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Square
Miles.

COUNTY SEATS

Cadiz

555

Holmes,

COUNTIES.
When

No. of
organized.

Townships Harrison, 1813

13 Henry,

724 2 Highland, 1805 Hocking,

1818 432

1825 422 Huron, ; 1815 800 Jackson, 1816 490 Jefferson,

1797 400 Knox,

1808 618 Lawrence,

1817 439 Licking,

1808 666 25
Logan, 1818 424
Lorain,

1824 580 19
Madison, 1810 480
Marion, 1824 527 15
Medina, 1818 475 14
Meigs,

1819.. 400 Mercer, :

1824 ' 576 4 Miami,

1807 410 12

1815 563 18 Montgomery, 1803 480 Morgan, 1819 500 15 Muskingum, 1804 665 Paulding,

432 Perry, 1818 402 Pickaway, 1810

1815 421 9 Portage, 1807 750 30 Preble, 1808 432 12 Putnam, 1834 576 1 2 Richland,

1813 900 25 Ross,

1798 650 : 16 Sandusky,

600 10 Scioto,

1803 700 14 Seneca, 1824 540 11 Shelby, 1819 . 418 10

Hillsborough.
Logan.
Millersburg.
Norwalk.
Jackson.
Steubenville.
Mount Vernon.
Burlington.
Newark.
Bellefountaine.
Elyria.
London.
Marion.
Medina.
Chester.
St. Marys.
Troy.
Woodsfield.
Dayton.
M'Connelsville.
Zanesville.

10

Monroe,

470

Pike,

Somerset.
Circleville.
Piketon.
Ravenna,
Eaton.
Kalida.
Mansfield.
Chillicothe.
Lower Sandusky.
Portsmouth.
Tiffin.
Sidney.

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COLUMBUS is the seat of the state government. It is situated on a high bank, on the east side of the Scioto, about ninety miles from its mouth. Including its immediate vicinity, it contains about seven thousand inhabitants, who are among the most intelligent, active and enterprising people in the state. Its buildings are, many of them large, commodious and handsome. The state house is not such an one, as Ohio ought to have, at this day, nor are the other public buildings, for the public offices, what they should be.

The penitentiary is a large, handsome building, of stone, built mostly by the convicts, who are confined in it.

The United States have a good court house for their courts, and the county of Franklin holds its courts in it, also, having assisted in building it.

The state has erected a large building, for the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, in sight of the town. This is a very useful institution, for those, who are Deaf and Dumb. The legislature patronizes it.

A hospital for the insane is now being built near Columbus, by the state.

The German Lutherans have a collegiate institution here, which needs patronage, and deserves it. It is under the charge of the reverend Wm. Smith, D D.

Columbus was surveyed off, into lots, streets &c, early in the

year 1812, and the first sale of the lots in it, commenced on the same day, that president Madison signed the act for declaring war against Great Britain; on the 18th of June, 1812. .

It is now a city, and the Honorable Jarvis Pike, was its first Mayor. Lyne Starling, Esquire, is the only original proprieter of this city, now living in it.

The citizens have paid great attention to the education of their children, especially their daughters. Their professional men; clergymen, physicians and lawyers stand high, and deservedly so, in the estimation of all who know them. The state officers, too, are very faithful and attentive to their duties; and the same remark may truly be applied to such of the United States officers, as are located at this point. The governor of the state is compelled to be here, but we have erected for him, no house to live in, and what is worse, his salary is insufficient to support him here, or any where else, during the time for which he is elected. This is wrong, all wrong.

But we hasten to CINCINNATI, the fairest city of the West. Having often mentioned it, and its position, in this work, we need not repeat what every reader ought to remember.

It contains, including its immediate vicinity, on both sides of the Ohio, at this time, about fifty thousand inhabitants. This beautiful city, like all the towns, in this state, is laid out, on the plan of Philadelphia; all the streets crossing each other at right angles. Many of the buildings are large, commodious and elegant, among which are about forty churches, a court house, and other county, and city buildings. A whole volume would scarcely describe Cincinnati, and its many and useful institutions; its colleges and other schools; its banking institutions; its learned associations, of all sorts; its public inns,* its museum, owned by J. Dorfeuille, in which, whoever wishes to

*Galt House Cincinnati.-This house is eligibly situated at the corner of Main and Sixth streets. It has been lately purchased by William E. Marsh, and very much improved by a large addition, furnished with entire new furniture. The house consists of forty single lodging rooms, and fifteen large rooms for families. It has the necessary parlors for ladies and gentlemen. Travelers will find it a pleasant and convenient botel.

study the natural history of the western states, can find more, to aid his researches, than in any other, one town, in the world. Here are in this city, five hundred stores of goods of all sorts, from every habitable country in the world. They contain the productions of every clime, and of every art, tastefully displayed to attract attention. As a whole, perhaps, no other people, in the world, are better clothed and fed than than these fifty thousand citizens. None are more healthful or happier, and none more intelligent, better informed, better bred, more kind, benevolent and polite to strangers and to each other. .

Like all the western people, the Cincinnatians are a stirring people. Through the day, they all dilligently attend to their several callings, but when evening sets in, the streets are thronged with pedestrians. The museum is opened and lighted up, into a blaze of brilliant light, and thronged with well dressed people of both sexes and all ages, who sometimes, listen to a discourse on natural History, or some other entertaining and useful subject. The churches are lighted up, and discourses are there delivered, to full audiences. All the public places are thronged to a late hour, when all retire to rest, and all is silence, until morning, then all is in motion again through the day.

There is a city police, who arrest criminals, and there are courts and juries here who punish crimes, speedily and justly. But, mercy is often mingled with justice, where circumstances seem to call for it. Of their courts and juries, we are compelled to speak well, because they richly deserve praise.

The professional men, the lawyers, physicians and clergymen are learned, wise and good.

· The Ohio river here, is a beautiful sheet of water, in front of the city, on whose surface, the large steamers move, or lie at the landing, thirty at once, sometimes. The Dayton canal here enters the Ohio river by several locks, creating an excellent water power, and another canal extending from the interior of Indianá will soon be completed to this point. The city, standing, as it does, on a high bank of diluvial sand of great depth, is watered by waterworks, similar to the Fairmjunt waterworks, at Philadelphi... The works are moved by steam power. The water is thrown into a reservoir, on a high bill, in the eastern part of the city, from whence, in pipes, it is conducted to all parts of the town, on to the very roofs of the houses, if necessary.

Forty-nine years since, not a human being dwelt on the site of Cincinnati. " The old Indian war path,” from the British garrison at Detroit, crossed the Ohio here, but no one lived here; not even Indians. The deer, bison, bear and elk were occasionally hunted on this site, until major Doughty erected Fort Washington, on the ground now occupied by the bazaar of the truth loving and most amiable Lady Trollope, in the month of November 1789, since which time, it has been occupied by our people.

LANCASTER, is the shire town of Fairfield county. It stands on the eastern side of the Hockhocking river. Before Lancaster was laid out, travelers, who passed along Zane's trace, through the, then, vast forests of Ohio, called this spot,“the place, where they crossed the Hocking, near the standing rock.” We refer the reader to our Geology of the state, for an account of the sandstone of this region. Lancaster was laid out in 1800, and now contains about three thousand people. The houses, three hundred in number, are large, durable and handsome ones. The country about it, is excellent for its soil, good water, good freestone, standing in lofty piles, here and there, intersected by most excellent land, for grass, grain and vegetables. A turnpike is making from Zanesville to Maysville through this town, east and west, and a canal is made, connecting Lanc'ister, with the Ohio and Erie canal, which is now being extended down the Hocking valley, to Athens. All these things are doing by the state, and will soon be done. The town is the centre of a considerable inland trade, which is increusing. The people of Lancaster are an industrious, well informed comm'initv, who have always stood high with the people of the state. This town is rapidly growing up, and will soon contain ten thousand people.

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