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assumed the character of manly freedom for which it is now so eminently distinguished.
Twelve Judges, who hold their offices during good hehaviour, are the oracles of this mystical science. In a monarchy like England, which has no written constitution, but in which all the rights of the sovereign as well as the privileges of the people are to be deduced from the common law, those Judges are an useful check against the encroachments of the monarch or his ministers; hence the common law and the judicial power are in that country almost objects of idolatrous worship. While the United States were colonies, they partook of this national feeling. The grievances which induced them to separate from the mother country were considered as violations of the common law, and at the very moment when independence was declared, the common law was claimed by an unanimous voice as the birth right of American citizens ; for it was then considered as synonymous to the British Constitution, with which their political rights and civil liberties were considered to be identified. In the dissentions that arose between the colonies and Great Britain, the Constitution, or the common law, which was the same thing, was appealed to in favour of the doc
NATURE AND EXTENT
COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES,
BEING A VALEDICTORY ADDRESS
DELIVERED TO THE STUDENTS OF THE VACAREMY OF PHILADELPHIA, AT THE
CLOSE OF THE ACADEMIC YEAR, ON THE SPRIL, 1824,
BY PETER SIDE PONCENDAAL.D.
CISED IN THE UNITED STATES PRIOR TO THE ADOPTION OF
THE PRESENT FEDERAL CONSTITUTION,
BY THOMAS SERGEANT, Esa. Vice PROVOST.
AND THE AUTHOR'S
DISCOURSE ON LEGAL EDUCATION,
DELIVERED AT THE OPENING OF THE LAW ACADEMY, IN FEBRUARY, 1821.
WITH AN APPENDIX AND NOTES.
The great system of jurisprudepte, like that of the universe, consists of many subordinate systems, all of which are connected by nice links and beautiful dependencies, and each of them, as I have fully persuaded myself, is reducible to à few plain elements.-Jones. Law of Bailments.
PUBLISHED BY ABRAHAM SMALL.
Eastern District of Pennsylvania, to wit:
eighth year of the indepentlence of the United States of Ame-
trict, hath deposited in this office the Title of a book, the right whereof he claims as Author, in the words following, to wit:
“ A Dissertation on the nature and extent of the Jurisdiction of the Courts of the United States, bring a Valedictory Address delivered to the students of the Law Academy of Philadelphia, at the close of the academical year, on the 22d April, 1824, by Peter S. Du Pinceau, LL.D. Provost of the Academy. To which are addent, A brief sketch of the National Judiciary Powers exercised in the United States prior to the adoption of the presert Federal Constitution, by Thomas Sergeant, Esq. Vice Provost. And the author's Discourse on Legal Erlucation, delivered at the opening of the Law Academy in February, 1821. With an Appendix and Notes. The great system of jurisprudence, like that of the universe, corsists of many subordinate systems, all of which are connected by nice links and beautiful dependencies, and each of them, as I have fully persuarled myself, is reducible to a few plain elements. Jones, Law of Bail
In Conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, intituled,
• July 25, 1824