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Ꮮ Ꭼ Ꭲ Ꭲ Ꭼ Ꭱ .
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BUREAU OF EDUCATION, Washington, D. O., February 27, 1889.
The Honorable the SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR,
Washington, D. C. : SIB: The monograph which I have the honor herewith to submit gives a sketch of the history of Higher Education in Indiapa. It contains an outline of the free common school system of the State, a brief Jaccoant of the State's educational history in the development of its common schools; and a historical account of the origin, growth, and development and the present condition of Indiana's various institations for Higher Education. It calls attention to the early land legislation
of the Continental Congress, and to the important influence of that legislation upon the future States of the Northwest; to the incidents
and causes leading to the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787, and to the great importance of that Ordinance in the subsequent educational development of these commonwealths; and the sketch shows that from the earliest Territorial days until the present time, the relation of the State to education, both elementary and higher, has been close and constant. At no time has the State acknowledged that any department of education, from the elementary schools to the university, was beyond its province.
When Manasseh Cutler, Rufus Putnam, Samuel H. Parsons, and their coaujators of Revolutionary days were, planning the foundation for a. free State beyond the Alleghanies, they held it to be the duty of the Government to give encouragement and support to religion and common schools. The West gained its first Puritan colony on the ba..s of this idea. Congressional endowment for schools and colleges was a part of the agreement asserted in the grant and settlement of western lands. Though the pressing financial straits of the old Confederacy may have been the decisive factor in securing the early land endow. mont, and though the policy of higher education by the State was not asserted by the Continental Congress, yet it is evident that no doubt existed in the minds of the Paritan colony who first settled the Ohio Valley, as to the daty and province of the State in education. They
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began their first State on the basis of Government aid for higher learn. ing. This was to be like the first written line of their fundamental charter. The people have never departed from that principle. Though the principle of American republicanism, asserted by the ContinentalCongress as a part of the earliest law of these Territories, namely, that special favors should be shown to no particular sects or modes of worship, and that no orderly and peaceable person should be molested, either on account of his religious sentiments, or for the lack of them, yet it was none the less a part of that fundamental law that religion, morality, and knowledge are to be forever encouraged.
Religious people of various names, encouraged by the assurance of Government support in providing schools for their children, sought homes in the West. While they were yet pioneers upon the frontiers of civilization, they began casting about them for ways and means to
establish academies and colleges for the higher education. In the early + years of Indiana history various religious denominations within her ... borders, with a spirit of zeal, courage, and self-sacrifice, founded insti.
tations for the college training of young men. The Methodists estab. lished " Asbury," which has developed into the De Pauw University; the Presbyterians founded “Wabash” and “Hanover”; “Earlbam" became a seat of learning for the Friends; Franklin College for the Baptists; and Butler University, founded under the name of the Northwestern Christian Duiversity, became the literary care of the Christian denomi. nation. All these institutions froin small beginnings have grown into prosperous condition. . This sketch contains an account of tbeir origin, their early experience, and their development. The influence which they have exerted for good, in extending knowledge, and in training men and women for worthy citizenship, is beyond estimate. No one who appreciates the importance of education in a government by the people will fail to recognize the great services of these institutions to the State.
The direct work of the State in higher learning is to be especially noticed.
The most interesting phase in the history and development of education in the West is to be seen in the attitude of the State. There never has been a time when the right of government to provide for education of some kind has been called in question by any considerable body of thinking people. Both the elementary and the higher education were provided for by many of the early colonies, especially by those of New England. And from the time of the first land grant for
common school purposes by the Congress of 1785, State aid to education , "has been an acknowledged principle of the American people-even those
of the most conservative individualism conceding, in some measure, the right and duty of the State to educate.
As to the extent to which Stato aid may be carried, and in what provinces it may operate, there is to be noticed a very wide difference
of opinion. The discussion on that subject runs back at least to Plato Between the state of the public mind on this theme a hundred years ago and the prevailing opinion of to-day, a wide and significant difference is to be distinguished. In the public conception of the relation of the State to education, there have been many changes and much growth. The evolution of the State university, one of the most recent of educational phenomena, and also one of the most interesting, is the outcome of these changing opinions. It is the origin and history of State institutions for higher learning, to which this sketch directa especial attention. For this study the States of the Northwest offer a prodactive and peculiar field. Those who are interested in studying the principle of State control of education will find in such a sketch as this some interesting illustrations and some useful experience. The educational history of Indiana will serve to show how dominant is the idea that all functions of education have come to be vested in the State.
At the time these western Territories were settled, and the first of their States was admitted to the Union, it was a dominant idea in the public mind that primary education might well be promoted by the State, but that the higher education should be left to the control of religious denominations, or to private benevolence. It was generally understood that most of the great universities of the world had been established by the church, or by the king as the kind parental guardian of his people. It was forgotten that whatever church or prince had to give was derived for the most part from the people at large. Says President Charles Kendall Adams of Cornell University:
“ Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Prague, Salamanca, and Cambridge were: endowed in some cases by the church, in others by kings and princes, bat in all cases with moneys which came directly or indirectly from the masses of the people. A peculiarity of the situation at the beginning of our pational era was the fact that, wbile the State was inclined to keep its bold on the education of children, it appeared to be not unwilling to abandon its direction of the education of youth. In colonial and provincial days, the State, as we have seen, had all grades of edu. cation under its fostering care, bnt now that the churches began to contend with one another for the occupancy of the field in higher education, the State showed an unmistakable tendency to leave the endow. ment of the higher grades of schools to the churches. The doctrine was often put forward, and soon came to be very generally held, that the moral and religious character of students in the higher schools of learning would be unsafe unless such schools were under the direct control of the religious denominations-a doctrine built up on the singular postulate that children, so long as they are at an age that is peculiarly susceptible to religious impressions, may safely be left under the guid. ance of State schools, while at the moment they emerge from that age and enter upon a period less susceptible to such impressions, they must be under a more careful religious guidance than any which schools established by the State can afford.”