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Duke of Venice.

SALERIO, a Messenger from Venice.
Prince of precono
; } Suitors to Portia.

LEONARDO, Servant to Bassanio.

BALTHAZAR, Servants to Portia.
ANTONIO, the Merchant of Venice.

BASSANIO, his Friend.

Portia, a rich Heiress.
SALARINO, Friends to Antonio and Bassanio. NERISSA, her Waiting-Maid.

JESSICA, Daughter to Shylock.
LORENZO, in love with Jessica.

Magnificoes of Venice, Officers of the Court of Jus
Shylock, a Jew.

tice, Jailer, Servants, and other Attendants.
TUBAL, a Jew, his Friend.
LAUNCELOT GOBBO, a Clown, Servant to Shylock. SCENE, partly at Venice, and partly at Belmont,
Old GOBBO, Father to Launcelot.

the Seat of Portia, on the Continent.

say, when?


Because you are not merry: and 'twere as easy SCENE I. Venice. A Street. Enter ANTONIO, Because you are not sad. Now, by, two-headed

For you, to laugh, and leap, and say, you are merry


Nature hath fram'd strange fellows in her time :
Is sooth, I know not why I am so sad ;

Some that will evermore peep through their eyes,
It wearies me; you say, it wearies you ;

And laugh, like parrots, ai a bag-piper;
But how I caught it, found it, or came by it,

And other of such vinegar aspect,
What stuff'uis made of, whereof it is born,

That they'll not show their teeth in way of smile,
I am to learn;

Though Nestor swear the jest be laughable.
And such a want-wit sadness makes of me,

Enter BassanIO, LORENZO, and GRATIANO.
That I have much ado to know myself.
Salar. Your mind is tossing on the ocean;

Salan. Here comes Bassanio, your most noble

There, where your argosies? with portly sail,-

Gratiano, and Lorenzo : Fare you well;
Like signiors and rich burghers on the food,

We leave you now with better company.
Or, as it were the pageants of the sea,-

Salar. I would have staid till I had made you
Do overpeer the petty traffickers,

That curt'sy to them, do them reverence,

If worthier friends had not prevented me.
As they fly hy them with their woven wings.

Ant. Your worth is very dear in my regard,
Salan. Believe me, sir, had I such venture forth, I take it, your own business calls on you,
The better part of my affections would

And you embrace the occasion to depart.
Be with my hopes abroad. I should be still

Salar. Good morrow, my good lords.
Plucking the grass, to know where sits the wind;

Bass. Good signiors both, when shall we laugh?
Peering in maps, for ports, and piers, and roads;
And every object that might make me fear
Misfortune to my ventures, out of doubt,

You grow exceeding strange : Must it be so ?

Salar. We'll make our leisures to attend on yours. Would make me sad.

(Eseunt SALAR. and Salar. Salar.

My wind, cooling my broth,
Would blow me to an ague, when I thought,

Lor. My lord Bassanio, since you have found

What harm a wind too great might do at sea.

We two will leave you : but, at dinner time,
I should not see the sandy hour-glass run,
But I should think of shallows and of flats;

I pray you, have in mind where we must meet.

Bass. I will not fail you.
And see my wealthy Andrew dock'd in sand,

Gra. You look not well, signior Antonio ;
Vailing her high-top lower than her ribs,
To kiss her burial. Should I go to church,

You have too much respect upon the world :

They lose it, that do buy it with much care.
And see the holy edifice of stone,

Believe me, you are marvellously chang'd.
And not bethink me straight of dangerous rocks;

Ant. I hold the world but as the world, Gratiano
Which touching but my gentle vessel's side,
Would scatter all her spices on the stream;

A stage, where every man must play a part,

And mine a sad one.
Enrobe the roaring waters with my silks ;

And, in a word, but even now worth this,

Let me play the fool :
And now worth nothing? Shall I have the thought And let my liver rather heat with wine,

With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles come ;
To think on this; and shall I lack the thought,
That such a thing, bechanc'd, would make me sad? Why should a man, whose blood is warm within,

heart cool with mortifying groans.
But, tell not me; I know, Antonio
Is sad to think upon his merchandise.

Sit like his grandsire cut įn alabaster ?
Ant. Believe me, no: I thank my fortune for it, Sleep when he wakes ? and creep into the jaundica
My ventures are not in one bottom irusted,

By being peevish? I tell thee what, Antonio,-
Nor to one place; nor is my whole estate

I love thee, and it is my love that speaks ;-
Upon the fortune of this present year :

There are a sort of men, whose visages
Therefore, my merchandise makes me not sad.

Do cream and mantle, like a standing pond;

And do a wilful* stillness entertain,
Salan. Why, then you are in love.

Fye, fye!

With purpose to be dress'd in an opinion
Salan. Not in love neither ? Then let's say, you As who should say, I am Sir Oracle,

of wisdom, gravity, profound conceit;
are sad,
1 This enumeration of the Dramatis Personæ is by and this seems the more probable from Argis being
Mr. Rowe.

used for a ship in low Latin. 2 Argosies are large ships either for merchandise or 3 To vail is to lower, to let fall. From the French war. The word has been supposed to be derived from araler,

ssical ship Argo, as a vessel eminently famous ; 4 i. e. an obatinate silence.

Than my


And, when I ope my lips, let no dog bark ! And she is fair, and, fairer than that word,
O, my Antonio, I do know of these,

Of wondrous virtues : sometimes from her eyos That therefore only are reputed wise,

I did receive fair speechless messages:
For saying nothing; who, I am very sure, Her name is Portia ; nothing undervalued
If they should speak, would almost damn those ears, To Cato's daughter, Brutus' Portia.
Which, hearing them, would call their brothers Nor is the wide world ignorant of her worth ;

For the four winds blow in from every coast
I'll tell thee more of this another time:

Renowned suitors : and her sunny locks Rut fish not, with this melancholy bait,

Hang on her temples like a golden fleece; For this fool's gudgeon, this opinion.

Which makes her seat of Belmont, Colchós' strand Come, good Lorenzo :-Fare ye well, awhile; And many Jasons come in quest of her. l'll end my exhortation after dinner.

O my Antonio, had I but the means
Lor. Well, we will leave you then till dinner-time : iTo hold a rival place with one of them,
I must be one of these same dumb wise men, I have a mind presages me such thrift,
For Gratiano never lets me speak.

That I should questionless be fortunate.
Gra. Well, keep me company but two years more, Ant. Thou know'st, that all my fortunes are at
Thou shalt not know the sound of thine own tongue.

Ant. Farewell : I'll grow a talker for this gear.' Neither have I money, nor commodity
Gra. Thanks, i’faith ; for silence is only com- To raise a present sum: therefore go forth,

Try what my credit can in Venice do;
In a neat's tongue dried, and a maid not vendible. That shall be rack’d, even to the uttermost,

(Ereunt Gra. and Lor. To furnish thee to Belmont, to fair Portia. Ant. Is that any thing now?

Go, presently inquire, and so will I, Bass. Gratiano speaks an infinite deal of nothing, Where money is; and I no question make, more than any man in all Venice: His reasons are To have it of my trust, or for my sake. (Exeurt. as two grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff; you shall seek all day ere you find them; and, when

SCENE II. Belmont. A Room in Portia's

House. Enter PORTIA and NERISSA. you have them, they are not worth the search.

Ant. Well; tell me now, what lady is this same Por. By my troth, Nerissa, my little body is aTo whom you swore a secret pilgrimage,

weary of this great world. That you io-day promis'd to tell me of?

Nér. You would be, sweet madam, if your miseBass. 'Tis not unknown to you, Antonio,

ries were in the same abundance as your good for. How much I have disabled mine estate,

lunes are: And yet, for aught I see, they are as By something showing a more swelling port? sick, that surfeit with too much, as they that starvo than my faint means would grant continuance :

with nothing: It is no mean happiness therefore, to Nor do I now make moan to be abridg'd be seated in the mean; superfluity comes sooner by From such a noble rate ; but my chief care

white hairs, but competency lives longer. Is, to come fairly off from the great debts,

Por. Good sentences, and well pronounced. Wherein my time, something too prodigal,

Ner. They would be better if well followed. Hath left me gaged: To you, Antonio,

Por. If to do were as easy as to know what were I owe the most in money, and in love;

good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor And from your love I have a warranty

men's cottages princes' palaces. It is a good diTo unburthen all my plots, and purposes,

vine that follows his own instructions: I can easier How to get clear of all the debts I owe.

teach twenty what were good to be done, than be Ant. I pray you, good Bassanio, let me know it; one of the twenty to follow mine own teaching. The And, if it'stand, as you yourself still do,

brain may devise laws for the blood; but a bot iemWithin the eye of honour, be assurd,

per leaps over a cold degree ; such a hare is madMy purse, my person, my extremest means, ness the youth, to skip o'er the meshes of good Lie all unlock'd to your occasions.

counsel the cripple. But this reasoning is not in Bass. In my school-days, when I had lost one shaft, the fashion to choose me a husband :--O me, the I shot his fellow of the selfsame flight:

word choose ! I may neither choose whom I would, The selfsame way, with more advised watch, nor refuse whom I dislike ; so is the will of a living To find the other forth; and, by advent'ring both, daughter curb’d by the will of a dead father: Is it

oft found both: I urge this childhood proof, not hard, Nerissa, that I cannot choose one, nor reBecause what follows is pure innocence.

fuse none ? I owe you much : and, like a wilful youth,

Ner. Your father was ever virtuous; and holy That which I owe is lost: but if you please

men, at their death, have good inspirations; thereTo shoot another arrow that self way

fore, the lottery, that he hath devised in these three Which you did shoot the first, I do not doubt, chests, of gold, silver, and lead (whereof who As I will watch the aim, or to find both,

chooses his meaning, chooses you,) will, no doubt, Or bring your latter hazard back again,

never be chosen by any rightly, but one who you And thankfully rest debtor for the firsi.

shall rightly love. But what warmth is there in Ant. You know me well; and herein spend but your affection towards any of these princely suitors time,

ihat are already come ? To wind about my love with circumstance;

Por. I pray thee over-name them; and as thou And out of doubt, you do me now more wrong,

namest them, I will describe them; and, according In making question of my uttermost,

to my description level at my affection. Than if you had made waste of all I have :

Ner. First, there is the Neapolitan prince.' Then do but say to me at I should do,

Por. Ay, that's a colt, indeed, 'for he doth That in your knowledge may by me be done, nothing but talk of his horse ; and he makes it a And I am prest* unto it: therefore, speak. great appropriation to his own good parts, that he Bass. In Belmont is a lady richly left,

c. xxviii. and is also mentioned in Howel's Letters, vol I Gear usually signifies matter, subject, or business i. p. 183, edit. 1655, 12mo. in general. It is here, perhaps, a colloquial expression 4 Prest, that is, ready; from the old French word of no very determined import. It occurs again in this of the same orthography, now pret. play, Act ii. Sc. 2: If Fortune be a woman, she's a 5 Formerly. good wench for this gear.'

6 j. e. superfluity sooner acquires white hairs; be. 2 Port is state or equipage. So in the Taming of a comes old. 'We still say, how did he come by it? Shrew, Act i. Sc. 1.

7 The Neapolitans, in the time of Shakspeare, were 'Thou shalt be master, Tranio, in my stead, eminently skilled in all that belongs to housemanship. Keep house, and port, and servants, as I should." & Coli' is used for a witless heady gay you gster : 3 This method of finding a lost arrow is prescribed whence the phrase used for an old man 100 fa, suile, by P. Crescentius in his treatise De Agricultura, lib. x.' that he sill retains his coll's tooth..

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can shoe him himself: I am much afraid, my lady Por. Yes, yes, it was Bassanio; as I think, so his mother played false with a smith.

was he called Ner. Then, is there the county' Palatine. Ner. True, madam ; he, of all the men that ever

Por. He doth nothing but frown; as who should my foolish eyes looked upon, was the best deserve say, An if you will not have me, choose : he hearsing a fair lady. merry tales, and smiles not: I'fear, he will


Por. I remember him well; and I remember him
the weeping philosopher when he grows old, being worthy of thy praise.-How now! what news ?
so full of unmannerly sadness in his youth. I had

Enter a Servant.
rather be married to a death's head with a bone in
his mouth, than to either of these. God defend me

Serv. The four strangers seek for you, madam, from these two!

to take their leave: and there is a fore-runner Ner. How say you by the French lord, Monsieur come from a fifth, the Prince of Morocco; who Le Bon ?

brings word, the prince, his master, will be here toPor, God made him, and therefore let him pass

night. for a man. In truth, I know it is a sin to be a heart as I can bid the other four farewell, I should

Por. If I could bid the fifth welcome with so good mocker; But, he! why, he hath a horse better than the Neapolitan's; a better bad habit of frown- be glad of his approach : if he have the conditions ing than the count Palatine: he is every man in no rather he should shrive me than wive me. Come,

of a saint, and the complexion of a devil, I had man: if a throstle? sing, he falls straight 2 caper: Nerissa.—Sirrah, go before. Whiles we shut tho ing; he will fence with his own shadow: If I should marry him, I should marry twenty husbands : if he gate upon one wooer, another knocks at the door. would despise me, I would forgive him; for if he

(Exeunt. love me to madness, I shall never requite him. SCENE III. Venice. A public Place. Enter Ner. What say you then to Faulconbridge, the

BASSANIO and SHYLOCK. young baron of England ?

Shy. Three thousand ducats,--well.
Por. You know, I say notning to him; for he un Bass. Ay, sir, for three months.
derstands not me, nor l'him: he hath neither Latin, Shy. For three months, well.
French, nor Italian;" and you will come into the Bass. For the which, as I told you, Antonio shall
court and swear, that I have a poor penny-worth in be bound.
the English. He is a proper man's picture; But, Shy. Antonio shall become bound,-well.
alas! who can converse with a dumb show? How Bass. May you stead me? Will you pleasure me?
oddly he is suited! I think, he bought his doublet Shall I know your answer ?
in Italy, his round hose in France, his honnet in Shy. Three thousand ducats, for three months,
Germany, and his behaviour every where.

and Antonio bound.
Ner. What think you of the Scottish lord, his Bass. Your answer to that.
acighbour ?

Shy. Antonio is a good man.
Por. That he hath a neighbourly charity in him; Bass. Have you heard any imputation to the con
for he borrowed a box of the ear of the Englishman, trary ?
and swore he would pay him again, when he was Shy. Ho, no, no, no, no ;-my meaning, in say-
able : I think, the Frenchman became his surety, ing he is a good man, is to have you understand
and sealed under for another.

me, that he is sufficient : yet his means are in sup Ner. How like you the young German,s the position : he hath an argosy bound to Tripolis, Duke of Saxony's nephew ?

another to the Indies; I understand moreover upon Por. Very vílely in the morning, when he is so- the Rialto, he hath a third at Mexico, a fourth for ber; and most vilely in the afternoon, when he is England, and other ventures he hath, squandrunk : when he is best, he is little worse than a der'd abroad : But ships are but boards, sailors but man; and when he is worst, he is little better than men: there be land-rats, and water-rats, water. a beast: and the worst fall that ever fell, I hope, I thieves, and land-thieves; I mean, pirates; and shall make shift to go without him.

then, there is the peril of waters, winds, and rocks : Ner. If he should offer to choose, and choose the The' man is, noiwithstanding, sufficient ;-three right casker, you should refuse to perform your thousand ducats ;-I think, I may take his bond. faiher's will, if you should refuse to accept him. Bass. Be assured you may.

Por. Therefore, for fear of the worst, I pray thee, Shy. I will be assured I may; and that I may set a deep glass of Rhenish wine on the contrary be assured, I will bethink me: May I speak with casket: for, if the devil be within, and that tempta- Antonio? tion without, I know he will choose it. I will do Bass. If it please you to dine with us. any thing, Nerissa, ere I will be married to a Shy. Yes, to smell pork ; to eat of the habitation spunge.

which your prophet, the Nazarite, conjured the de Ner. You need not fear, lady, the having any of vil into : I will buy with you, sell with you, talk these lords; they have acquainted me with their with you, walk with you, and so following; but I determination : which is indeed, to return to their will not eat with you, drink with you, nor pray with home, and to trouble you with no more suit; unless

you. What news on the Rialto -Who is he
you may be won by some other sort than your comes here?
father's imposition, depending on the caskets.

Per. If í live to be as old as Sibylla, I will die
as chaste as Diana, unless I be obtained by the

Bass. This is signior Antonio.
manner of my father's will; I am glad this parcel of Shy. (Aside.) How like a fawning publican be
wooers are so reasonable ; for there is not one

among them but I dote on his very absence, and I I hate him for he is a Christian.
pray God grant them a fair departure.

But more, for that, in low simplicity,
Ner. Do you not remember, lady, in your father's He lends out money gratis, and brings down
time, a Venetian, a scholar, and a soldier, that the rate of usance' here with us in Venice.
camé hither in company of the Marquis of Mont-
ferrat ?

Perhaps, in this enumeration of Porria's guitors, there may be some covert allusion to those of Queen Eliza

beth. 1 This is an allusion to the Count Albertus Alasco, 6 i. e. the nature, disposition. So in Othello: a Polish Palatine, who was in London in 1583.

and then of so gentle a condition! 2 A thrush; properly the missel-thrush.

7' It is almost incredible what gain the Venetians re 3 A satire on the ignorance of young English travel. ceive by the usury of the Jews, both privately and in lers in Shakspeare's time.

common. For in every city the Jews keep open shope 4 A proper man is a handsome man. 6 The Duke of Bavaria visited London, and was dred by the yeare ; and if at the year's end the gage


of usury, taking gages of ordinary for xv. in the hun. made a Knight of the Garter, in Shakspeare's time. I not redeemed, it is forfeit, or at least done away to *

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hear you ;,

If I can catch him once upon the hip,'

Shy. Signior Antonio, many a time and oft,
I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him. In the Rialto you have rated me
He hates our sacred nation; and he rails, About my monies, and my usances :
Even there where merchants most do congregate,

Still have I borne it with a patient shrug;
On me, my bargains, and my well-won thrift, For sufferance is the badge of all our tribo :
Which he calls interest: Cursed be my tribe, You call me-misbeliever, cut-throat dog,
If I forgive him.

And spit upon my Jewish gaberdine,

Shylock, do you hear ? And all for use of that which is mine own. Shy. I am debating of my present store ; Well then, it now appears, you need my help. And, by the near guess of my memory,

Go to, then; you come to me, and you say, I cannot instantly raise up the gross

Shylock, we would have monies ; You say so; Of full three thousand ducats : What of that ? You, that did void your rheum upon my beard, Tobal, a wealthy Hebrew of my tribe,

And foot me, as you spurn a stranger cur Will furnish me: But soft; how many months Over your threshold; monies is your suit Do you desire ?--Rest you fair, good signior; What shall I say to you ? Should I not say,

[Antonio. Hath a dog money ? 'is it possible, Your worship was the last man in our mouths. A cur can lend three thousand ducats ? or

Ant. Shylock, albeit I neither lend nor borrow, Shall I bend low, and in a bondman's key By taking, nor by giving of excess,

With 'bated breath, and whispering humbleness, Yet, to supply the ripe wants? of my friend, Say this,I'll break a custom :-Is he yet possess'd,' Fuir sir, you spit on me on Wednesday last ; How much you would ?

You spurn'd me such a day; another time Shy.

Ay, ay, three thousand ducats. You calld me-dog; and for these courtesies Ant. And for three months.

l'u lend you thus much monies ? Shy. I had forgot,-three months, you told me so. Ant. I am as like to call thee so again, Well then, your bond ; and, let me see, But To spit on thee again, to spurn thee too.

If thou wilt lend this money, lend it not Methought, you said, you neither lend nor borrow, As to thy friends ; (for when did friendship take pon advantage.

A breed for barren metal of his friend?)
I do never use it.

But lend it rather to thine enemy;.
Shy. When Jacob graz'd his uncle Laban's sheep, Who, if he break, thou may'st with better face
This Jacob from our holy Abraham was

Exact the penalty As his wise mother wrought in his behalf,)


Why, look you, how you storm! The third possessor ; ay, he was the third. I would be friends with you, and have your love,

Ant. And what of him? did he take interest ? Forget the shames that you have stain'd me with, Shy. No, not take interest; not, as you would Supply your present wants, and take no doit say,

Of usance for my monies, and you'll not hear me Directly interest: mark what Jacob did.

This is kind I offer. When Laban and himself were compromis'd,


This were kindness.
That all the eanlings* which were streak'd, and pied, Shy. This kindness will I show:-
Should fall as Jacob's hire; the ewes, being rank, Go with me to a notary, seal me there
In the end of autumn turned to the rams:

Your single bond; and, in a merry sport,
And when the work of generation was


you repay me not on such a day, Between these woolly breeders in the act, In such a place, such sum, or sums, as are The skilful shepherd peeld me certain wands, Express'd in the condition, let the forfeit And in the doing of the deed of kind,'

Be nominated for an equal pound He stuck them up before the fulsomes

ewes ;

of your fair flesh, to be cut off and taken Who, then conceiving, did in eaning time In what part of your body pleaseth me. Fall party-colour'd lambs, and those were Jacob's. Ant. Content, in faith; I'll seal to such a bond, This was a way to thrive, and he was blest; And say, there is much kindness in the Jew. And thrift is blessing, if men steal it not.

Bass. You shall not seal to such a bond for me, Ant. This was a venture, sir, that Jacob serv'd I'll rather dwell o in my necessity.. for ;

Ant. Why, fear not, man; I will not forfeit it; A thing not in his power to bring to pass,

Within these two months, that's a month before But sway'd, and fashion'd, by the hand of heaven. This bond expires, I do expect return Was this inserted to make interest good ?

or thrice three times the value of this bond. Or is your gold and silver, ewes and rams?

Shy. O father Abraham, what these Christians Shy. I cannot tell; I make it breed as fast :

are; But note me, signior.

Whose own hard dealings teaches them suspect Ant.

Mark you this, Bassanio, The thoughts of others! Pray you, tell me this; The devil can cite scripture for his purpose. If he should break his day, what should I gain An evil soul, producing holy witness,

By the exaction of the forfeiture ? Is like a villain with a smiling cheek;

A pound of man's flesh, taken from a man, A goodly apple rotten at the heart;

Is not so estimable, profitable neither, 0, what a goodly outside falsehood' hath! As flesh of muttons, beefs, or goats. I say, Shy. Three thousand ducats,-'is a good round To buy his favour, I extend this friendship:

If he will take it, so; if not, adieu; Three months from twelve, then let me see ine rate. And, for my love, I pray you wrong me note Ant. Well, Shylock, shall we be beholden to you? Ant. Yes, Shylock, I will seal unto this bond.

6 • Fulsome,' says Mr. Douce,'has, donbtless, the great disadvantage ; by reason whereof the Jews are same signification with the preceding epithet rank.' k out of measure wealthy in those parts.'— Thomas's His. is true that rank has sometimes the interpretation affix torye of Italye, 1561, 410. f. 77.

ed to it of rammish in old Dictionaries, but there is also 1 To catch, or have, on the hip, means to have at an another meaning of the word which may be found in entire advantage. The phrase seems to have origina- Baret's Alvearie, 1573, viz. Fruite full, ranck, battle, ted from hunting, because, when the animal pursued is Lat. fertilis. This sense would also, I think, beller ac seized upon the hip, it is finally disabled from flight. cord with fulsome, is it could be shown to be a syno

? Wants come io the heighi, which admit no longer nyme. delay.

7 Falsehood here means knavery, treachery, as truth % Hformed.

is sometimes used for honesty. 4 Young lambs just dropt, or can'd. This word is 8 Interest. usually spelt yean, but the Saxon etymology demands 9 i. e. interest, money bred from the principal. tan. It is applied particularly to ewes.

10 i. e. continue ; to abide has both the senses of hoda 5 i. e. of nature.

tation and continuance.


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