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protection against this, his worst enemy. We have two or three species of black snake, very long and slender, one with a white ring around his neck. We have water snakes of several species and the common garter snake, but none of our serpents are poisonous, except the rattle snake, and the copperhead. The two latter, are mostly confined now, to our billy region, and will soon be gone. We have three species of tortoises, viz: large black, small brown, with yellow spots on its shell, and the soft shelled tortoise. The latter lives wholly in the water, and is equal to the sea turtle, for food. It weighs from six to ten pounds, sometimes more.
Lizzards are common in the woods, and in pleasant weather bask on old logs, in the sun shine. Newts are common, in our waters. And in the Ohio river, and indeed, in all our rivers, is an animal, between the newt and alligator, and is often taken on hooks set for fishes. It is sometimes two, or, even three feet in length, and of a most disgusting appearance. Is it the Proteus-lateralis ?
Cray fishes are quite abundant, in our low lands, some of which are six inches long, weighing eight ounces. They taste like the lobster, and have the property of reproducing their antennæ, when broken off. Their limbs when cooked, taste like the lobster or oyster-saltish. We have all sorts of frogs and toads. Our bull frogs are larger than any east of the mountains.
Our insects are too numerous to be even enumerated, unless we devoted a large space to them. One of the most interesting and curious, is the cicada. It is somewhat smaller than the harvest fly. They are said to appear at regular periods, which some persons have fixed at once in seven years. Others have asserted, that these periodical returns are once in fourteen years—others say, once in seventeen years. His common name is "locust,” he appears by the middle of May, and they are all gone, early in July. When he first appears, on the surface of the earth, he resembles a grub worm; is half an inch long, and three-eighths of an inch in diameter. He rises from the earth, perpendicularly, by a hole, which he makes, with equal ease through any kind of soil, whether of sand or of clay. They first appear on the surface, in the night, and are then white and soft. They crawl up some bush, tree or limb, and wait until the sun dries their shells, which envelope them. This shell bursts on the insect's back, out of which prison the locust crawls. Their bodies are very tender at first, and they cannot then, either crawl or fly far. In this state they remain one night, their bodies still moist, their wings expanding, and during the day following, they begin to fly a few feet, at a time, and by the first night, they can fly several rods. The insect has now arrived at full maturity. . · When the state was first settled by us, and during twenty years afterwards, wild bees were very numerous. The Indians collected great quantities of honey, and sold barrels of it to the white settlers. In the woods along the Ohio river, but more still in the forests immediately around all our prairies, bees lived in the hollow trees. During all the warm weather, these useful and industrious insects hovered over the profusion of wild flowers in these meadows, and flew through the air to and from their homes. Along the intervals of all our rivers among the wild roses and sweet briars, they plied their busy work, spun through the air like so many wires, in right lines, and lulled to rest, the wild man, by their buzzing, humming music. But they are become scarce, and tame bees have not, as yet supplied their place. We rear but few becs, and honey is not often seen in the state. Why, we do not know.
- White oak,
Common European oak, Mossycup oak, Over cup, white oak, Post oak, . Over cup oak, Swamp, white oak, Chesnut, white oak, Rock chesnut oak, Yellow oak, Small chesnut oak, Willow oak, Laurel oak, Upland willow oak, Running oak, Bartram oak, Water oak, Black Jack oak, Bear oak, Barrens scrub oak, Spanish oak, Black oak, Scarlet oak, Grey oak, · Pin oak, Red oak,
Common European walnut, Juglans regia.
Juglans cathartica. Pecawnnut hickory, Juglans olivæformis. Butter nut hickory, 'Juglans amara. . Water butternut hickory, Juglans aquatiqua. Mockernut hickory, Juglans tomentoso. Shellbark hickory, Juglans squamosa. Thick shellbark hickory, Juglans laciniosa. Pignut hickory,
Juglans porcina. Nutmeg hickory, Juglans myristicæ porcinis.
f. Platanus occidentalis.
Populus. Cotton tree,
Populus argentea. Balsam poplar,
Populus Balsamifera. Heartleaved,
Populus Candicans. , White poplar,
Populus canescens. : American aspen,
Populus tremuloides. · TREES NOT VERY COMMON. Crab apple,
Malus coronaria. Mountain laurel,. Kalmia latifolia, rare. Black birch,
Betula nigra, do. Yellow do.
.66 flava, do. Black alder, or Alnus,'. Alnus ohiensis. Buckeye, two species, Pavia lutea. . Sweet buckeye,
Pavia ohiensis. . . Besides the above named trees, we have many more. Among the trees enumeratad above, the over-cup-acorn oak, the white and black oaks, the sycamore, the beech, the black, walnut, the white wood, the sugar maple, the shell barked hickory, the chestnut, the yellow pine, the common European walnut and several others are the largest trees, we have growing in this state. Their height is often one hundred feet, and their diameter, from three to four, or five feet. We have two or more species of mulberry and so congenial are our soil