« ZurückWeiter »
am told that whenever the rebels take any black prisoners, free or slave, they immediately auction them off! They did so with those they took from a boat that was aground in the Tennessee River a fow days ago. And then I am very ungenerously attacked for it! For instance, when, after the late battles at and near Bull Run, an expedition went out from Washington under a flag of truce to bury the dead and bring in the wounded, and the rebels seized the blacks wid went along to help, and sent them into slavery, Horace Greeley said in his paper that the Govern. szent would probably do nothing about it. What could I do?
Now, then, tell ine, if you please, what possible result of good would follow the issuing of such a proclamation as you desire ? Understand, I raise no objections against it on legal or constitutional grounds, for, as commander-in-chief of the army and navy, in time of war I suppose have a right to take any measure which may best subdue the enemy; nor do I urge objections of a moral nature, in view of possible conso querces of insurrection and massacre at the South. I view this matter as a practical war measure, to be decided on according to the advantages or disadvantages it may offer to the suppression of the rebellion.
The Committee replied to these remarks, insisting that a proclamation of emancipation would secure at once the sympathy of Europe and the civilized world ; and that as slavery was clearly the cause and origin of the rebel. lion, it was simply just, and in accordance with the word of God, that it should be abolished. To these remarks the President responded as follows:
I adınit that slavery is at the root of the rebellion, or at least its sino quâ non. The ambition of politicians may have instigated them to act, bilt they would have been impotent without slavery as their instrument. I will also concede that emancipation would help us in Europe, and convince them that we are incited by something more than ambition. I grant, further, that it would help somewhat at the North, though not so much, I fear, as you and those you represent imagine. Still, some additional strength would be added in that way to the war, and then, unquestionably, it would weaken the rebels by drawing off their laborers, which is of great importance; but I am not so sure we could do much with the placks. If we were to arm them, I fear that in a few weeks the arms would be in the hands of the rebels; and, indeed, thus far, we have not had arms enough to equip our white troops. I will mention another thing, though it meet only your scorn and contempt. There are afty thousand bayonets in the Union army from the Border Slave States It would be a serious matter if, in consequence of a proclamation such ms you desire, they should go over to the rebels. I do not think they all
would not so many, indeed, as a year ago, or as six months ag..
not so many to day as yesterday. Every day increases their Union ii eling, They are also getting their pride enlisted, and want to beat the rebeis Let me say one thing more: I think you should admit that we already have an important principle to rally and unite the people, in the fact that constitutional government is at stake. This is a fundamental idea going down about as deep as any thing.
The Committee replied to this in some brief remarks, te which the President made the following response :
Do not misunderstand me because I have mentioned these objectious. They indicate the dificulties that bave this far presented my action is some such way as you desire. I have not decided against a proclamation of liberty to the slaves, but holl the matter under a:visement. And I can assure you that the subject is on my mind, by day and night, mors than any other. Whatever shall appear to be God's will I will do. I trust that in the freedom with which I have canvassed your views I have oot in any respect injured your fersings.
After free deliberation, and being satisfied that the public welfare world bo promoted by such a step, and hat public sentiment would sustain it, on the 22d of September the President issued the following preliminary
PPOOLAMATION OF EMANCIPATION.
I, ABRAHAM LIHOOLN, President of the United States of America, and Üoinmander-in Chief of the army and navy thereof, do hereby proclairo und declare that hereafter, as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically restoring the constitutional relation between the United States and each of the States, and the people thereof, in which States tblat relation is or may be suspended or disturbed.
That it is my purpose, upon the next meeting of Congress, to again recommend the adoption of a practical measure tendering pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or rejection of all slave States, so called, the people whereof may not then be in rebellion against the United States, and which States may then have voluntarily adopted, or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, immediate or gradual abolishment of slavery within their respective limits; and that the effort to colonize persons of African descent, with their consent, upon this continent or elsewhere, with the previously obtained consent of the governments existing there, will be continued.
'That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebelliou
against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the miliiary and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proo lamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which thia people thereof respectively shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by
ieinbers chosen tliereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified Fsters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such Stato, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States.
That attention is hereby called to an act of Congress entitled “An Aot to make an additional Article of War," approved March 13th, 1862, and which act is in the words and figures following:
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Uniteit States of America in Congress assembled, That hereafter the following shall be promulgated as an additional article of war for the government of the army of the United States, and shall be obeyed and observed as such :
SECTION 1.--All officers or persons in the military or naval service of the United States are prohibited from employing any of the forces under their respective commands for the purpose of returning fugitives from service or labor who may have escaped from any persons to whom such sorvice or labor is claimed to be due; and any officer who shall be foon 1 guilty by a court-martial of violating this article shall be dismissed from the service.
Seo. 2. And be it further enacted, That this act shall take effect from and after its passage.
Also, to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitled “ An Ast to Suppress Insurrection, to Punish Treason and Rebellion, to Seize and Confiscate Property of Rebels, and for other Purposes," approved only 16, 1862, and which sections are in the words and figures following:
Sko. 9. And be it further enacted, That all slaves of persons who shal hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the Government of the United States, or who shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping from such porsons and taking refuge within the lives of the army; and all slaves captured from such persons, or deserted by them and coming under the control of the Government of the United States; and all slaving of such persons found on [or] being within any place occupied by rebel forces and afterwards occupied by forces of the United States, shall be deemed captives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude, ard Aot agaiu held as slaves.
Sgo. 10. And be it further enceted?, That no slave escaping into any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, from any other State, shall
be delivered up, or in any way iinpeded or hindered of his liberty, except for crime, or some otience agair.st the laws, unless the person claiming said fugitive shall first make oath that the person to whom the labor or service of such iugitive is alleged to be due is his lawful owner, and has not borne arms against the United States in the present rebellion, nor in any way given aid and comfort thereto; and no person engaged in the military or naval service of the United States shall, under any pretence whatever, assume to decide on the validity of the claim of any person to the service or labor of any other person, or surrender up any such per. son to the claimant, on pain of being dismissed from the service.
And I do hereby enjoin upon and order all persons engaged ir. the : ulitary and naval service of the United States to observe, obey, and en
rce, within their respective spheres of service, the act and sections al ve recited.
And the Executive will in due time recommend that all citizens of the United States who shall have remained loyal thereto throughouü the rebellion, shall (upon tlie restoration of the constitutional relation botween the United States and their respective States and people, if that relation shall have been suspended or disturbed) be compensated for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of slaves.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington, this twenty-second day of Sep
tember, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and (L. 8.] sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-seventh.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.
The issuing of this proclamation created the deepest interest, not unmixed with anxiety, in the public mind. The opponents of the Administration in the loyal States, as well as the sympathizers with secession everywhere, insisted that it afforded unmistakable evidence that the ubject of the war was, what they had always declared it to be, the abolition of slavery, and not the restoration of the Union; and they put forth the most vigorous efforts to arouse public sentiment against the Administration on this ground. They were met, however, by the clear and explicit declaration of the document itself, in which the President “proclaimed and declared” that “hereafter, as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically restoring the constitutional relation between
the United States and each of the States and the people thereof, in which that relation is or may be suspended or disturbed.” This at once made it evident that emancipation, as provided for in the proclamation, as a war measure, was subsidiary and subordinate to the paramount object of the war—the restoration of the Union and the re-establishment of the authority of the Constitution; and in this sense it was favorably received by the great body of the loyal people of the United States.
It only remains to be added, in this connection, that or the 1st of January, 1863, the President followed this measure by issuing the following
Whorear, on the 22d day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the fol lowing, to wit:
That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any States or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, in cluding the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof respectively shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall bave participated, shall, in the absence (;' strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that suc!, State, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the Unite:i States.
Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and Government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and in accordance with my purpose so to do, publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred dnys from the day first above