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prizes ; carrying, perhaps, a melon or a pump-/but seldom longer than one month ; in both on a rock, on the south side of the hill, whence, kin under an arm, as they go gibbering away cases, after this seclusion is past, the mourners after their fingers, toes, arms, legs, noses, and to luxuriate at leisure. There cannot be a have new skin-cloaks made-cattle being killed ears, were cut off, they were thrown down the doubt that these creatures have laws by which for the purpose. They are no longer restricted precipice; and the younger savages were perthey regulate the conduct of their community, from the use of milk, and they resume their mitted to amuse themselves in casting stones at and inflict punishment upon transgressors. This ornaments, entering into society as before. the mangled remains, as long as they could find opinion is substantiated by an incident to which Witchcraft is the great bane of the country; sport in the occupation. The young princes a friend of mine and his wife were eye-wit- and if the people were once redeemed from the were present at this exhibition, and among all
Some months previous to the period superstitious fears which it engenders, their the spectators there was not one single display of the event I am about to mention, the gentle social and moral condition would be rapidly of sympathy or humane feeling, though the man had requested a gardener to procure for improved. Almost every unusual or severe girls were young and the favourite handsome. him a baboon of the largest size ; but, on ac disease, whether amongst the people or their The acquitted attendant was largely rewarded.” count of the difficulty in capturing one of that cattle, is attributed to the presence of witch- We conclude with some remarks on the description, his wishes were still unfulfilled ; craft. There are certain persons in the coun- author's peculiar condition, which we think our when one day, as he and his wife were riding try, chiefly women, who pretend to the power readers will peruse, as we have done, with feel. towards the gardener's house, their attention of discovering those who exercise a malignant ings of strong interest : was attracted by loud shrieks from the side of influence over their fellow-creatures. They “ Horse-racing, indeed, ranks among the a hill, and they perceived, drawn out in order, profess, in general, to be guided by dreams; few amusements in which I never can persuade two parties of baboons, at about sixty yards but when the clan, or people of the kraal, are myself to take the slightest interest. I know distance from each other. Midway, between assembled, and formed into a ring, the witch- not whether this singular disrelish of mine for these parties, stood a particularly large animal, doctress usually runs round a few times, per. so fashionable a sport proceeds from an innate apparently a culprit in the act of receiving pu- forming many unmeaning and ridiculous an- principle of my own nature, or whether it ori. nishment; for, while my amazed friends looked, tics, and then affects to smell one or two persons, ginates solely in the absence of vision. I should they saw a baboon advance alternately from whom she names as the offenders. The persons scarcely think it attributable to the latter, be. each troop, and, after each had bitten the pri- charged are then seized and put to the torture, cause there are many objects of common ad. soner, pass on to be followed by others in like which is generally very severe: such as burn- miration, a lovely view, for instance, which, order : at each infliction the offender screamed ing the most tender and sensible parts of the without seeing, I can highly appreciate; not, hideously, but with the most imperturbable body with heated stones ; beating them with perhaps, so highly as those who gaze upon it; gravity the punishment went on; and my knobbed sticks; or stretching them on the but, still, very acutely from the mere descripfriends pursued their ride while the ceremony ground, where they are tied to stakes driven tion made to me, while I am conscious of its was yet in operation, not, however, without into the earth ; and when their bodies have actual presence. I can also vividly partake in hazarding many conjectures as to the probable been besmeared with grease, throwing over the excitement of those around me, feel a keen nature of the culprit's offence. It was not them myriads of a species of ant, which bite and intuitive sense of their passing emotions, long before sufficient grounds arose for a belief so severely that they excite the sufferer to a and participate their enjoyments, though the that he had been guilty of negligence on his state of frenzy. To gain a respite from these impression is conveyed mainly, if not entirely, watch ; for the gardener came forward to state, torments, the unhappy wretches frequently de- by the ear; for, although touch is a sense pecuthat he had at length captured a baboon, but clare themselves to be guilty; in which case, liarly delicate and discriminating in blind per. that he could not accomplish his design until they are required to produce the articles by sons, it is a power much limited by the polite he had shot the animal. My friend here which they are supposed to have accomplished observances of society, and of conventional good believed that there was sufficient authority for their spells: when, if the doctress declares that manners. It is, therefore, chiefly upon the ear his convictions respecting their organised prin-the culprit has made a full revelation, he is set that the blind depend; and who but the blind ciples of action, as well as that the scene he free, with the loss of all his cattle, which be- can estimate the accuracy of that wondrous had witnessed arose out of the destruction of come the property of the chief; whó, however, organ: Others hear, indeed, but not as do the the creature in his possession.”
distributes them among his adherents. When blind; failing to hear, they have recourse to a Mr. Holman's description of the Caffres is the chiefs are ill, and supposed to be under the glance; but he cannot look into the eyes and concise, but entertaining. We quote what he influence of witchcraft, the accused persons are read the page of nature; he concentrates his says of their burial customs :
put to death ; but this is of more rare occur. very soul while he listens, and can detect the " The common people and pagati are often rence than formerly.”
slightest variation, the finest fractional point of not buried at all ; frequently, when a person is Having gone from the Cape to Madagascar, tone, of accent, nay, even of utterance; for to expected to die, he is taken to a neighbouring it is curious to find among the author's details him they tell minutely all the alternations of kloof, or bush, and there left alone: if he dies respecting the natives of the latter, the evidence welcome, of regard, of coldness, pleasure, pain, in his hut he is dragged into the bush, and of nearly similar superstitions and barbarities. joy, reproof, and all that fill the measure of his there left to be devoured by wolves, or other. “ The sickness of the great (he says) is an oc- misery, or his mirth. Modulate, then, for him, wise the kraal is forsaken by its inhabitants, currence fraught with extreme peril to their im- your voices, ye who clamour through life's busiwho remove to another place, leaving the de- mediate attendants; for the superstitious custom ness, for every intonation makes an echo in his ceased in bis hut where he died. This barba- of using the ordeal is so prevalent, that one or heart, and precious to him are Aute-like liquid rous custom is still very general; but since more lives generally fall a sacrifice to the igno- sounds; but, oh, how dearly precious the breath. the missionaries have been established in their rant prejudices of the people. On an occa- ings of female sympathy !” country, many of the natives have begun to sion when one of Radama's sisters had been bury their dead. Inferior chiefs, and the va- some days indisposed, her four maids were incul. The Mayor of Wind-gap and Canvassing. By rious members of their families, are usually pated, and contined in separate huts, until the the O'Hara Family, 3 vols. 12mo. London, buried by digging a hole, and putting the corpse debasing ordeal was prepared to prove their 1835. Saunders and Otley. therein without any ceremony. The principal guilt or innocence. The ceremony consisted THE O'Hara Family have not presumed upon chiefs are buried in their cattle-folds, where a in administering to each of the unhappy girls their fairly-earned popularity to assail the pub. number of cattle are kept for the sustenance of three raw pieces of a black fowl, which they lic with a crowd of books. 'On the contrary, three or four men, whose duty it is to watch swallowed whole, followed by copious draughts they (for we speak of them as they do of themthe grave for at least a year, during which time of warm rice-water to produce sickness, during selves) — they have been too abstinent; and they must live apart from their families. In the paroxysms of which, if they failed to vomit some ten years have rolled away since we had requital of this duty to their deceased master, back the several pieces, or chanced to fall with the pleasure of communing with them upon their persons are ever after considered sacred; the head to the south, they were pronounced matters of fiction in general, and the state of and it would be accounted the greatest crime guilty of sorcery upon their mistress. In the society in Ireland in particular. Yet so fa. to strike, or otherwise injure them : and the instance here noticed, only one of the unfortu-vourable as well as lasting has been the im. son of their late chief would be sure to visit nate girls was able to establish her innocence: pression left on our minds, that we were with speedy vengeance so gross an insult to the the rest were adjudged to the punishment of heartily glad to meet them again, and recreate memory of his father. All the clothes, orna- death; and, although one of them was an es- a few hours with the productions of their ments, and weapons of the deceased are buried pecial favourite of the king's mother, and her talent. with him. Widows mourn for their dead hus. life was earnestly solicited by her patroness, The Mayor of Wind-gap is a tale of national bands by living a month or two apart from so- Radama, true to his hereditary superstitions, manners, and, from the nature of its plot, of ciety, among the glens and bushes. Widowers, insisted that the sacrifice should be completed. considerable interest. The locale of Wind-gap, ju like manner, mourn for their departed wives, The suspected culprits were, therefore, placed with its curiously-elected mayor, supplies the
material for the former ; while the latter is the anniversaries of St. John's-eve, May-day, without very material personal injury. The maintained by the criminal conduct and des- and so forth. The man sitting upon his wor- young fellow' inherited his father's passionate perate fortunes of the higher personages in ship's right hand, was, as has been said, the temper, as well as his taste for pleasant pursuits; the drama. Individual characters are cleverly most aged man in the parish ; the oldest of it is well known, indeed, that in the first-men. drawn; and Mourteen Maher, the mayor him. his neighbours under him scarcely remem- tioned instance, he even excelled his prototype, self, is a whole-length portrait, which stands bered him with any other but a grey head ; at his torrent-liké nature becoming quite turbuout well from the canvass.
present that head was white as snow, and his lent and destructive when attempted to be We have, ever and anon, in our notice of venerable hairs fell in great profusion on his curbed in its career.
He demanded money novels, to say, that they puzzle us more than shoulders. Hence the people called him Shawn from the ould fellow,' but not only got none, any other class of publication, how to commu- Leeach, that is Grey Jack, although he had but was met with showers of oaths and vitupenicate their lineaments to our readers without been christened John Morrison. His years ration. The young fellow' recriminated as encroaching upon the mysteries wherein so were said to be one hundred and ten, yet his well as he knew how ; and at the scenes of al. much of the gratification of their future pe- intellect was strong, and his memory unfaded. tercation which took place between them, and rusal must rest. In the present instance, we He took great pride in walking to mass on at the sound of their maniac voices, rising high can manage only to give a taste of the cha- Sundays, the wrist of one hand clasped by the in mutual and unbridled passion, every soul racteristics of Wind-gap, a small suburb of a fingers of the other, and both resting upon the under the same roof with them shuddered. large town, and situated on the top of a hill small of his back, accompanied by a great. Well,' (and here the reader must imagine exposed to all weathers; while we leave the grandson and two of his children, and a great- Bridogue piquantly smacking her lips), the involved and tragical incidents of the story of grand-daughter of marriageable years. The young fellow seized whatever he could lay the Strange Man of the Inch to be unfolded by image suggested to us by the appearance of hands upon, either in the shape of money, or the work itself.
this group has, we fear, often been used; yet of articles convertible into money, and rioted The Mayor of Wind-gap has two sage coun- we will venture to say that, to a poetic mind, away as long as the supplies so gained lasted ; sellors to aid him in his functions; and the our old friend and his companions might give but long they did not last, and he was again in following are sketches of them.
the idea of blooming spring, mature summer, necessity; and another fearful contention took “ Gregory Roche was the weaver of Wind with its fruit, and hoary winter, for the once place between him and his unhappy parent ; gap. Fifty-six years ago, the woman who in company."
and another; and many others; (Bridogue's neglected to commence the manufacture of the We may state that the tale commences with manner of relating these facts was solemn) linen of her own household would have been a capital account of a St. John's-eve bonfire, at until at their last interview, the father struck deemed an unthristy person. In every dwell- which the mayor is chosen. The gossip on the the son, and the son raised his sinewy arm, and ing the buzz of the spinning-wheel was heard occasion is replete with Irish superstitions. One felled his father to his foot; and from that day, during the long winter-nights ; and it was the old woman tells
until he got an unchristian grave under the companion of the vanithee in the open air, out. “ It was known to all the world (the world waters of the sea, a curse fell upon and followed side the door, on a summer's evening. The of Wind-gap we presume she meant), that ould young Harry Stokesbury; nor did the listeners weaver was therefore kept in good and re- Harry Stokesbury, the proprietor of the house of Wind-gap see any thing, extraordinary in spectable employment, and could live rather at the Inch, and of considerable property be- this fact ; for, to their primitive hearts, it aristocratically. But, along with the consi- side, ' had been as wicked a sinner in his time seemed an immeasurable sin, that, even with deration due to him as an expert and cunning as ever broke the commandments ;' that is, provocation, the child should commit outrage artist, Gregory Roche commanded deference he had led a self-indulging, irregular life. It on the person of the father. It was reported as a man of superior manners and acquire. was equally well known, that, like all roués, at the time, as Bridogue asserted, that the
He had read books, and was con- he had been an unreasoning tyrant to his fa- young fellow,' after having fled the house to sidered oracular on all grand historic points. mily; and that when, from the inroads made escape death at the hands of his father, who, Polemic literature he had also studied - we on his constitution by excesses, as well as by in his rage, armed himself with a weapon to inrather fear, however, only on one side ; but years, he became no longer able to pursue his flict it, became very sorry for his abominable he could relate' how King Harry had set up former courses, he continued just as intolerant act; and, when he had cooled, was penitent, the Protestant religion - became the Pope of at home as if he had been a voluntary ascetic. and did all in his power to make peace at home. Rome (the heavens be his bed !)-put his face To his only son, the young Harry Stokesbury,' But the ould fellow' would never set his eyes totally agin the notion of letting the baste have now a man in the prime of youthful vigour, upon him; and at his dying hour left him more nor five wives at a turn'--and he would and who shewed every propensity to follow the nothing but his curse.” add with a knowing wink, that the one o' example given him by his sire, he was, with a We are, however, on tender ground here, and them was one too many.' It was clear, accord. most ungenerous want of sympathy, particu- must quit the path of the plot for an episodacal ing to Gregory's church history, that becase larly severe and oppressive ; fuming, and curs- example. Talking of “ draughts” which prothe bould king Henry the Aigth was a skhandle ing, and raving at his imitator's follies and cure love, “ Ould Daddy Leeach" says :to Christian people, in regard o' the female crimes. But the younger Harry, laughing at “ • There's such things done of a certain ; women, he gave to the sort o' clergy livin' in the idea that his father, the most thorough every body can spake of what the shoolin' his time ache a wife a-piece, and maybe some going rake of his own day, should turn moralist Bacchos* brings upon young cratures by manes times more, according to his own fancy, just upon him, merely in spite that his descendant of bewitched pins, and heribs, and dhrinks, that they shouldn't be bringing himself over could eclipse him, took little heed of the parental sweet and plasing to the mouth, though bitter the coals for his own doin's.' While pointing lectures ibus lavished upon him ; in fact, it for the heart, and bad for the poor sowl; and to the ruined monasteries, of which we have was visible to every one that Henry the second I knew in my time sthrange things to be used elsewhere spoken, in the town under his resi. had resolved to prove himself a chip of the old for the makin' of the love draughts. They dence, Gregory Roche could speak, whether block,' whatever the old block itself might say that the young ones of them faulhoguest truly or romancingly we know not, of the dif- choose to think about the matter. But the that flies through the air from the morning till ferent orders of regular brethren who once in ould fellow' began to keep a firmer gripe of the night, taken from the nest afore their habited them-(after having built them by the his money than he had hitherto done. • Like feathers grows, and the nest they're found in way)—in their full glory; and he could ex- the dog in the manger,' thought his son, he taken at the same time: they say that if the patiate on their former palmy state, compared can't use it himself, and won't give it to those bird, and nest, and all, is biled up together for with their present anheeded decay. Gregory's who can.' Young Stokesbury soon wanted, in the wicked purpose, the broth it makes will person was neat and spruce, arrayed in snuff- fact, the means of pursuing what he called his force a girl to run after a boy, or a boy to run coloured broad-cloth, a wig of three buckles, a pleasures: in consequence of unsatisfactory pay- after a girl, for the mere love, the world over.' well-brushed three-cocked hat, and square- ments, people began to refuse him new credit, Is it the swallows ye made mention of, toed brogues. On all occasions, when the and to become troublesome to him about old Shawr. Leeach ?" asked another very old man Mayor of Wind-gap sat recognised in full scores. He sent them all to his father (after near him. 'Ay, in good thruth, Meehowl, office, in his grand wicker-chair, Gregory sat first sending them all to the devil- and there's 'twas about them swallows, the youngest of at his left hand ; and it is worth adding, that little in the difference,' remarked young Harry 'em, I mane, that I made mention.' he was the collector of the dues' of the priest to himself). Ould Harry' ordered them, how- faiks,' resumed Meehowl,' the rason I put of his parish, as well as the mayor's treasurer ever, to be chased off his premises ; and some the question to ye on that head is this : very for whatever resulted from importunately as- who insisted strongly on their claims were airly of a hazy morning I was passin' by the sailing, in the persons of hundreds of ragged compelled, in consequence, to fight their way house at the Inch-the Lord stand between us deputies, all passengers going and coming to the high-road through two or three house- and all harm !?and here the narrator piously along the Wind-gap road, for contributions to dogs and four or five servants-glad to escape Wandering beggars. † Swallows.
crossed himself when what should I see, stitution proposed by Bolívar. They reported leaving the laws the same as at the adjournlookin’ towards the house, but the sthrange favourably; and, in conformity to its principles, ment of the constituent congress, and named man himself standin' outside of a windy, and a president was chosen for life. The choice felí again General Santa Cruz as the provisional he was pullin' down a swallow's nest.' And on General Sucre, who accepted the office for president. Since that period Santa Cruz has ye seen him doin' that, Meehowl? then its only two years, on the condition that 2,000 been at the head of the government, which for liikely enough that Bridogue Mooney is right Colombian troops should be permitted to remain prosperity ranks amongst the foremost of the in her sayin,” • I'll stand up for my sayin',' with him. Sucre declined holding the presi. South American republics. He has established replied Bridge Mooney ; he puts the charms dency for a longer period than two years, on the schools, increased commerce by relieving it of on us, howsomever he finds manes to do it.' grounds of having been educated a soldier, and many heavy taxes, and he bas concluded a treaty ' I'll tell ye what I hard of them swallows, having spent the greater part of his life in of peace and commerce with Peru. The ex. neighbours,' said Daddy Leeach ; ' them swal- the field, he was unfit to be the civic chief of tensive territory of Bolivia is rich in mines of lows, and them birds, too, that goes by the their government. During his administration, copper and the precious metals; the vine and name o' willy-wagtails, I'm tould for sartain schools were established, and plenipotentiaries olive flourish : in many places sugar-cane grows has three drops o' the devil's bloud in them were sent to Buenos Ayres, to obtain the acknow. wild, and rice and flax are produced in abund. Lord be good to us !' ''Tis often and often I ledgment of the independence of the republic, ance; Peruvian bark and indigo are success. took notice of both kinds of them birds, the which was withheld by that government, al- fully cultivated; and the coca, which is so esfoulhogues, and the spiddogue coppel; the spid. leging that Bolivia could not be free while sential to the Indian's comfortable existence, dogue coppel is never known to sing his varse General Sucre and 2,000 Colombians were per- is a staple of this climate. The erythroxylon of a song only when the day is bitther could, mitted to remain within her territories. This Peruvianus, or coca, at the time of the conand dripping wet; and then it's a mournful act gave umbrage to the Bolivians, and evoked quest, was only used by the Incas and those of thing to hear him, and to look at him, standin' some spirited articles on the subject from them, the royal or rather solar blood. The plant was on a could wet stone by the road side, and by which appeared in El Peruano. On the 15th looked upon as an image of divinity, and no one the river side, lilcin' his bit of a croonawn, and of October, 1826, Peru acknowledged Bolivia entered the enclosures where it was cultivated lookin' about him so 'ente, and waggin' his to be an independent state. At present, an without bending the knee in adoration. The long tail, for all the world as if he gloried in agent from Brazil, and a chargé d'affaires and divine sacrifices made at that period were the dark rainy day that puts a cloud over the consul-general_from France, are residing at thought not to be acceptable to heaven, unless mind of all Christhin cratures; and them swal. Chuquisaca. The government of the United the victims were crowned with branches of this lows, agin, they skim about from the risin' to States has not yet sent a diplomatic agent of tree. The oracles made no reply, and auguries the settin' of the sun; and they never put foot any class to that country. Notwithstanding were terrible, if the priest did not chew coca to the ground like our own birds ; but when that Peru acknowledged the independence of at the time of consulting them. It was an unthe storm is comin' to vex the earth they all Bolivia, she was anxious to obtain the cession heard-of sacrilege to invoke the shades of the get in a row together upon an ould wall, or on of certain territories adjoining to her southern departed great, without wearing this plant in the top of a body's house, and they sing, and boundary. On the 9th of April, 1827, the token of respect; and the Coyas and Mamas, they sing, all of them at once, and as loud as Peruvian plenipotentiary left La Paz, and soon who were supposed to preside over gold and ever they can, makin' merry at the doleful after a Peruvian army, under the command of silver, rendered the mines impenetrable, if the change that's comin' on, and that they know General Gamarra, appeared on the Bolivian labourers failed to chew the leaves of coca while is comin' on, more be-token, better nor the frontier. On the 18th of April, 1828, the gar- engaged in the toil. To this plant the Indian people themselves; and, moreover, there's not rison at Chuquisaca, the capital of Bolivia, re- recurred for relief in his greatest distress ; no one among us can tell how they come here to volted, through the intrigue and machinations matter whether want or disease oppressed him, Wind-gap, or where they come from, or where of the Peruvian general. This garrison con- or whether he sought the favours of Fortune or in the world they go to in the winter time; sisted only of fifty men, yet it was sufficient Cupid, he found consolation in this divine plant. and I often hard it said, as well as our neigh- to overthrow the then existing government. In the course of time, its use extended to the bour, Shawn Leeach, that the three dhrops o' General Sucre, in attempting to quell the dis- whole Indian population, and its cultivation the devil's blood is in them, and in the willy- turbance, was severely wounded in the arm. became an important branch of trade. It prowag tails.'”
Gamarra, under pretence of fear for the per- duced at one period no less than 2,641,487 Canvassing is a story of higher life, and also sonal safety of the president, and anxiety to dollars yearly ; and we are told that its leaves interesting; but we confess we are much better restore tranquillity to the state, marched from were once the representative of money, and entertained with the Mayor of Wind-gap, and the Desagaradero, where he was encamped, and circulated as coin. It is sown in the months his colleagues of every kind.
took possession of La Paz and of the capital. of December and January, its growth being
Sucre at once resigned, and sailing from Cobija, forwarded by the heavy rains which fall in the Three Years in the Pacific ; containing Notices arrived at Callao on the 13th of December, mountainous regions from that time till the
of Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, fe., in 1831, where he remained twenty-four hours, but was month of April. It flowers but once a-year, 1832, 1833, 1834. By an Officer in the not permitted to land. While there, his wounds but yields four crops of leaves, which are not United States' Navy. 2 vols. 8vo. London, were dressed by one of the medical officers of however equally abundant; the least so is ga1835. Bentley.
the United States frigate Brandywine ; and he thered at the time of inflorescence. It requires A LIGHT, lively, well-written, and agreeable offered his services to intercede between the to be sown once in five years. When the leaves publication ; marked by good feeling and li- governments of Peru and Colombia, then at attain an emerald green on one side, and a berality, which reflect honour on the writer's war, with the hope of restoring peace without straw.colour on the other, they are carefully heart and head.
having recourse to arms. On the 14th he sailed pulled, one by one, and dried in the sun. The We have, in the course of our critical voy in the Portia (an American ship) for Guaya- virtues of the coca are of the most astonishing age, which has lasted six times as many years quil. Bolivia was soon plunged in a most character. The Indians who are addicted to as the author's period in the Pacific, so fre- dreadful state of anarchy. "General Santa Cruz its use are enabled to withstand the toil of quently touched on Brazil, Chile, and Peru, that was called by the constituent congress to be the mines, amidst noxious metallic exhalations, we seem to be almost native there ; and we are president; but a party, or rather a faction, without rest, food, or protection from the clisure our readers have so often heard us tell forcibly elevated General Don Pedro Blanco to mate. They run hundreds of leagnes over stories of those parts, that they will excuse us the chief magistracy. On the 25th of December deserts, arid plains, and craggy mountains, suisnow if we simply let the officer in question ex- he made his public entry into Chuquisaca, and tained only by the coca and a little parched bibit his own talents in his own words. Be- the next day took the oath of office. On the corn; and often, too, acting as mules in bear. hold us at Bolivia :
| 31st a revolution took place he was made ing loads through passes where animals cannot “ On the 5th of August, 1825, Potosi, Char- prisoner ; and on the morning of the 1st of go. Many have attributed this frightful frucas, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz, formerly con- January, 1829, he was shot, after having been gality and power of endurance to the effects of stituting Upper Peru, declared themselves in-president four days ! On the 14th of December, habit, and not to the use of the coea ; but it dependent of Ferdinand VII. ; and on the Ilth 1828, Gamarra was received at Lima, amidst must be remembered that the Indian is naof August the Assembly decreed that the re- the rejoicings of the people, who styled him the turally voracious ; and it is known that many public should bear the title of Bolivia. They Liberator of La Paz, and entertained him at Spaniards were unable to peform the Hercudate the birthday of the nation from the 6th the theatre, and at the Plaza del Acho with a lean tasks of the Peruvians, until they habitu. ef August, 1825, the day on which was gained bull-bait. On the 15th of February, 1829 (six ally used the coca. Moreover, the Indians the victory of Junin. On the 25th of May, i weeks after the death of General Blanco), the without it lose both their vigour and power3 1826, a congress was installed at Chuquisaca, vice-president dissolved the conventional as- of endurance. It is stated, that during the and a committee appointed to examine the con- sembly, and declared all their acts to be void, seige of La Paz in 1781, when the Spaniards
were constantly on the watch, and destitute of | am mostly asleep when they takes 'em away! the first volume is before us, is to demonstrate provisions, in the inclemencies of winter, they But there is no trade now. When I first came the evil of imprisonment for debt; and it is were saved from disease and death by resorting to the South Sea, in 1805, we used to get evidently the production of one who has tasted to this plant. The coca possesses a slightly just as much as we chose to ask for any thing the bitterness of that condition, and seen how aromatic and agreeable odour, and when chew- Our captain had a barrel of gin fixed in the bulk- ruinously the practice wrought both for the ed dispenses a grateful fragrance; its taste is head,-80 one-half of it was in the cabin and honest debtor and merciless creditor. The moderately bitter and astringent, and it tinges the other in the mate's room. When the people subject is one of great national interest, and the saliva of a greenish hue. Its effects on the knew we had this liquor, they flocked aboard as far as this exposition goes, we trust it will system are stomachic and tonic, and beneficial with bottles and gourds; and while the captain increase the attention which humanity and in preventing intermittents, which have always drew off gin in the cabin the mate was in his policy have already directed to the application prevailed in the country. The mode of em- room pouring in water ; so that I guess the of a remedy. The anecdotes told are obviously ploying coca, is to mix with it in the mouth a barrel was sold three times full for about six facts; and indeed the names of parties are often small quantity of lime prepared from shells, dollars a gallon !' Whalers form a distinct given. We could have wished that a more much after the manner that the betel is used class. When several vessels are assembled at serious tone had been taken, for the scenes of in the East. With this, a handful of parched any of the places of rendezvous, the oldest cap- the prison-house" are often of too tragical a corn, and a ball of arrow-root, an Indian will tain in company is styled the admiral. They description to be fairly represented by the travel on foot a hundred leagues, trotting on have suppers on board one of the ships every lighter incidents of common misery, or sketches a-head of a horse. On the frequented roads, I night, to which all present are invited by of promiscuous suffering. We must take the am informed that the Indian guides have cer- hoisting a flag before sunset. I attended on book, however, as we find it; and, at any rate, tain spots where they throw out their quids, one of these occasions, and was much amused acknowledge that, if it is not so affecting as it which have accumulated into little heaps that by the peculiar slang of these people. • Come,' might be, it is for that reason more amusing. now serve as marks of distance ; so that, in- said che captain, “ take a cigar; you'll find 'em The characters, &c. are introduced in spungstead of saying one place is so many leagues pretty much half Spanish, I guess. I in- ing-houses and the Fleet Prison; and the acfrom another, it is common to call it so many quired of one who had been relating some ex. counts of these places have so much the air quids! The Indians sometimes have tertúlias ploits with whales, whether he never felt that of truth, that there can be no doubt of their for taking the infusion of the leaves, as well as he was in danger ? Why, I always think, if reality :for chewing it. In the former mode the effects I have a good lance, the fish is in most danger!' “ We say (the author it is who says) – are agreeably exhilarating. It is usual to say I asked another whether he had ever met with say-Gather up from out the pale of human on such occasions, 'Vamos à coquear y aculli- an accident ? I can't say exactly as how I misery, misfortune, imprudence, and despair, car,''Let us indulge in coca.''
have, though I came plaguey near it once. enough of pity to commiserate the situation This history of a country, and of its most You see we was off the coast of Japan, right --enough of patriotism to advocate the freeremarkable produce, being disposed of in a among a shoal of whales, and all hands was out dom, of the prisoner for debt.
The one unsingle quotation, we will venture to Lima, the in the boats except me and the cook. I was varnished scene of the spunging-house, (which street scenery of which, though often well de- lookin' at the creaturs with the glass, and saw is the more unvarnished, because we cannot scribed before, is so graphically sketched by one on 'em flirt her tail agin'a boat, and it was give it the true polish of life, so far will de our author, that we will borrow some of it in a caution to see the scatterment she made of scription ever fall short of nature,)-is yet in our next Gazette. Meanwhile, from the bay her. All the boys were set a swimmin'; so the itself enough to prove how fruitless, how of Santa, Truxello, Lambayeque, Paita, and cook and me jumped into a boat and picked 'em foolish, how inhuman, it is for one man to along the coast, the following pleasing extracts all up. Directly the fish blowed close to us, seize on the person of another, and subject him are chosen :
and I took an iron and sunk it into her, and I to exposure, difficulty, and ruin, by the loss of “ On our way back to the landing we passed know how to strike a whale as well as any credit, unless he be previously sure of fraud, over an ancient burying-place of the Indians, mar ; but the creatur canted the wrong way, swindling, or a dishonest purpose. It is bad which has been pretty generally turned up by and I know how a sparm ought to cant; and enough to plunge an old married member of visiters in search of huaqueros, or earthen ves- comin' at us full tilt, with her jaws as wide society into scenes which, if witnessed by them, sels, found in the graves. The whole surface open as a barn-door, bit the boat smack in two would be so many insults to his wife and chil. is strewed with skulls and bones bleaching in in the middle. Then she chawed up one end dren — but it is worse to fling a young man the sun, which receive many a kick by the idle on her; and by the time we got hold on the into a well, at the bottom of which temptation passers-by. The back part of these skulls is other she come at us agin, and, making another lies instead of truth. And be it observed, almost vertical, and rises quite abruptly from bite, took me by the back betwixt her teeth, a youth must have strong principles, more the great hole at the base. The left side is and shook me as a puppy would a ball of yarn ; strongly imbued, before he can resist such generally much more prominent than the right. and I guess she wouldn't have dropped me if temptation. His mind must be well formedThe forehead is narrow and retreating; and the mate hadn't come up in another boat, and his philosophy well grounded. Vain - how the line of the face is quite as perpendicular as shoved in his lance till she was sickened! As vain, supposing that temptation to have an that of the European.”
good luck would have it, we was all picked up evil influence !_is the debtor's imprisonment Strange sort of currency :-
without any accident; but I got five of her as a punishment for the debt :- he, yielding to “ The want of small coin in Lambayeque has tooth-prints in my back to this day!!” new and peculiar inducements, imbibes also a given rise to a curious way of making change. We cannot close with a better or truer tale ; taste for new pleasures - pleasures utterly deThe smallest coin in circulation here is a medio and have only to add, that the author revives moralising in their influence, and at the same (64 cents), though in Lima the cuartillo, equal many accounts of the horrid oppression prac- time expensive to the creditor, because they to half that sum, is found, but in limited num- tised on the Indians by their Spanish conquer- foster and encourage habits which induce those bers. To remedy this, a conventional law has ors,-exposes the rapaciousness and bigotted whom they lead away to spend in their indul. made two eggs equal to a cuartillo : when the follies of the Romish church in South America, gence the money that would most frequently port has been for a long time without visiters, - and finally draws a picture of the concord have paid their debt. How often has a young the currency depreciates so much, that three or and friendship which existed between the offi- man, arrested for 501., spent 1001. by dribblets four eggs are required to equal that sum, though cers of British ships and those belonging to the in the spunging-house, because he could not get this is less fluctuating than the currency either United States navy, during his stay in the Pa- the fifty in a lump! How often have honest of Brazil or Buenos Ayres.
cific, which must be gratifying to the right. debtors expended five times the amount of their “ Paita is a rendezvous throughout the year minded people of both countries. Lord James liabilities in prison by degrees, because they for American whalers, who resort to it to re- Townsend in particular distinguished himself in had not enough at any one time to take them fresh their crews, to cooper their oil, and to fill this contest of courtesy and kindness; and his out! In these reflections, these “ how oftens' up their supplies of vegetables and provisions. correspondence with the American Captain alone, there is enough to deter the creditor For this purpose they are allowed to sell goods Gregory forms a charming contrast to the ma- bent on harsh measures from their execution ; to an amount not exceeding two hundred dol- jority of works which have to speak of the in- but when we turn the mirror round, and hold lars duty free; but they generally exceed the tercourse between English and Americans. up another, and a darker face, in reproachful law, and dispose of certain 'ventures’ at the
reflection to his view; when, instead of the risk of seizure and confiscation. I asked the Scenes and Stories. By a Clergyman in Debt: man whom he has shut for awhile from so. captain of a whaler in port, whether he was not written during his Confinement in the Debt- ciety, we exhibit that man's wife in tears—that afraid of being detected in these transactions ? ors' Prison. 3 vols. 12mo. London, 1835. man's children in want - that man's home He replied, “Why you see I never know how Baily and Co.
rifled by executions which the destruction of things gets ashore; they will have 'em, and I The avowed object of this work, of which only his credit has brought about his hopes de.
stroyed-his affections blighted --his cherished , desolation among his family, and can throw him, and fix on somebody else as the person who did fancies insulted and abused--bis household gods self into prison, till he pay! Pay he cannot, the act. It will at once occur to our readers, profaned - the altars of his heart violated it is evident ; pay he might, had he been free that the man who could harbour such a thought there should be a pause and a reflection on the to try; but because he cannot, in prison he as this was no longer fit to live among his part of the claimant for the pound of flesh ;' must and does remain, until one year rolls over species ;-without conscience, without heart ; and unless he could say to himself, This debtor another, and he is perhaps brought out an old barren of every feeling of charity, every warm has brought ruin upon my house_distress upon man-an outcast—or a corpse ! You will say, and generous impulse of human love! At my family- discredit upon my reputation - he perhaps, that he might have taken the benefit first, continued he, ' I did not know on whom should (have) hesitated thoughtfully before he of the Insolvent Act : we answer that we have to fix as the murderer ; but as I had always a committed an act of inglorious injury, and, with- known a man remain eleven years in custody spite against Mosely, because I thought it was out even the mean apology of vengeance, in- for the sum of ten pounds ; and the same money him who informed against me when I stole the flicted a torture which he never received !” which would take him through the court would spindle, I at last resolved to revenge myself by
Among prisoners in the Fleet, the following enable him to pay his debt. This man is in swearing it was him.' And did Mosely inform are instanced as examples of the folly and gaol now, and we shall say more of his history against you ?' No; I have found out since cruelty of incarceration.
But of the instance we have taken that it was my wife's sister, and not Mosely ; “ Lieutenant Glanning was a gentleman above, had the same man, whose long impri- but I didn't know it then. Well, I was three with a beautiful wife and three young children, sonment has been the result of poverty or weeks making up my mind about this, and positively keeping up a carriage and a pro- dissipation (mind we are always putting fraud arranging my plans so as not to be taken aback, portionate establishment, confined at the suit out of the question), committed some positive and when I thought I had my story pretty plain of his father-in-law, whom he had offended by crime had he descended from his moral sphere and well by heart, I determined to out with it running away with the daughter, and whose in society as the father of a family, and stooped at once.' Garside next went
to say that he frivolous conditions of release depended on his to the degradations of a theft ; had he offended was taken before a magistrate, and made a signing an undertaking not to live within ten against the positive commandment of God, and statement upon oath, that Mosely was the man miles of London ! Mr. Bowles was a wild the criminal laws of his country, by stealing who committed the murder, and that he was Irish attorney, whose shrewd cleverness had from a fellow-man ; had he, in short, stained accessory to the act. But here he cunningly secured to him a large practice, which his im- his name and character with the stigma of a describes, and gets out of, a dilemma which, he prisonment had entirely taken away; the de. felony–what, unless the crime amounted to an would make it appear, had well nigh proved taining creditor thus having robbed himself of enormity, would have been in all probability fatal to his diabolical scheme. It turned out the means by which he would have been paid ! the penal reward ? Three, six, nine, or even that there were three parties to the murder, Mr. Riles was a respectable surgeon, confined twelve months' imprisonment-ay, the same and this,' said Garside, I did not know;' for a bill of accommodation given to a friend : punishment, only in a lighter degree,-because so that when he was asked who besides himself his imprisonment had destroyed his business, the criminal is kept, and the debtor has to was concerned with Mosely, he feigns to have and shut up his shop. Mr. Fustace was a keep himself, --- as an honest man may be sub- been at a nonplus. At first,' he said, 'I young man of property, engaged in a law-suitject to for years for owing twenty pounds !” wouldn't tell, for I was downright puzzled, with his father, on the subject of some deeds But the most curious portion of the work, and thought I was done; but the magistrate connected with their joint estates. The son independently of its exposing the frauds, vil. helped me out of the scrape.' 'This Mosely, of a baronet, he has moved in the highest lanies, and oppressions of Jew bailiffs, roguish I see,' says he, has got a brother, a most notoranks of life, — demoralised by the imprison- attorneys, and other detestable scoundrels, whom rious rascal; I shouldn't be surprised to hear that ment he has already suffered, when his law- the law enables to prey upon their fellow-crea- he has had something to do with the murder.' suit is decided he will go out unfitted for any tures, is a history of the last conversations of " Well, I couldn't think of any body else, and society! Mr. Waterland's detention arose the felon Garside, who was recently executed so I said it was him! and that settled it at solely from spite ; his plaintiffs having moved for a murder in Cheshire, and which we add as once.' Nothing can be more revolting than him, like a weather-cock, about a dozen times a remarkable sequel to the tale of this strange this tale. The very crimes which this hardened backwards and forwards from the Bench to the transaction. The criminals Garside and Mosely fellow would have made us believe he had com. Fleet, from mere motives of personal annoy- were confined in the King's Bench for a few mitted, in order to save himself from the gal. ance, and each time at an expense of about 31. days, after being brought up from the country, lows, or, as he states, for the mere sake of the to themselves, and 5l. to the prisoner. Dr. and the author relates :
reward, are in themselves almost more horrid Tell, a literary man of great and not idle " While the felons were in their confine than the horrid murder itself. Supposing him genius, – the only thing by which he could ment, there were persons employed to sit with really not guilty, what a load of guilt is he pay his debts, and which his creditors had left them, to prevent, we imagine, any attempts yet ready to acknowledge! For five hundred to lie fallow in a gaol. Here, then, were six which these unfortunate culprits might make pounds he is prepared to take upon his own individuals, four of whom were married, taken to destroy themselves. It is from one of these head the odium of having participated in an from their families and pursuits, and thrown individuals that we gather the ingenious story atrocious assassination of being himself called into prison to suffer as though they had been devised by Garside to clear himself and his a murderer through life;—he would, too, from guilty of some criminal act, without one rea- companion of the guilt of the murder, in these, a motive of petty malice, swear away the life sonable plea on the part of those who detained the last hours of their hopes and life-for with of another man, his companion and friend ; them for their confinement,- one a victim of life hope still lingered--ay, even to the last ! and lastly, to get rid of a point of embarrass. spite, another sacrificed to his good-nature to a Garside must have been, by his own account, a ment, he would involve that man's brother in friend; two more in durance simply because their ruffian of the most outrageous cast; and, al- the common death which would bave awaited lawyers had not settled their affairs ; and the though a pitiably ignorant person, appears to them all, if he had not exonerated himself by literary man and the attorney totally deprived have been capable of devising plots which, for the false story, which he would fain have imof employment, and of course of the means to cunning and contrivance, might rank with those pressed upon our minds he had the ferocious pay. Policy and humanity must alike shrink of John Thurtell or Eugene Aram himself. His hardihood to invent. • For,' said he, when near from such a system as this a system which story, in protesting his innocence, was as fol- his last moments, to the person who remained admits of no reason to uphold, no comparison lows: He declared that for stealing a spindle, with him in the strong-room of the Bench, 'up to justify it. Alas! it does but point out the or some tool or tools connected with a manu- to this time I do not know who committed the fearful inequality of our laws of punishment,-factory, he had been sentenced to spend eighteen murder, and I am as innocent as you are of of which it becomes awful to reflect, that per- months at the tread-mill. Whilst engaged at the whole matter.' There cannot, we believe, haps the only one that is evenly and equitably this rotundary occupation, • I saw,' said he, looking at the forcible and convincing evidence, administered is—Death! Have illness or po- an advertisement in the paper of the king's be a doubt of Garside's guilt ; but we are far verty—nay, put it upon a less excusable footing proclamation, offering a reward of five hun. from being so sure of that of his companion. -have imprudence or dissipation encumbered dred pounds and the king's free pardon to any When both prisoners took the sacrament on a man's finances, and plunged him into debtperson implicated, but not actually having the Sunday previous to their execution, Mosely, no matter what his chances of recovery-no committed the murder, who would turn king's either before or during the ceremony, remarked, matter how brightly his prospects may open evidence against the real murderer. At this ' I can take the sacrament with a clear conthrough the vistas of renewed industry- no time,' continued Garside, “I knew no more science, and that is more, Garside, than you matter even if his ruin hang upon the doubtful of the murder than the babe unborn ; but I can say.' And Garside himself, after the sothread of his liberty-one vindictive creditor thought it would be a good way of getting five lemn rite was concluded, addressed the clergycan take him from his home can scatter his hundred pounds and my liberty from the cursed man and said, “Now, sir, I have taken the household gods about his hearth w can Aing treadmill to say, that I had helped to do it myself, sacrament, and if all that I told before against