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killed the leaves on the trees, the wheat, &c., in Kentucky, along the Ohio river. It destroyed all the fruit, far and wide, and extending its ravages beyond the mountains, to Pennsylva. nia, New Jersey and New York. There was ice at Louisville, Kentucky, an inch in thickness, two mornings in succession.

November is often one of the most pleasant months in the year, and such weather often extends nearly through December. February is frequently a pleasant month. The quantity of snow that falls in the southern parts of Ohio, is quite inconsiderable, never enough for any good sleighing. Hoar frost is often seen on a pleasant winter's morning...

Snow has been known to fall two feet deep at Fort Wayne, while rain only, fell in the southern parts of Ohio. All the snows which we do have, in the Scioto valley, below Big Walnut creek, generally follow, a rain, and melt as they fall. The southwest wind brings the rain, which being turned aside by the northern current of air, the latter lets fall its light load of snow upon us.'

Northeastern and eastern winds are scarcely ever known here. From their rage, the Alleghanies interpose a barrier which effectually defends us from all their violence and fury. While all the Atlantic cities feel the direful effects of those storms which sweep across the Atlantic, from Europe, we in this valley of the Mississippi, feel not even one gentle puff of air from the east. This whole valley, on such occasions, smiles in peace. When we have often crossed the Alleghanies east and west, we saw little difference in summer in the forwardness of the crops, in the same latitude; but in winter, we always found more snow on, east of the mountains, than west of them. And near the eastern base of the mountains they have occasionally, cold currents of air from the AlJeghanies sent down to cool the courtiers and courtezans, who visit Washington city every winter, which we neither need nor wish to have, in Ohio.

As to humidity, our atmosphere has undergone a wonderful change for the better within the last ten years.

We have mentioned two several tornadoes which have oca: curred in Ohio, within the last fifty-two years, to which we add one, that occurred from the west, and southwest winds coming in contact with each other. On the 28th of May, 1807 the wind blew down the Ohio river with violence, in the morning: One current of air bore its clouds, to the north, another current was carrying its clouds to the east The different currents prevailed at different altitudes. The western current traversed the southern one at right angles. Before noon, both currents had united their voluíne and were moving towards the east, or up the Ohio river.' Soon after this, the west wind was at the surface of the earth. Before two o'clock P. M. a narrow. whirlwind, or tornadoe, swept over the eastern part of Cincinnati, demolished a few, old, ruinous houses, threw down some old tops of chimneys, and finally prostrated several fruit trees, in the vicinity of the town. Sirrilar phenomena were observed over the western country, north and south of Cincinnati, for a distance of one hundred miles. These whirlwinds moved along in narrow veins, in the direction of the Alleghanies until they were stopped in their course. These two currents of air, the southwest and western, produce tornadoes as low down as Tennessee and Upper Alabama. And we have had three such, it appears, within fifty, two years. Two were produced by the northwestern and southwestern currents of air, coming in contact, and one was produced by the western and southwestern currents. The whole three were just about equal to one northeastwardly storm along the Atlantic coast, such as prevail there every year. But, inasmuch as the storms do not, and will not visit us oftener than once in eighteen years, on an average, the authors of geographies in the eastern states visit us with them, on paper, and represent our peaceful valley, as peculiarly subject to tornadoes! With what truth, the world may judge from our statement of facts, which is beyond the reach of all contradiction,

As to our warm weather, we have about two months more of it in Ohio, than the people of western New York, Vermont

thors of geogti, pepresent our peac truth, the w

and New Hampshire have in any one year. Our house builde ers work out, on an average, nine months in the year, and then work indoors, the other months; or they travel south, and there spend the winter, at their business, where the weather is warmer and their wages higher. "

Immediately on the shore of lake Erie, the weather in winter, is about three degrees colder than it is twenty miles south of the ridge, where the lake rivers rise. And it is about ten degrees colder at Cleveland than at Cincinnati, in winter. Traveling from the lake southwardly, a very sensible difference is experienced on reaching the Scioto valley. So in the heat of summer, in traveling to the lake, a coolness, highly invigorating is felt by the traveler from our valley. Hence, a tour to the lake, is advisable in summer, for those who sufferfrom the heat of the south.

Whether our atmosphere will continue to become more and more dry, as our forests disappear before us, we cannot positively say, though we can see no reason why it should not be the case. All the effects which the cultivation of the whole valley of the Mississippi, will produce on our climate, cannot be certainly foreseen, but we believe, that our seasons will become warmer and drier. They will be more healthful in the states west of us, warmer, drier and more equable in temperature, and possibly, the soil will be less productive, in this state, than at present.

[To all human appearance, this great valley is intended by its great, good, and wise Author, for a vast number of people in which to live, move about, and act, and eventually, to control forever, the destinies of the most powerful nation on the globe. After the next census, will be the time to fix on the course which we and our posterity will forever pursue, in governing ourselves and the eastern people. Thus far we have been mere "hewers of wood, and drawers of water” for the east. As the wheel of time revolves, we, who are now at the bottom, shall be on its summit. We shall do ourselves justice, in due time, and be, what we must be, an overwhelming majority of this nation.]

CIVIL AND POLITICAL HISTORY.

PERIOD FIRST.

THIS PERIOD EXTENDS FROM THE FIRST DISCOVERY AND NAVI

GATION OF LAKE ERIE, BY THE FRENCH, IN 1680, TO THE SETTLEMENT OF MARIETTA, APRIL 7TH, 1788. · IT COMPRISES ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHT YEARS.

The first Europeans who visited this region, were the French. In 1680, La Salle, a Frenchman, started on an expedition, and passing up Lake Erie and Lakes St. Clair and Huron and cruising along Lake Michigan, disembarked near where fort Chicago now stands. He traversed the intermediate country between that place and the Illinois river. He descended that stream to its mouth. Descending the Mississippi, he arrived at : length, at its mouth, after passing through many dangers and great hardships. Going home to France, he returned by sea, to the mouth of the Mississippi, and in endeavoring to pass through the country by land, to Canada, he lost his life, being murdered by one of his own party, somewhere in what is now the state of Illinois, as near as we can judge from his narrative. From this period, forward, the French Missionaries, visited the valley of the Mississippi very frequently, and their government was engaged in sending persons among the Indians to concili

ate them; and military men were sent to examine the country, · and select the most eligible sites for fortifications. Whoever

looks at the map of the country traversed, will at once perceive with what prudence they executed their commissions. Quebec, Montreal, Oswego, Niagara river, Presque-Isle, De

troit, Mackinaw, the Straits of St. Mary, Chicago, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, &c. &c, were as well selected for military posts, as could possibly be done, even at this day, when this country is well settled and of course, well known.

The first vessel ever launched by Europeans, on the upper lakes, was the Griffin, built by La Salle, in 1680, and was lost on its return voyage from Chicago to Niagara river. After its departure it was never heard of, nor is the fate of any of its crew known. Not a white man dwelt on the borders of that lake, nor in the Western States. Sixty years had elapsed since the landing of the pilgrims on Plymouth rock. The western states were one vast wilderness, inhabited only by savages and wild animals. The contrast is consoling to all the friends of a human happiness.'

The French intended to keep possession of the Canadas and of the whole valley of the Mississippi, which they claimed either by actual settlement, or by discovery; as well as by their treaties with the Indians, and confirmed to them, as they said, by the treaties of Aix La Chapelle &c. with the European governments. That they intended to erect a great and powerful State in the new world, is evident from the vast expenses they were at, in building forts at all the proper points of communication; from the great extent of their church establishment; their large endowments for colleges and other schools of learning. Their extreme anxiety, to keep possession of this vast territory is seen in every thing they did respecting it. Professor SILLIMAN in his “Tour between Hartford and Quebec," justly remarks, that she knows nothing that has excited his surprise more in Canada, than the number, extent and variety of the French institutions, many of them, intrin, sically of the highest importance, and all of them, according to their views, possessing that character." “ They are the more extraordinary,” he remarks, “ when we consider that the most of them are more than a century old, and at the time of their foundation, the colony was feeble and almost engaged in war, It would seem from these facts, as if the French contemplated the establishment of a permanent, and eventually, of a great

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