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rank, should be instructed in some art or trade. The fees of law proceedings were fixed, and inscribed on public tables ;- and the amount of fines to be levied for offences also limited by legislative authority. Many admirable regulations were added, for the encouragement of industry, and mutual usefulness and esteem. There is something very agreeable in the contentment, and sober and well-earned self-complacency, which breathe in the following letter of this great colonist-written during his first rest from those
great labours. "I am now casting the country into townships for large lots of land. I have held an Assembly, in which many good laws are pass, ed. We could not stay safely till the spring for a Government. I have annexed the Territories lately obtained to the Province, and passed a general naturalization for strangers; which hath much pleas. ed the people. As to outward things, we are satisfied ; the land good, the air clear and sweet, the springs plentiful, and provision good and easy to come at; an innumerable quantity of wild fowl and fish; in fine, here is what an Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob would be well contented with ; and service enough for God, for the fields are here white for harvest. O, how sweet is the quiet of these parts, freed from the anxious and troạbļesome solicitations, hurries, and perplexities of woeful Europe !". p. 350, 351.
We cannot persuade ourselves, hçwever, to pursue any farther the details of this edifying biography. W. Penn returned to England after a residence of about two years in his colonygot into great favour with James II.--and was bitterly calumniated as a Jesuit, both by churchmen and sectaries-went on doing good and preaching Quakerism—was sorely persecuted and insulted, and deprived of his Government, but finally acquitted, and honourably restored, under King William-lost his wife and son-travelled and married again-returned to Pennsylvania in 1699 for two years longer--came finally home to England - continued to preach and publish as copiously as ever -was reduced to a state of kindly dotage by three strokes of apoplexy-and died at last at the age of seventy-two, in the
He seems to have been a man of kind affections, singular activity and perseverance, and great practical wisdom. Yet we can well believe with Burnet, that he was a little puffed up with vanity; and that he had a tedious, luscious way of • talking, that was apt to tire the patience of his hearers. He was very neat in his person; and had a great horror at tobacco, which occasionally endangered his popularity in his American domains. He was mighty methodical in ordering his household ; and had stuck up in his hall a written directory, or General Order, for the regulation of his family, to which
he exacted the strictest conformity. According to this rigorous system of discipline, he required
– that in that quarter of the year which included part of the winter and part of the spring, the members of it were to rise at se. ven in the morning, in the next at six, in the next at five, and in the last at six again. Nine o'clock was the hour for breakfast, twelve for dinner, seven for supper, and ten to retire to bed. The whole family were to assemble every morning for worship. They were to be called together at eleven again, that each might read in turn some portion of the holy Scripture, or of Martyrology, or of Friends? books ; and finally they were to meet again for worship at six in the evening. On the days of public meeting, no one was to be absent except on the plea of health or of unavoidable engagement. The servants were to be called up after supper to render to their master and mistress an account of what they had done in the day, and to receive instructions for the next; and werc particularly exhorted ta avoid lewd discourses and troublesome noises.
We shall not stop to examine what dregs of ambition, or what hankerings after worldly prosperity, may have mixed themselves with the pious and philanthrophic principles that were undoubtedly his chief guides in forming that great settlement which still bears his name, and profits by his example. Human virtue does not challenge, nor admit of such a scrutiny: and it should be sufficient for the glory of William Penn, that he stands upon record as the most humane, the most moderate, and most pacific of all governors,
ART. XI. Seventh Report of the Directors of the African In
stitution, read at the Annual General Meeting on the 26th of March 1813: To which are added, an Appendir, and a Lasé of Subscribers. 8vo. pp. 111. London, Ilatchard. 1813.
A LTHOUGH a good deal of what we had to state, upon the
subject of this Report, hạs been anticipated in our account of the Slave-trade trials in the last Number, we are unwilling to break through the custom of noticing all the Reports, of the Institution as early as possible after their appearance. This practice ensures the early publication of intelligence interesting to abolitionists, and keeps the attention of the country directed steadily to every thing connected with the subject of Africa and the West Indies.
The Report now before us, begins with the proceedings at the last General Meeting; and, among other well merited votes of thanks, there is one in which every one must concur, we means that to the secretary, Mr Harrison, (who succeeded Mr M'Caulay last year), - for his assiduous attention to the interests of the Institution, and for his able and gratuitous services.' The labour of such an office is not small; it exceeds that of many public stations which secure wealth and honours to their possessors, and which conser those rewards, ungrudged by the world, because they are by no means the wages of idleness, They who fill gratuitous places like that under consideration, have only the satisfaction of promoting principles to which they are attached, and the applause of such as interest themselves in the same pursuits.
The List of the Directors suggests a subject of melancholy reflection, the death of the venerable GRANVILLE SHARP. A more ample opportunity, and a worthier pen, are required to do justice to his pious memory: And we learn, with a singular satisfaction, that the Institution has already adopted measures for obtaining an history of his blamcless and well spent life. ¥et can we not refuse ourselves the gratification of dwelling for a moment upon a theme, consecrated in the hearts of all who revere exalted worth, and delight to contemplate a long course of quiet and peaceful, but unremitting exertion for the liberties and happiness of mankind,' In preserving the names of other virtuous men from the temporary oblivion into whịch more dazzling and perishable glories are wont to cast them, it is frequently necessary to exhaust the arts of composition, to display arguments which may convince, or to scek, amidst figures and periods, the road to congenial feelings. But he who would hold up this venerable philanthropist in the most striking light, has only to tell faithfully and plainly the story of his actions. Unaided by any authority, or party, or man in the state; before any of those benevolent institutions existed, which have since done so much honour to the age; opposed by the opinions of lawyers, the influence of statesmen, and the most root, ed prejudices of the times; he fought, by his single exertions, and at his individual expense, the most memorable battle for the constitution of this country-and in its consequences for the interests of the species-of which modern times afford any record. To him we owe the practical establishment of the great maxim, that the air of these islands is too pure for a slave to breathe:--And if, in this its niost concise, but accurate statement, the proposition sounds romantic, we may refl ct a little on the broad, splendid, and notorious fact to which it is equivalent—the man who established it, abolished a slave-trade carried on in the streets of Liverpool and London. To trace the bistory of this struggle ;-to follow the steps by which this gentle, but bold and persevering man, steadily pursued his object through difficulties the most complicated and embarrassing-educating himself (to take a single instance) as a practical lawyer for this very purpose, and giving up his life ta it until he carried his point ;-to describe the important effects of the triumph which he gained, and its intimate connexion with the still greater victories for the cause of humanity to which it led the way,— must be the province of those to whom the task of recording his life is assigned. It is by no means our wish, after the manner of detractors, to exalt departet worth at the expense of the living. The pages
The pages of this Journal have been often filled with thie tribute of sincere admiration so eminently due to Mr Wilberforce and his coadjutors. But it cannot be doubted, that when those distinguished persons attended the remains of Granville Sharp to the grave, they mourned the extinction of the light which at first went before to guide them in their course, and had ever since been their faithful companion.
The Directors begin their Report, by calling the attention of the Institution to the history of the Abolition during the preceding year. It appears, that the highly meritorious exertions of Commodore Irby, ably seconded by Captain Scobell, have succeeded in clearing a great part of the coast; the former officer having, on a cruize from Sierra Leone, proceeded as far as the island of St Thomas, without meeting a single slave-ship; and the latter having gone to Loango, and only fallen in with two, which he sent in for condemnation. Though this may in part have arisen from these cruizes being undertaken during the rainy season, there can be no doubt that it was in a great degree owing to the vigilant measures adopted during the first six months of the year, which led to the capture and condemnation of a great number of vessels engaged in this criminal employment. It is stated, that a large proportion of the traffic, covered by the Portugueze and Spanish flags, especially the latter, owes its existence to British and American capital ; and that the real Spanish trade is very small indeed. But we conceive there can be little reason to doubt, that in what way soever the traffic may be supported, a very considerable proportion of it terminates in Cuba, one of the few Spanish colonies which have hitherto refused to abandon this scandalous enormity.
But we wish rather to fix the reader's attention, for the present, upon the conduct of the Portugucze: And, after reminding him, that the immense slave-trade carried on by those worthy allies of ours, has been increased since our Abolition ; that the Portugucze government solemnly pledged itself, by the treaty of 1810, to cooperate in bringing it to an end; and that instead of so doing, it has fostered and protected it up to the present hour; we shall beg his attention to the following extract from the Report.
• It is with extreme regret that the Directors are again obliged to state to the General Meeting the want of sụccess which has attend. ed their repeated, earnest, and urgent representations to Govern. ment, respecting the Slave-Trade carried on by means of the Pors tugueze island of Bissao. This is a subject which has engaged the attention of the Board from the very formation of the Institution; and although they are thoroughly convinced that Bissao itself is of no intrinsic value to the Portugueze Government, they cannot but deeply lament, that they have as yet been able to obtain no more than a vague and uncertain hope, that at some future period, the cession of it to Great Britain may be obtained.
• The Directors have also to express their unseigned regret, that no satisfactory explanation of the ambiguity in the Tenth Article of the Treaty of Amity between Great Britain and Portugal has yet been procured; but they see no reason to depart from the construction which they formerly ventured to put upon that Article. In this view of the subject, and hoping, as has been already stated, that the Slave-Trade on the leeward coast of Africa has of late received a considerable check, from the great and laudable exertions of the naval officers on that station, the Directors cannot but consider the cession of the island of Bissao, as in the highest degree important
progress of the measures necessary to accomplish the purposes of the institution.' p. 11, 12.
The blame, then, must rest either with the English government or the Portugueze. Is it to be endured, that a state whose existence in Europe is upheld by our blood and treasure; whose ships sail on the sea through our protection; whose settlements are preserved to it by our navy alone; should insist upon retaining possession of a spot only valuable as the centre of a contraband slave-trades the rendezvous of criminals who set the laws of this country at defiance ?- Is it less intolerable, that the ambiguity carelessly suffered by us to enter into the late treaty, but artfully employed by our allies to render the rest of the stipulations ineffectual, should be maintained ? - For if the passage now quoted has any meaning, it must be this, that the Portugueze, finding the blunder profitable, refuse to set it right by an explanation. Surely it is self-evident, either that the British ministry have not at all exerted their influence with the allies, over whom they ought to have the niost ample authority--or that the Portugueze have conducted themselves with an insolence and ingratitude, to say nothing of their duplicity, which ought no longer to be borne ?
We refer now only to the two points touched upon in the