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their nests, and rearing their young; but the country is too well settled for them now; so, like the trapper for heaver, and the hunter, they are off into the distant forests, where their food is abundant, and where there is 'none to disturb them in their lawful pursuits...,
Loons are seen along the Ohio river, but they are seldom killed. The heron and the crane visit us in the spring, and tarry here all summer, and rear their young. The sandhill crane lives on the Scioto, and tarries there nearly all the year. The robbin-red-breast, black bird, and Baltimore oriole visit us early in the spring, and tarry here through the summer.
Four species of swallow visit us: the barn swallow, the chimney swallow, the martin and the ground swallow. They spend the summer with us, until their young are reared, when they leave us abruptly. The magpie comes in April or May. We call him bob-of-lincoln. He is not much of a musician, though that is not his fault, as he labors hard to sing as well as he can.
We have the yellow bird, resembling the canary bird, except in his color. It is undoubtedly of the same family. We have several species of humming-birds and the goldfinch.
The whip-poor-will visits us not very early in the spring. The king bird comes as soon as he thinks the bees, hovering about the flowers, are numerous enough to feed himself and his young ones. This HEAD OF A DEPARTMENT, lives only on the most industrious classes of insects. i
After a long storm from the southwest, many birds of different species are often seen here, of a most beautiful plumage, which disappear again after a week's fair weather. We do not even know their names. The pewee comes early and retires early. Gulls, or stormy petrels are often seen along the Ohio river, before a southwestern storm. A few years since, paroquetts, in large flocks lived in the woods, along the Ohio river, from Miller's bottom downwards, and along the Scioto river, upwards from its mouth, to where Columbus now stands. They are still in the woods along the bottoms below
Chillecothe near the river, where there is the proper food for them to eat, and birds enough for them to torment by their sqalling noise. We have the cat-bird of two species, snipes, and the real ortolan.
We have four species of THRUSH, but the brown one deserves our special notice for his singing, and his imitative powers. He delighted once to live along the Scioto river, among the great variety of feathered songsters, that then dwelt along the banks of the Scioto. As we have often, more than twenty years since, while travelling in the then woods along the banks of the Scioto, stopped awhile to hear him sing, and see him act his several comedies and tragedies; it seems no more than right to give our readers some idea of his several performances on such occasions. This Shakspeare among birds, seats himself on some tree, where the greatest variety of all sorts of birds dwell, and makes it his business to mock and disappoint them. Hence, his common name of mockingbird. Having seated himself in a proper place, he listens in profound silence to the songs of the several sorts of birds around him. In the vernal season he makes the love call of a female of some near neighbor, with heart-stirring melody, until the males come in flocks to caress their loved mate, when lo! no such lovely bird is there. They find instead of the lovely fair one, a homely brown thrush. Having succeeded in imposing on one species, he proceeds to play off similar “ tricks upon other travellers." He continues his play, until he is satisfied with his own mischief and his neighbors' disappointments.
When the other birds have young ones, he watches their nests, until the parents have left them in quest of food, when, seating himself near their domiciles, he imitates the scream of the hawk or some other bird of prey. If the parents heed this scream and come home, very well, but if not heeded by them, he proceeds to imitate the voice of the young ones in the utmost distress and agony. He utters their shrill cry and their dying groan, when the affrighted and afflicted parents come flying in the utmost haste and trepidation to re
lieve their suffering, dying young ones, but behold! no one is near them, but the innocent, the plain, the honest and candid Mr. Turush, who retires as if laughing in his sleeve, at the trick which he has played off upon the parents.
In the evening, after the birds have reared their young ones, and when all join to raise their several hymns of praise, the thrush seats himself in this woodland orchestra, and begins by singing in succession, the notes and songs of all the birds around him, beating all of them, using their own notes, and singing their own songs...
Having thus, as he supposes, carried off the prize in this musical contest, he prepares for his finale, by taking his seat on the topmost end of the highest bough of the loftiest tree, standing on the highest ground in all the grove, and then he commences to sing his own clear notes, and his own most delightful song. At times, his wings are expanded, his neck is extended, every feather on his whole body, quivers with bis exertion of every limb, and his whole soul is exerted to its utmost power, to produce the most perfect melody that was ever heard in the woods of Ohio. He continues his delightful music, until after all the other birds are silent and still, so that his own song is the only one, then heard in all the grove, far and wide, all around him, for a long time.
Thus we see, that he can act a principal part in the beggar's opera, or in the comedy of errors. He can play Falstaff in the Merry Wives of Windsor, the Ghost in Hamlet, or, Macbeth in tragedy, and well deserves to be called WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE among the birds, not of Stratford upon the Avon, but of CHILLICOTHÆ upon the Scioto.
MEDICAL TOPOGRAPHY, DISEASES, CLIMATE, TORNADOES
AND THE WINTERS IN THIS STATE.
, In the Autumn of 1806, a fever of the remittent type, made its appearance, extending from the Ohio river, on the south, to Lake Erie on the north.
Its symptoms were chills in the forenoon, between ten and
eleven o'clock, which were succeded by violent fever, afterwards in an hour and a half. The fever continued to rage till about six o'clock, in the evening. During the exacerbation, great pain or oppression was felt in the brain, liver, spleen or stomach, and frequently, in all these organs. The sweating stage took place about midnight. By daylight, there was a respite, but not a total exemption from the urgency of these symptoms. .
This was the common course of the disease, but there were occasionally found, distinct intermittents and a few cases of continued fever. The first cases mentioned afforded no opportunity for interposing tonicks. In the second order, every common man as well as the physician was acquainted with the proper, and certain remedy; and the third form of the epidemic, was most safely left to the healing power of nature.
Such however, was the malignancy of our autumnal diseases, that from the best information we can procure, the Hockhocking country, (now called Lancaster,) in a circle of five miles around Lancaster, the one fifth of the inhabitants died, in that year! From information given us by many in the same circle around Chillicothe, one sixth part of the inhabitants were swept off by death.
As a sequel to this epidemic, a most annoying and incorigible affection of the skin took place; nor have there been wanting cases of the same description in any year since the above mentioned. The emigrants from the Atlantic states could not be persuaded, that it was not the same disease which in their country, is denominated jtch. But in this opinion they are certainly mistaken, inasmuch as it resists all the remedies which are successfully employed in that disease:
Its most prominent symptoms were first, a sense of uncommon lassitude, and a listlessness, and aversion to muscular motion. A slight pain about the ancles, which seemed gradually to ascend to the calves of the legs, and in a few hours more, a
dull pain, which soon terminated in a spasm, or a cramp of the stomach. ' This was quickly followed by violent efforts to vomit, which continued for four, five, six or seven days; or until death closed the scene. If the patient recovered it was only to receive at no very distant period, another shock, equally terrific and appalling. The geographical range of this fell disease, was confined mostly to the barrens.
The diagnosticks between this disease, and the Cholera Morbus, was the obstinate constipation of the bowels from first to last. Many treatises have been written concerning the disease, but as yet, our knowledge of either its causes or cure is imperfect. Where the cattle are kept from wild grass, this disease is never found. It is now no longer known, only in history, we believe.
The description of Autumnal diseases, as just given, has been without variation; except in the violence of the symptoms in any of the succeeding years, until 1823. .
In 1813 and 14, the disease, which prevailed as an awful epidemic, in these two years, was not peculiar to the Western country. We mean the disease named in some sections of the United States- pneumonia typhoides”-or“ typhus pleurisy;" in other sections, pneumonia “ biliosa”—but in this country called, the “cold plague.”
Heavy and long continued rains, commenced about the fourteenth of November 1822, and continued almost daily, until the first day of the ensuing June.
It was computed by some persons, that the country lying between the Scioto and Miami rivers, had the twentieth part of its surface covered, during the months, of March, April and May, with water. A fever commenced its ravages, and continued its course, during the months of June, July, August, September, and during the early part of October. It was of the remittent and continued type, affecting more or less, many, perhaps, nineteen twentieths of the people. No intermission was noticed in the course of twenty-four hours, nor was the low country of the Scioto and Miami, the only location of this form of fever. In north latitude between 390 and 40°, this dis