« ZurückWeiter »
and is resorted to, more and more, annually, by persons in health, as well as by invalids. The accommodations, at the springs, are as good as could be expected, in a country so new as this. There is a post office there, as well as a tavern, with one hundred guests, frequently, in the summer months. The proprieter has laid out some beautiful gardens on his grounds, and has erected suitable buildings.'
· THE DELAWARE SPRINGS.
Are in the town of Delaware, twenty-four miles north of Columbus. Here are accommodations for a considerable number of guests. The water in the springs is strongly impregnated with sulphur. This watering place is more and more resorted to, annually, by those who are in pursuit of health or pleasure, or both, at the same time..
There are many chalybeate watering places in the state. There is one at Williamsport, ten miles west of Circleville, on Deer creek. A similar one at Chillicothe, also, is coming into repute. It is situated on an acclivity west of the town. At the spring, a good view of the town is obtained, as well as of the adjacent country, above and below Chillicothe. It belongs to Thomas James, president of the Bank of Chillicothe.
Four or five miles above the north line of Washington county, on a water of Duck creek, and within the limits of Monroe county, petroleum was found by boring for salt water. This Seneca oil, rises about four hundred feet. It is subject to such tremendous explosions of gas, as to force out all the salt water in the well. The sale of the petroleum affords considerable profit, and the article begins to be used in lamps, workshops, and in manufactories. It affords a clear, brisk light, and will be a valuable article for street lamps in our future large cities.
There is a petroleum spring, in Chatauqua county, New York, from which the light house at Portland, is supplied with all the oil, used in that establishment. This spring indicates coal in that region.
There are many other such springs, all over the coal region of this state. Such springs issue from beneath beds of either coal or shale, and, we doubt not, many such springs will be found, in the same region, from which, vast quantities of petroleum will be obtained. Large quantities of this petroleum are sold in bottles labeled “ American Oil,” and used for sprains, rheumatism, gout, &c. &c. It has acquired considerable celebrity, already, and should it fall into the hands of some enterprising “water doctor,” or some, SwAIM, a large fortune, would be realised by the sale of it.
LAKE ERIE, ITS ISLANDS AND MINERALS.
Lake Erie bounds this state, from the western limits of Pennsylvania, in the middle of the lake, extending westwardly, along to a point in the water, north of Maumee bay. Lake Erie bounds this state, in a direct line, about one hundred and sixty miles. i
The lake itself, is nearly three hundred miles in length, and is one hundred miles in width, in the widest place. Its average breadth, is about fifty miles, and its circumference is at least seven hundred miles, following the various windings of its shores. Its surface occupies, about eight millions of acres of water. It is a beautiful inland sea, and is as useful as it is beautiful. It has many landing places, and, since the United States have begun to improve the harbors, along its southern shore, it has several excellent harbors, for such vessels as navigate it. Towards its western end, from Sandusky bay, westward, it contains in it, several valuable islands. Their names follow, viz:
Cunningham's island, Put-in-bay island,
Ship island, Rocky island,
Pick pocket island,
Point Pele island,
Bolton's island, Middle island,
Hen and chickens, Strontian island,
All these islands are west of the line, which separates the sandstone from the limestone formation,--so they are either underlaid with the latter rock, or some of its kindred minerals. Some of them contain beautiful sulphate of lime, or crystaline gypsum.
One island contains so much sulphate of Strontian, as to give the whole island the name it bears. In the summer of 1828, while in that region, we procured hundreds of specimens of this mineral, which we brought home, and now describe them, as they lie before us. They occur both massive and regularly crystalized. The crystals are usually four-sided prisms, variously modified, and terminated by two, four or eight sided summits, sometimes compressed into tables.
Its most common form, is an oblique four-sided prism, terminated at both ends, by four faces, standing on the edges, at the sides. The crystals are frequently long and slender, collected into fascicular groups, whose faces have a strong lustre, but are not transparent, though translucent. Its fracture is foliated and glistening;-its color yaries, but is either, bluish, milk-white, gray or reddish.
Strontian island, is about twenty miles from Sandusky City, and is well worth visiting, by the mineralogist. This lake rises seven feet higher in some years than in others, so that islands one year may be covered with water the next. We have said many of these islands contain gypsum, but, that mineral is found in great abundance under the waters of Sandusky bay, and on the point of land which lies between that bay and the lake. This is a granular gypsum, crystalized, and beautifully variegated by streaks of blue, red and white. Large quanties of this gypsum are dug and carried away, down our canal, as far as Muskingum county. It is used as a cement and as a manure, or stimulant for vegetables; for we cannot say which, though we do know, that it acts very beneficially on all sorts of vegetables, in certain soils, though not on others. It acts most beneficially on vegetation, in a sandy soil, and in a time of drowth. We have reason to believe, that this beautiful variety of gypsum, exists in great abundance, on many of the lake islands, far westwardly, all the way possibly, to lake Superior, or even, on the islands of the Superior-itself.
The compact limestone of these islands, so easily approached by vessels, will soon become very valuable, and be transported all along the eastern end of lake Erie, where that rock is not found. The beautiful red cedar, of these islands, too, will be sought for, and transported, to the lake cities and towns, on the southern shore.
It is now one hundred and fifty-seven years since the first white man sailed across lake Erie, in the Griffin. Our harbors, along lake Erie, are already visited by a mercantile marine, of no little value and importance.
Beginning at the west end of the lake, we have Maumee bay at the entrance of the Maumee into this inland sea. This bay is several miles in width, and deep enough for all the lake vessels. Next to this bay castwardly, is Port Clinton. The next port eastward, is Sandusky bay, which is sheltered from all winds, and is an excellent harbor. There is a lighthouse here, as in Maumee bay, built and under the control of the United States. Next eastwardly, is the mouth of Huron river, where the United States have done much for its harbor. At the mouth of Black river, Congress have expended money very usefully to make a harbor. Next going eastward, we come to Cleveland harbor, where a great deal of lake shipping resorts. This is the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, and the end of the Ohio grand canal. · So long ago as August 1834, we counted, twenty-eight canal boats, twelve lake schooners, and four large steamers each averaging four hundred and fifty tons, lying in Cleveland harbor, at one time. The steam vessels had tall masts, . and they carried sails.'
Our commerce is constantly increasing on this lake, and will increase, annually, for ages yet to come. There is a light house at Cleveland, and there ought to be, A MARINE HOSPITAL, for disabled seamen. Proceeding eastwardly, the distance of thirty miles, we arrive at the harbor of FAIRPORT, where there is a light house, and an increasing commerce. CONNEAUT and ASHTABULA are ports farther eastward. The beforementioned, are the principal ports, in Ohio, on lake Erie, upon which the United States, have wisely expended money, to improve them.
To the officers who have disbursed the public money, at these ports, we are compelled to award our unqualified approbation, for the science and skill, industry and enterprise, economy and good management, which they have displayed, in all which they have done, in improving these harbors. We regret that we cannot name them, we being ignorant on that point, not knowing even one of them, but their labors. praise them much.
Lake Erie has its land and sea breezes, in summer, and it presents the same boundless prospect to the eye and the same solemn, sublime hum to the ear, in a calm, as the ocean does. In a storm, lake Erie, to all the senses, presents the same aspect as the Atlantic, when 'swept by a gale of wind. This inland sea is not rivalled by any other, in the world, for beauty or usefulness. Its cities will soon rival the Atlantic ones, in size, commerce and wealth.
THE FISHES, IN OUR RIVERS, PONDS AND LAKES, AND THE
DIFFERENT MODES OF TAKING THEM.
When this country was first settled by us, fishes were found in all our waters, in great abundance, but since so many steam boats are employed on the Ohio river, and so many dams have been erected on all our other rivers, these fishes have become scarce and more difficult to take. The kinds usually caught, are black, yellow and white perch; spotted perch, pike, trout, buffaloe, several species of sucker, two species of sturgeon,