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CHAPTER V.

FROM SPRINGFIELD TO WASHINGTON.

PEECH AT INDIANAPOLIS.

6.- ARRIVAL AND SPEECH AT CINCINNATI.--SPEEOR AT COLUMBUS.-SPEECH AT PITTSBURG.–ARRIVAL AND SPEECH AT CLEVE LAND.— ARRIVAL AT BUFFALO.—AT ROOLIESTER AND Syracuse. - AT ALBANY.-SPEECH AT POUGHKEEPSIE.-IN NEW YORK-REPLY TO THE Mayor OF NEW YORK.-IN NEW JERSEY.–ARRIVAL AT PHILADELPHIA.-SPEECH IN PHILADELPHIA.—AT HARRISBURG.- ARRIVAL AND RECEPTION AT WASHINGTON,

From the date of his election, Mr. LINCOLN maintained silence on the affairs of the country. The Government was to remain for three months longer in the hands of Mr. Buchanan, and the new President did not deem it becoming or proper for him to interfere, in any way, with the regular discharge of its duties and responsibilities. On the 11th of February, 1861, he left his home in Springfield, Illinois, accompanied to the railroad dépôt by a large concourse of his friends and neighbors, whom he bade farewell in the following words :

MY FRIENDS :-No one not in my position can appreciate the sadness I feel at this parting. To this people I owe all that I am. Here I have lived more than a qnarter of a century; here my children were born, and here ore of them lies buried. I know not how soon I shall see you again. A duty

volves upon me which is, perhaps, greater than that which has devolved 'pon any other man since the days of WASHINGTON. He never wo have succeeded except for the aid of Divine Providence, upon which he at all times relied. I feel that I cannot succeed without the same Divine aid which sustained him, and on the same Almighty Beins, T place my reliance for support; and I hope you, my friends, will all gray that I may receive that Divine assistance, without which I cannot succeed, but with which success is certain. Again I bid you all an affectionate farewell.

As the train passed through the country, the President was greeted with hearty cheers and good wishes by the thousands who assembled at the railway stations along

the route. Party spirit seemed to have been forgotten, and the cheers were always given for “ Lincoln and the Constitution.” At Tolono he appeared upon the platform, and in response to the applause which hailed his appearance, he said :-

I am leaving you on an errand of national importance, attenıled, as you are aware, with considerable difficulties. Let us believe, as some poet bas expressed it, “Behind the cloud the sun is still shining.” I bid you an atlectionate farewell.

At Indianapolis the party was welcomed by a salute « thirty-four guns, and the President-elect was received by the Governor of the State in person, and escorted to a carriage in waiting, which proceeded--followed by a procession of the members of both houses of the legislature, the municipal authorities, the military, and firemen-to the Bates House. Appearing on the balcony of this hotel, Mr. Lincoln was greeted by the hearty applause of the large crowd which had assembled in the street, to which he addressed the following remarks :

GOVERNOR MORTON AND FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE STATE OF INDIANA :-

Most heartily do I thank you for this magnificent reception, and while I cannot take to myself any share of the compliment thus paid, more than that which pertains to a mere instrument, an accidental instrument, perhaps I should say, of a great cause, I yet must look upon it as a most magnificent reception, and as such most heartily do thank you for it. You have been pleased to address yourself to me chiefly in behalf of this glorious Union in which we live, in all of which you have my liearty sympathy, and, as far as may be within my power, will have, one ard inseparably, my hearty consideration. While I do not expect, upon this occasion, or until I get to Washington, to attempt any lengthy speech. wiil only say to the salvation of the Union there needs but one sini thing—the hearts of a people like yours. [Applause.)

The people, when they rise in mass in behalf of the Union and the liberties of their country, truly may it be said, “The gates of hell cannot prevail against them." [Renewed applause.) In all trying positions in which I shall be placed—and, doubtless, I shall be placed in many suchmy reliance will be placed upon you and the people of the United States; and I wish you to reinember, now and forever, that it is your business, and not mine; that if the union of these States, and the liberties of this people shall be lost, it is but little to any one man of fifty-two years of age, but a great deal to the thirty inillions of people who inhabit these

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United States, and to their posterity in all coming time. It is your busi. Dess to rise up and preserve the Union and liberty for yourselves, and not for me.

I desire they should be constitutionally performed. I, as already intimated, am buit an accidental instrument, temporary, and to serve but for a limited time; and I appeal to you again to constantly bear in mind that with you, and not with politicians, not with Presidents, not with officoseekers, but with you is the question, Shall the Union and shall the liberties of this country be preserved to the latest generations ? (Cheers.]

In the evening the members of the legislature waited upon him in a body at his hotel, where one of their number, on behalf of the whole, and in presence of a very large assemblage of the citizens of the place, made a brief address of welcome and congratulation, which Mr. Lincoln acknowledged in the following terms :

FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE STATE OF INDIANA:-I am here to thank you touch for this inagnificent welcome, and still more for the generous sup port given by your State to that political cause which I think is the trno and just cause of the whole country and the whole world. Solomon

says there is “ a time to keep silence," and when men wranglo by the month with no certainty that they mean the same thing, while using the same word, it perhaps were as well if they would keep silence.

The words “coercion” and “javasion” are much used in these days, and often with some temper and hot blood. Let us make sure, if we can, that we do not misunderstand the meaning of those who use them. Let us get oxact definitions of these words, not from dictionaries, but from the men themselves, who certainly depreciate the things they would represent by the use of words. What, then, is “Coercion ?” What is " Invasion ?” Would the marching of an army into South Carolina, without the consent of her people, and with hostile intent towards them, be "invasion ?" I certainly think it would; and it would be “coercion” also if the Sonth Carolinians were forced to submit. But if the United States should merely hold and retake its own forts and other property, and collect the duties on foreign importations, or even withhold the mails from places where they were habitually violated, would any or all these things be "invasion " or “coercion?” Do our professed lovers of the Union, but who spitefully resolve that they will resist coercion and invasion, understand that such things as these on the part of the United States would be coercion or in vision of a State? If so, their idea of nieans to preserve the object of their affection wond seem exceedingly thin and airy. If sick, the little pills of the homeopathists would be ninch too large for it to swallow. In their view, the Union, as & family

relation, would seem to be no regnlar marriage, but a sort of “free-love" arrangement, to be maintained only on “passional attraction."

By-the-way, in what consists the special sacredness of a State? I speak not of the position assigned to a Stato in the Union, by the Constitution; for that, by the bond, we all recognize. That position, however, a State cannot carry out of the Union with it. I speak of that assumed primary right of a State to rule all which is less than itself, and ruin all which is larger than itself. If a State and a county, in a given case, should be equal in extent of territory, and equal in nuinber of inhabitants, in what as a matter of principle, is the State better than the county? Would a exchange of names be an exchange of rights upon principle? On what rightful principle may a State, being not more than one-fiftieth part of tho nation, in soil and population, break up the nation and then coerco a proportionally larger subdivision of itself, in the most arbitrary way? What mysterious right to play tvrant is conferred on a district of country, with its people, by merely calling it a State?

Fellow-citizens, I am not asserting any thing; I am merely asking questions for you to consider. And now allow me to bid you farewell.

On the morning of the 12th, Mr. Lincoln took his departure and arrived at Cincinnati at about noon, having been greeted along the route by the hearty applause of the thousands assembled at the successive stations. His reception at Cincinnati was overwhelming. The streets were so densely crowded that it was with the utmost difficulty the procession could secure a passage. Mr. Lincoln was escorted to the Burnett House, which had been handsomely decorated in honor of his visit. He was welcomed by the Mayor of the city in a few remarks, in response to which he said :

MR. MAYOR AND Fellow-CITIZENS :-I have spoken but once before this in Cincinnati. That was a year previous to the late Presidential election. (In that occasion, in a playful manner, but with sincere words, I addressed much of what I said to the Kentuckians. I gave my opinion that we, as Republicans, would ultimately beat them, as Democrats, but that they could postpone that result longer by nominating Senator Douglas for the Presidency than they could in any other way. They did not, in ary true sense of the word, nominate Mr. Douglas, and the result has come certainly as soon as ever I expected. I also told them how I expected they would be treated after they should have been beaten; and I now wish to call their attention to what I then said upon that subject. I then said, “When we do as we say, beat you, you perhaps want to know what we will do with you. I will tell you, as far as I am authorized to speak for the oppo

sition, what we mean to do with you. We mean to treat yon, as near an we possibly can, as Washington, Jefferson, and Madison treated you. We mean to leave you alone, and in no way to interfere with your institutious; to abide by all and every compromise of the Constitution; and, in a word, coming back to the original proposition, to treat yon so far as degenerate men, if we have degenerated, may, according to the examplo of thoso noble fathers, WASHINGTON, JEFFERSON, and Madison. We mean to remember that you are as good as we; that there is no difference between us, other than the difference of circumstances. We mean to recog: nize and bear in mind always that you have as good hearts in your bosong as other people, or as we claim to have, and treat you accordingly.

Fellow-citizens of Kentucky! friends! brethren, may I call you in my new positing? I see no occasion, and feel no inclination to retract a word of this. If it shall not be made good, be assured the fault shall not be mine.

In the evening the German Republican associations called upon Mr. Lincoln and presented him an address of congratulation, to which he responded, warmly indorsing the wisdom of the Homestead bill, and speaking of the advantages offered by the soil and institutions of the United States to foreigners who might wish to make it their home. He left Cincinnati on the morning of the 13th, accompanied by a committee of the Ohio Legislature, which had come from the capital to meet him. The party reached Columbus at two o'clock, and the President was escorted to the hall of the Assembiy, where he was formally welcomed by Lieutenant-Governor Kirk on behalf of the legislature, which had assembled in joint session, to which he made the following reply :

Me. PRESIDENT AND MR. SPEAKER, AND GENTLEMEN OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY:-It is true, as has been said by the President of the Senate that very great responsibility rests tipon me in the position to which the votes of the American people have called me. I am deeply sensible of that weighty responsibility. I cannot but know what you all know, that without a name, perhaps without a reason why I should have a name, there tas fallen upor me a task such as did not rest even upon the Father of his Country; and so feeling, i cannot but turn and look for the support without which it will be impossible for me to perform that great task. I turn, then, and look to the great American people, and to that God who lias never forsaken them.

Aliusion has been made to the interest felt in relation to the pošicy of the new Administration. In this I have received from some a degree os

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