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empire in America; and this is the more probable, as most of these institutions were founded during the ambitious, splendid and enterprising reign of Louis XIV.” We add, that Louis XV., pursued the same policy towards his American empire as his predecessor had done. The Marquis Gallisonere, Governor General of new France, (as all this western country was called by them) in the year 1749, sent out an expedition, commanded by Louis Celeron, for the purpose of depositing medals at all important piaces, such as the mouths of the most considerable streams, and at remarkable places, such as the largest mounds, and other ancient works. Most of these medals, perhaps all, which were made of lead, containing “a proces verbal,” drawn up by order of the Governor General, contained blanks to be filled up with the date of the time of depositing them, and the names of the places, rivers, or objects where they were deposited. I had, for a considerable time, in my possession, such a medal, which stated it to have been left at the moutb of Venango river, where that stream empties into the Belle riviere or river Oyo,” as the Ohio was called by them. This medal was a thin plate of lead, and the lettering was rudely done. It asserted the claims of Louis XV., to all the country watered by the “riviere Oyo" and branches, and was deposited at the mouth of “Venango riviere,” Aout 16th, 1749.
Such medals as the above were deposited in many places over the western country, and many ancient coins, belonging to the Greeks, Romans, Gauls, Germans, &c., were also left at many places. It is one hundred and fifty eight years since the Griffin sailed across Lake Erie.
The French began to erect a line of forts, for the purpose of connecting Canada with the valley of the Mississippi, as early as 1719, and continued to extend them into this country, until they had established them, at all the most important points. After erecting Fort Du Kane at Pittsburgh, they established posts in the direction of the Potomac, but, the English finally conquered Canada, and most of their western posts, all indeed, along lake Erie, and on the waters of the Ohio, fell with Canada and were surrendered at the peace of 1763. It was this war, in which the Indians engaged, on the side of the French, against us, of which Logan speaks, in his address to Lord Dunmore. It was, indeed, a long and bloody war, in which, Louis XIV., XV. lost Canada, and all the country watered by the Ohio river.
From 1764 up to 1774, there was no Indian war, on this frontier, between the whites and the Indians; and had it not. been for some badly disposed, and bloody minded men, perhaps, those scenes of cruelty and bloodshed, which we are compelled to notice, though slightly, might possibly have been avoided altogether. But so it was, and our regrets, cannot alter the facts, which now form a portion of history, and having been acted on our territory, belong to Ohio's history.
LORD DUNMORE'S WAR OF 1774.
From the peace made with the Indians by Sir William Johnston, at the German Flatts, on the Mohawk river, in the 1764, until the spring of 1774, there was no Indian War on the Ohio river. On the 27th of April, 1774, Captain Cresap, at the head of a party of men, at Wheeling in Virginia, heard of two "Indians and some of their families, being up the river hunting, not many miles off; Cresap and his party followed them, and killed them, without provocation, in cold blood and in profound peace! After committing these murders, on their return to Wheeling that night, in their bloody conoes, they heard of an Indian encampment down the river, at the mouth of Cap. tina creek, and they immediately went, attacked and murdered all these Indians. After these unprovoked and cruel murders, a party under Daniel Greathouse, forty-seven in number, we believe, ascended the river above Wheeling, about forty miles, to Baker's station, which was opposite the mouth of Great Yellow creek. There keeping his men out of the sight of the Indians, Captain Greathouse, went over the river, to reconoitre the ground, and to ascertain how many Indians were there. He fell in with an Indian woman, who advised him, not to stay among them, as the Indians were drinking and angry. On receiving this friendly advise, he returned over to Baker's block
house, and he induced the persons at the station, to entice over all the Indians, they could that day, and get them drunk. This diabolical stratagem succeeded, many of the Indians came over, got drunk and were slain by the party of Greathouse. Hearing the guns, two Indians came over to Baker's, to see what the firing of the guns meant. These were slain as soon as they landed. By this time, the Indians at their camp, suspecting what was going on at Baker's, sent over an armed force, but these were fired upon while on the river, and several of them were killed. The survivors were compelled to return to their encampment. A firing of guns then commenced across the river, but not one of the whites was even wounded. Among the murdered, was the woman who gave the captain the friendly advise; and they were all scalped, who were slain! Among the murdered, at Captina and Yellow creek, was the entire family of Logan, the friend of the whites.
Knowing that these cruel and unprovoked murders, would be speedily avenged by the Indians, all the whites along the whole western frontier, either left the country, instantly, or retired into their block houses and forts.
An express was sent to the governor of Virginia, at Williamsburgh, the seat of government, to inform him what had happened. The colonial legislature were in session, and means were immediately used to commence a campaign against the Indians, and penetrate into the heart of their country on the Scioto river.
The plan of this campaign was soon determined on. General Andrew Lewis was ordered to raise a military force, and rendezvous at fort Union, now in Greenbriar county, and from thence, descend the Great Kenhawa to its mouth, on the Ohio river. .
The Earl of Dunmore intended to raise troops in Lower Virginia, and marching up the Potomac to Cumberland, in Maryland, cross the Alleghanies, until he struck the Mononghahala, thence, following that stream downwards, reach Pittsburgh, and from Fort Pitt, to descend the Ohio to Point Pleasant (as we now call it) and form a junction with Lewis, This was the original plan of operations, and, in accordance with it, General Lewis raised troops in Botetourte and Augusta counties, on the high grounds, near the head waters of the Shenandoah, James river, and Great Kenhawa. These counties were then, on the very frontiers of the colonial government of Virginia in which so many celebrated springs exist, such as “ The White Sulphur,” “The Warm,” “The Sweet Spring,” &c., and in a country too, then occupied by sharpshooters, hunters, and riflemen. Collecting from all parts of this country, two regiments of volunteers, at camp Union, now in Greenbriar county, General Lewis, on the 11th day of September, 1774, marched forward, towards the point of his destination. His route lay wholly through a trackless forest. All his baggage, his provisions, and even his ammunition, had to be transported on packhorses, that were clambering about among the tall cliffs, or winding their way through the dangerous defiles, ascending or descending the lofty summits of the Alleghanies. The country at this time, in its aspect is one of the most romantic and wild in the whole Union. Its natural features are majestic and grand. Among these lofty summits and deep ravines, nature operates on a scale of grandeur, simplicity and sublimity, scarcely ever equalled in any other region, and never surpassed in the world. At the time of this expedition, only one white man had ever passed along the dangerous defiles of this route. That man was Captain Matthew Arbuckle, who was their pilot on this painful and slow march. During nineteen entire days, this gallant band pressed forward descending from the heights of the Alleghany mountains, to the mouth of the Kenbawa, a distance of one hundred and sixty miles. This march was more painful and difficult than Hannibal's, over the Alps. On the first day of October, 1774, Lewis reached the place of his destination, but no Earl Dunmore was there. Despatching two messengers in quest of Governor Dunmore, Lewis and his Virginians continued at Point Pleasant. On the 9th of October, three messengers from the Earl arrived at Lewis's camp, and informed him that the Governor had changed his whole plan—that the Earl would not meet Lewis at Point Pleasant, but would
descend the Ohio to the mouth of the Hockhocking river-ascend that, to the Falls, and then strike off to the Pickaway towns, along the Scioto, whither Dunmore ordered Lewis to repair and meet him, as soon as possible, there to end this campaign. On the 10th of October, two of Lewis's soldiers were up the river Ohio, hunting, some two miles above the army, when a large party of Indians attacked them. One hunting soldier was instantly killed, but the other fled and safely arrived in the camp, and gave notice of the near approach of the enemy. General Lewis instantly gave orders for two detachments to meet and repel the enemy. Colonel Charles Lewis commanded the detachment of Botetourte militia, and Colonel Flemming commanded the other detachment, of Augusta militia. Rushing out of their camp, they met the enemy, about four hundred yards from it. The enemy instantly fired upon our men, a whole volley of rifles, and furiously commenced the battle. At the first onset, our men faultered, a moment, and began to retreat, but the reserve came up from the camp, and the enemy in turn, gave way, apparently, but in doing so, extended his line of battle from the Ohio to the Kenhawa, and by that means, completely hemmed in our men, in the angle formed by the junction of these rivers. There the enemy posted his warriors behind old logs, trees and drift wood, and fought with desperation, and without cessation, from the rising of the sun, when the battle commenced, until the sun sank below the horizon, when the enemy drew off his forces, and retired from the field of battle. In this desperate action we lost two Colonels, viz: Charles Lewis of the Botetourte volunteers, who was mortally wounded in the first fire of the enemy. He was enabled to just reach his tent, where he immediately expired. And Colonel Fields was also killed in battle. We lost in killed, five captains, viz: Buford, Muro ray, Ward, Wilson, and McClenehan; three lieutenants: Allen, Goldsby and Dillon, and many subalterns, besides seventyfive private soldiers who were killed in this hardly fought battle. The wounded amounted to one hundred and forty officers