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one is the shovel nose sturgeon, eels and herrings, (not the eastern herring, but larger,) and taken in nets; garfish, chubs and minnews; catfishes of two species, black and yellow. Along the Ohio and its branches, many fishes are taken in the spring months; by setting what is called, a trot line, where the water is deep and still. The line is usually from forty to sixty yards in length. The middle of it is supported by buoys, while its ends are fastened down, by large stones. To this line, a large number of short lines are fastened, with hooks attatched to them well baited, with minnews or cray-fishes. This line is visited morning and evening, or even oftener, by a man, in a canoe, who takes hold of the main line, and pulls himself along by it until he comes to one of these shorter lines, which be pulls up, and takes off its fish, baits it again and so proceeds along the whole length of his main line, taking off the fishes, and rebaiting the hooks. In this manner catfishes are sometimes caught, weighing one hundred pounds. When the waters are low, in the summer months, seines, are drawn, and large quantites are taken by them. Pikes are sometimes caught in nets weighing thirty, forty and fifty pounds. There is another method used, in taking fishes which is with a spear; sometimes by torch light.' Of this method of fishing, the Indians were extremely fond. The fishes are attracted to the surface of the water, by the light, and the expert spearsman darts his spear into him, and drags him into the skiff or canoe. . In lake Erie, are found all the fishes that we have named, as being in the Ohio, and branches. And in addition to these, there are many others whose names we do not even know. The white fish, of lake Erie, is a valuable fish and a delicious one too. Vast numbers of them are caught in Detroit river with seines. The specled trout is in lake Erie near Buffaloe.
The salmon trout of Michigan, the muskelunge of the Erie, Michigan, Huron and Superior, are valuable fishes, millions of which are taken, salted, barrelled up, and some of them sent down our canal, to the towns along it. But there are not enough caught, nor one half enough for our population. Not a few barrels of shad, mackerel, salmon, as well as dried cod
fishes, haddock, &c. are annually brought here and sold from the Atlantic cities.
If we cannot now get a full supply, from our rivers, ponds and lakes, what will be our need in twenty five years hence, when our population, in Ohio alone, will exceed, four millions of people? Since our canal is opened between the Ohio river and lake Erie, the fishes of the lake are making their way towards the Ohio, while those of the river are traveling towards the lake in the canal.
Have been, or rather ought have been divided by Naturalists into four ORDERS (viz.] 1. Chelonian, 2. Saurian, 3. Ophidian 4. Batracian. In common language, these animals are, 1. tortoises and turtles, 2. lizards and crocodiles, 3. serpents, and 4. frogs and salamanders.
These orders are divided into several genera and these are again subdivided into several species. The batracians are divided into nine genera (to wit:) Bufo, Pipa, Hyla, Rana, Salamandra, Menopoma, Amphiuma, Siren and Proteus. All the orders and most of the genera, and their species live in this state. We are satisfied that they are imperfectly described by authors, at best, and not a few species are not even known to them. To any one who wishes to examine and describe them, Cincinnati should be visited by him, where he can see them, in Dorfeuille's Museum, Of batracians we have several new species, if not genera. We speak understandingly on this subject, when we say that they are imperfectly described at best. European Naturalists have shown much ignorance of our animals, and the aụthors of our Atlantic states are about equally ignorant. In a volume like this, intended for common readers, we have neither the space for a full view of this subject; nor the inclination to indulge our own taste' in pursuing it, into details. We have divided our reptiles as we know that they should be divided and leave it to the young men of Ohio to extend their researches into this obscure, and as yet, quite misunderstood subject.
Having said what we have, for scientific readers, we proceed in the common method to treat this matter, in a way, to suit common readers.
We have taken but a few steps into the path of Natural History leading the way and pointing ahead, for the young men of this state, to follow us, and when we stop short, and stand by the way side, we pray them to march forward to the end of the path. Any one of them who feels within his own bosom, that he holds an appointment, to make a correct survey of Nature, not from any civil ruler, but from Nature's God, let such an one move onward, and fame and glory will follow his labors. No governor will appoint him, nor Legislature pay him. The Creator will reward him..
We have fresh water clams-(unio) in all our tributaries of the Ohio river, as well as in that river itself. We have strong reasons for believing that this family of shell fishes inhabit all the streams in the Mississippi valley. Thirty or forty years since, this family were divided by conchologists into four species of unio. Since that time one naturalist, makes them three hundred species! We have seen this animal in all the larger streams of the Ohio river; in that stream, in the Wabash, Illinois, Missouri, Upper Mississippi, Rock river, Ioway, and Wisconsin rivers, but we believe that every species of this family, existing any where in the western states and Territories, may be found in the Scioto river. We are not among those who believe that natural history gains any thing by multiplying species of animals, on paper, which have no existence any where else. .
Linnæus simplified science, and rendered it easy to understand, so that any child of twelve years old could understand and comprehend it. Miss ELIZABETH BUCHANAN of Cincinnati is an excellent botanist. Since the days of Linnæus, weak men have often been, the pests of science, by using terms not understood by common readers. These quacks in science, would be quite below our notice, did they not impose upon those in power, who are sometimes quite as ignorant as these pretenders. No man more scorned such quacks than Governor Clinton, who often condemned them in his writings. · We have ten species of snail, or, exactly the same number found east of the Alleghanies.
We have the gopher which lives in our wet barrens. The prairie wolf never lived in Ohio, nor east of the Wabash country, for which we feel quite thankful, and we have not either, the green prairie fly, of the far-west, which is there so troublesome as to render it difficult, in the warm weather, to travel across those immense prairies where they dwell, unless it be in the night season.
But our wild animals will soon be destroyed, indeed, they are mostly killed off already.
WILD ANIMALS, SERPENTS, TORTOISES, AND OTHER AMPHIBIOUS
ANIMALS, QUADRUPEDS AND INSECTS.
The wild animals of this state, are such as were formerly inhabitants of Kentucky, Tennessee and Indiana. Among the carniverous animals we have the bear, black and yellow wolf and the panther, and the black and gray fox.
Of those animals, that are carniverous and herbiferous, we have the opossum, raccoon, polecat and mink. The woodchuck or ground hog, and rabbit, are herbiferous. Of squirrels, we have the black, gray, striped and fox squirrels. We have too, the red, and flying sqirrels. The native rats are black and small, but the boats on the Ohio river have long since introduced the wharf rat. Mice are of the same species with those in the eastern states. We have the weasel, and a small porcupine. Beavers were once here, in large numbers on the high lands, at the heads of our rivers, but with those who caught them, they have long since disappeared from among us. A few otters remain, along our rivers, and the muskrat is more common, doing injury, to our canals in places.
We had once the bison and the clk, in vast numbers all over Ohio. When Circleville was first settled, the carcasses, or rather skeletons, of fifty individuals of the family of elk, lay scattered about on the surface, which the Indians had left here. We had an abundance of deer, and they are numerous still in the newer parts of the state. They are the common red deer.
Our serpents are rattlesnakes, of two species, one is a large one, the male black and the female yellow. These inhabited all this state, especially the hilly regions, and they are there now. The small spotted rattle snake, dwelt in the northwestern corner of the state, in the prairies there. It is scarcely twenty inches in length and is quite venomous. Cap
tain James Riley encountered not a few of them, while travi eling in that region. Wherever hogs run in the woods, they
destroy the rattle snake. At an early period of our settlement, the large rattlesnake was found along the Scioto, in considerable numbers, but the newly settled inhabitants, ascertaining that these serpents burrowed in a large stone mound a few miles northeastwardly, from Circleville, after the serpents had gone into their winter quarters, fenced in the mound, and, as the serpents came out of it in the spring of the next year, they killed them, so that it is rare thing now, to find one in this region. Five miles above Columbus, on the main branch of the Scioto river, there was, formerly, a den of serpents, of the rattlesnake family, and a Mr. Thomas Back us, who then owned the land there, endeavored to destroy the serpents, by keeping a fire, during the winter months, in a cave, where the snakes had entered their den. This expedient, not succeeding, he fenced in the den, and put a large number of hogs into it. This effected his object, and very few of these serpents are now found at, or near the place.
Why the bite of this serpent should not injure the hog, we do not know, unless it be, on the principle, that oil is an antidote to the poison of the serpent. The oil of olives, is known to be an antidote, and the fat of the hog may be so, likewise.
The hog is fond of eating the serpent, and his poison is no