosses, soutb. Just as you enter, the tomb many curious and well-preserved speof St. Doulach presents itself. The cimens, simple in design, yet rich in tomb projects so far into the room, sculpture. Two perfect and one imthat, together with the stairs of the 'pe ect at Monasterboice tower and legs of the arches, it can Two fragments at Kells(see Vol. LXXII. contain but few people. It seems de p. 33), and at Castle Kyran jo that signed for no other use but the separate neighbourhood The shaft of a cross admission of those who came to make at Old Kilcullen, in the county of Kiltheir prayers and offerings to the saint. dare : the nine figures in three comFrom this room, by stopping, you pass parlmcuts similarly dressed are ecclea barro# way, and enter the chapel. siastics. Another ornameoted cross at

P. 34).

Clopmacnois. This stone is fifteen feet other meaning than that now given : high, and stands near the western door he was fully competent to deliver a of Teampull Mac Diarmuid. Over the simple fact, nor did the objects he was northern door of Temple Mac Dermot, describing require the microscopic eye which is grand, are three figures: the of some modern Irish antiquarians. middle St. Patrick in pontificalibus ; Let it now be remarked, that the opi. the other two St. Francis and St. Domi- nion of every author who has spoken of pic, in the habit of their order. It is our round towers for the space of five difficult to fix the period of their con- hundred and forty-two years, that is, struction; but I should imagine them from Cambrensis to Molyneux, is unicoeval with the round tower, and the form in pronouncing them Ostman or work of the ninth or tenth century. Danish works.

Round Towers. Giraldus Cambren- : A very ingenious friend of mine resis, about 1185, is the first who men marks, that almost all our round towers tions our round towers. He calls them are divided into stories of different " Ecclesiastical towers, which in a style heights: the foors supported in some of fashion peculiar to the country, are by projecting stoves, in others by narrow, high, and round.”

Though joints put in the wall or building, this passage has been frequently quoted, and in many they were placed upon yet no one has observed, that from its rests. The last are from four to six grammatical construction we may fairly inches, carried round and taken off infer tbat Cambrensis saw the Irish in the thickness of the wall in the story the very act of building these towers. above. And be very probably conIt was a singular and striking spectacle jectures, these rests do not diminish for our author to bebold so great a the thickness of the wall as they asceud, number of them dispersed over the because then it would not have been country; all of the same figure and sufficiently strong to bear stones or fashion, contiguous to wooden churches, support the conical cap. They seem, and supporting bells to summon the therefore, to be swellings in the wall, vicinity to religious duties, or to warn which rather add to its thickness upthem of approaching danger. Surely it wards ; aud this is confirmed by the must be esteemed a great perversion round tower at Lusk, whose wall is of common sense to extract from Cam. three feet thick at top. brensis's plain account in words any

....3 ditto

Feet. Feet. Cashel, Tipperary -.5 stories, with holes for joists

54 4 0110 Tertagh, Kilkenny -...ditto, and one rest

112 48 3 10 0 Kilcullen, Kildare


401 44 3 6 7 0 Kildare

.6 ditto, and projecting stones to each 1301 54 3 6 6 0 Monasterhoice, Louth..ditto

U10 51 3 6 6 0 Oughterard, Kildare ..5 ditto ditto.

25 48 3 0 8 0 Teghadow, ditto ....6 ditto ditto, and resis

71 38 380 6 Timahve, Queen's Co. 7 ditto ditto dilto

35) 53 4 414 0


The door of Cashel Tower faces the Glendalough, sce Vol. LXXI. P. rc3.) south east; those of Kildare and Kil. Ledwich. kepuy the south ; and the others vary.

The ruins of ronnd towers will be Keoith Tower stands 124 feet, Drum- found in the following places :- Aghahoe 20, Downpatrick 48. Kildare 90, doe, Kerry : Ball, Mayo ; Ballygaddy, Kilkenny 8, and Drumiskin 90, froni Galway; River Moy, Sligo ard Mayo their respective churches.

Cashel, l'ipperary ; Clondalkin, DubArdmore, Castle Dermot, Cloyne, lin ; Clones, Monaghan ; Cloynė, and other tuwers, were formerly, and Cork: Devenish, in Lough Erne, Fer. are at present, used for belfries. The managh; Donaghmore, Meath : Tor. round tower belfry approximates to tragli. Kilkenny : Kildare ; Killala, the church called ilic Ivy Church, at Mayo; Lusk, Dublin; Monasterboice, Glendalough. (For a description of Louth; Newcastle, Mayo; Kilcullen,


Kildare ; Ougbterard, Kildare ; Rose sacred fires in honour of the pagar crea, Tipperary; Swords, Dublin; Teghe deities.-Weld. adoe, ditto ; Timaboe, Queen's County; Coeval with the stone temple and the Turlogb, Sligo; Drumboe ; _Down- cromlech, are the Carnedds and the patrick, Dowo í Kilkenny ; Drumis- tumulus or barrow; the former sig ken; Ardmore; Castle Dermot, Kil- nifying in the British language a heap dare ; Monaghan, Mayo ; Kenith ; of stones, the latter in the Latin tongue Glendalough, Wicklow; and others a heap or mound; the former piled up mentioned in different parts of this with stone, the latter with earth, each work.

material being used indiscriminately, Round Towers. I am inclined to according to the nature of the soil sura think that these singular buildings were rounding the place destined for the erected about the same time as the stone- sepulchral memorial. From the anroof chapels, and that they were the cient relics found in them, and depowork of the Irish. While some authors sited in them, there is little doubt of have attributed these buildings to the their being the places of interment of Irisb, and others to the Picts and Danes; the most ancient inhabitants of our a learned antiquary, General Vallancey, island. bas sougbt out for them; and supposes

(To be continued.) them to have been erected by the Old Irish, or Aire Coti, the primitive inha. bitants of Britain, who after the reli ESSAY ON RETIREMENT. gion of the Brabims worshipped fire. In honourable ease, and rural bliss, T'hese towers differ in their respective The remnant of his days he softly past, heights and dimensions, as well as in the Nor found they lagg’d too slow, nor flew too number of their floors, and in the height of the door from the ground. They vary He made his wish with his estate comply; also in their distances from the church, Joyful to live; yet not afraid to die. but most usually bear a north-western

PRIOR. position. They were divided into dif- TVHOUGH the poets bave spoken of ferent stories, in which I saw evident it with a kind of enthusiastic rapmarks in the projecting stone work, ture, yet few men are formed for ahsoleft for the support of the floor. Each lute solitude : and such is the coustrucof these floors had one window to light tion of human nature, that torpor and it, and the upper room bad invariably lassitude will invade the sublimest gefour. If I am allowed to bazard a con- nius, if left to all the loneliness of a sejecture about these singular buildings, 'questered retreat. To render solitude I should suppose them to have been tolerable, even to great nrinds, it must erected about the ninth century, and be qualified with several necessary adnearly at the same time with the stone. juncts. To retire from the world with roof chapels, at which period Ireland a proper motive, the motive of selfabounded with holy men, and was much recollection, and dedication to the Suresorted to as a seminary for learning prenie, and in proper time, before age and religion.-Sir Richard Colt Hoare. had benumbed the faculties, and abso.

The original destination of the round lutely rivetted the sentiments, is both towers, notwithstanding the laboured useful and becoming, productive of the and ingenious researches of the nume- best consequences, and agreeable to the rous antiquarians who have directed best reason. But lest disappointment their attention to the subject, is still should meet and distress men in this last involved in considerable obscurity. It scene, it is necessary tbat they be suphas been severally supposed that they plied with such means as will conduce to were employed as beacons, or watch-render retirement satisfactory. Ere the towers ; as places of punishment for resolution be resolutely fixed, a short those wbo bad sinned against the ordi- time should be assigned to probation ; nance of the early Christian church; in which, if they perceive themselves ill as the habitation of anchorile monks; qualified for the privacy of perfect abas stations from which the priest, by his straction, tbey will do well to retain voice, or the sound of some instrument, some proper connexion with business summoned the people to prayer; or, and life. If otherwise, let them pursue wbich is the opinion most generally their resolution with activity, and apply received, as belfries. According to to every proper method of improves Geacral Vallaneey, for the display of meat.

As we suppose the retirement of life Ye children of the world! break the and the service of God the grand motive shackles of disingenuous slavery ; learn of retirement; in such a case, these im. the real estimate of human life; consiportant concerns must be imagined to der the importance of eternity : be occupy the small portion of time, to wise; relreal with propriety, and over which we may add the due attendance to your most frequented dwelling engrave proper and serious reading and medita- the solemo demonstration, so well atted tion. But the mind will not bear a con to close the reflections, What shall a tinued and intense application to these ; man be profited, if he gain the whole especially a mind unaccustomed to deep world, and lose his own soul ? Or what speculations. There is need, therefore, shall a man give in exchange for his of some olher attachments, which may soul!

T.H. amuse and give motion to the tardier sort of time. Among these, nothing seems to promise the retired greater to the Editor of the European Magazine, contentment than the pleasing amuse

SIR, ment of the garden, and the cultiva.

N your interesting Magazine for tion of his little fields. This is as rational as it is instructive. Health from Mr. W. Tate, prescribing a mode will be invigorated by the exercise, of calculating interest at a given or any piety will be exalted by the reflections

rate, as used at the “ Finishing Aca which every herb, fruit, and flower will demy, Cateaton-street."—With all due inculcate. "A taste for the delights of deference to that Gentleman's talents, the garden should be brought into re I cannot see wherein he means it to tirement with every man, or, by all supersede the old, and, as I believe, means, be learned by him there. Happy very common mode of calculation. the man in solitude who hath some

Complex arithmetic is, doubtless, a knowledge, however superficial, of the

very pleasing study for the scholar 5 politer arts, especially music and draw

but the man of business, particularly ing: music in particular will dissipate the foreigo mercbant, who has so mulmany a drowsy idea, and calm many

tifarious a business to attead to, all a desultory thought. Drawing or

of which, more or less, consists in cal. painting will innocently and gracefully culation, requires a simple and easy employ many a vacant moment. And plat, which can always be uppermost easily as a small knowledge with these

in his head, and preclude the troubleis attained, one would marvel that any

some reference to books. man should omit to altain them. No

Having resided many years abroad, man ever regretted the knowledge, J subjoin the method i refer to, than inany have niuch bewailed their iguo- which, I conceive, nothing can be more rance of them,

simple, or easy to be reniem bered ; A serious resolution to review life; and having taken Mr. T.'s sum and an earnest and sedulous endeavour to time, in order to shew the difference serre God; a tolerable allention to

in figures, should you deem it worth books ; a taste for innocent rural inserting in your valuable Miscellany, amusements, the pleasures of the garden it is at your service; observing only, and the field especially; and some ac

in further preference to this mode, that quaintance with the politer arts, mu

you obtain the amount of interest sic, drawing, the microscope, teles. sought at once, to a fraction. cope, &c.; are means with which, if

I am, Sir, furnished, he may enter upon solitude

Your obedient servant, with a satisfied mind; and may rest

G. M. H. assured, that retirement will open to

Rule. him a scene of chaste and everlasting delights ; and custoin will soon make Multiply the principal by the number this life more swcet

of days: to which either add, or from

wbich subtract, as many fifths as the Than that of painted pomp. He'll find the

rate per ceulum may be pounds above wood

or under 51. per cent. : the remainder More free from peril than the anxious world :

divided by 365 will be the true iate

rest. Find tongues in trees, and books in running brooks,


Chingford, Essex, Sermons in stones, and good in every thing. Jan. 2, 1818.

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