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that he could communicate the fire that glowed in his own bosom to his hearers, or rather to the spectators of his virtues, and, by his example more than by his words, prevail upon thousands of his contemporaries, and among them many of rank, talents, and education, to adopt the same most austere and laborious mode of living. 'The Spartan legislator is supposed to have given an astonishing proof of his influence and address, in prevailing upon his countrymen to adopt laws that imposed a few restraints, but proscribed no pleasures, and stifled no passions; and Cicero is said to have carried the powers of eloquence to the utmost pitch, when he engaged the Roman people to forego the advantages of the Agrarian law. What then must we think of the persuasive powers of St Francis, who triumphed over the most powerful passions that rage in the human breast, and induced so many myriads of disciples to renounce property, name, pleasure, nay, their very will itself, to follow him in the rugged path of self-denial and mortification ?
Either his ta. lents, or his virtues, or both, must have been transcendant; and, without being his disciples, we may very safely consider him as a great and wonderful personage. St Francis was born about the year eleven hundred and eighty, and died about twelve hundred and twenty-five, having witnessed the rapid propagation of his order, which contained, previous to his death, more than fifty thousand per
II. p. 182-18116 Mr Eustace's observations on Florence and Tuscany, commence with some very appropriate encomiums upon free governments; for, by republics and monarchies, which he contrasts to the great advantage of the former, we presume he means popular and absolute forms of
He most justly remarks, in answer to the hackneyed theme of the crimes of republican states, that the crimes of despotism are far more black and numerous, while they are redeemed nudlá virtute a vitiis.' All the crimes of all the Grecian republics united, says he, would not equal the mass of guilt that might be collected from the reign of one Persian monarch, -as all the murders perpetrated in the Italian commonwealths, when balanced against the bloody deeds of Philip II., or Henry VIII., would kick the beam. He adds some judicious observations upon the illustrious House of Medici, and their wisdom in remaining so long content with the glorious and sober distinction of first citizens in a free state;—and he then expresses the feelings of contempt which every one must cherish for Alexander di Medici, who took a foreign title of sovereignty, and prevailed over the liberties of his country. This introduces a remark on the dangers of having too much virtue and popularity on the throne ; and our author concludes, in a strain truly alarming to the freedom of these realms, . that it is advantageous to the cause • of liberty, that the chief magistrate should not be of a cha• racter too popular and engaging:' Coupling this with the rule laid down at Naples for the dimensions of the Royal Intellect, we shall arrive at the true delineation or idea of a patriot king. He must neither be a wise nor a virtuous personage. On the contrary, if his talents are of the most ordinary description, his accomplishments base and grovelling, liis inanners, habits, and propensities disgusting in the eyes of his neople, and his vices fitted to secure their hatred, then is the state safe. It is rather awful to reflect what risks the liberties of some countries have been running during the last half century: And yet, so perverse are the desires of men—we really believe there are millions who, from old habit, or some other strange delusion, would be very well pleased to run the same risks over again.
The accounts of our author's excursions in the delicious neighbourhood of Florence, are among the happiest parts of his descriptive performances. That of Vallombrosa is of course the best; and we regret that the length to which this article has already extended, prevents us from dwelling longer on these delightful scenes,—delightful in themselves, and rendered doubly interesting by the singular regard with which they were honoured by the illustrious Poet of Freedom, who is supposed from hence to have borrowed many of the features of his Paradise. We can only afford room for a single observation on Monasteries, which though very obvious, is yet striking, and as far as we know, original.
• There is something extremely striking in the duration of these monastic establishments. Kingdoms and empires rise und fall around them-governments change-dynasties flourish and fade manners and dresses alter, and even languages corrupt and evapo. rate. Enter the gates of Camaldoli or Monte Cassino-the torrent of time stands still you are transported back to the sixth or the tenth century-you see the manners and habits, and hear the language of those distant periods—you converse with another race of beings, unalterable in themselves though placed among mortals, as if appointed to observe and record the vicissitudes from which they are exempt. Hitherto these monuments of ancient times and past generations have been placed above the reach of that mortality, to which all the other works and institutions of man are subject : But is not the term of their existence at hand? or are they destined to survive the tempest that now scowls over Europe, and where it falls, levels all that is great and venerable in the dust?' II. p. 241, 242.
In his account of Florence, Mr Eustace enlarges more upon the fine arts than in other parts of his work ; and he by no beans overloads his descriptions of its churches. He gives but a meagre notice of the present state of literature in that once celebrated seat of letters ; but having remarked the guttural, or harsh pronunciation of the language, he is led to insert a variety of remarks on the antient dialects of Italy, and to give some curious specimens of them from different authorities, collected by Lanzi. This forms a very interesting chapter, and well worthy the attention of the speculative grammarian. From Florence his route lay through Lucca, Pisa, and Leghorn to Genoa ; from whence he went through Pavia to Milan. Upon each of these celebrated cities he bestows the portion of attention which they so well merit; and, after devoting two chapters to the Lakes, he concludes his narrative with Turin and the Alpine passage of Mount Cennes. Over this part of his progress we do not even pretend to follow him ; but we can refer the reader to it without any fear of his being disappointed in the search both of entertainment and instruction.
The work closes with an elaborate, or we ought perhaps rather to say, a long Dissertation, extending to about 180 pages, on Italy in general, and the character of the Italians; and an appendix of about forty pages, but extremely interesting, containing, indeed, some of the most curious parts of the whole work, on the Papalgovernment and its interior administration. The Dissertation, from its plan, necessarily comprehends a great deal of what should have been delivered under the different heads as they successively came into view, and not a little of what had actually been so given. Many general, or rather declamatory passages, are little more than repetitions, in somewhat altered words, of remarks previously introduced, when the objects which seem to have suggested them were described in their proper places; and, with the title and pretensions of a treatise, the discourse has not the cardinal qualities of system and method. But its chief defect as a disquisition upon matters of fact, and that which takes away much of its weight as a guide and authority, is, that it espouses a side throughout,--and almost avowedly assumes the form of a defence of the Italians, and a praise of their country, and its institutions. The author seems to consider himself as ranged on one side of a controversy, and proposes for his object to praise and magnify Italy, and to cry down France. Much of what he says is undoubtedly true; and no one can blame his partialities, who reflects on the warmth of his religious and classical enthusiasm. Nor is it very inexcusable in an Englishman, to lean at all times, and on every subject, against the French and their extravagant pretensions. But the question, after all, is not one of feeling; and, after exhausting all those topics of excuse, we shall be forced to admit, that the Dissertation fails in its object, and is, as a piece of reasoning or statement, materi
ally defective, although the author may not incur any severe censure for the warmth of those sentiments which have led him astray.
If a specimen of these little ebullitions were wanting, after what has been already laid before the reader, under other, heads, we might refer to his belief, which seems quite sincere, that the dissenination of the French language has mainly contributed to the overthrow of European independence. He not only declaims against the preference given to 'a semibarbarous
jargon' (as he terms the language of the Henriade, the Jardins, the Heloise, of Bossuet and Fenelon) as a matter of taste; but he complains at great length, and with a semblance of argumentation, of its various political effects. The reader may imagine that these are deduced from its being made the vehicle of Infidelity-of what Mr Eustace calls the voluminous and
cumbersome Encyclopedie,' and which he seems to imagine is a mere dictionary of atheism.—But if this were all, unhappily translation would be as effectual as the knowledge of the originai. Mr Eustace, however, argues from its influence in negociations; and ascribes to it the assumed fact, that England has generally thrown away at a peace, all she had been gaining by war. This is a large field, and we cannot now enter on it ;—but we believe no proposition is capable of a more clear demonstration than this—That where England has made inadequate treaties, as, Heaven knows, she but too often has done-ihe fault lies, not in the bad French of her ambassadors, nor yet in their want of diplomatic skill (the effects of which are confined to a very subordinate sphere in all negociations) but must be ascribed to the popular form of her government; which, with all its incalculable advantages, has one inseparable drawback, that it stands frequently in the way of successful diplomacy; and this, not only by hampering the Executive, where it should be most efficient, nor yet by the publicity which it gives to cabinet measures, but with a view at least to questions of peace, because; after war has continued too long, and the people get tired of it, they hurry their rulers into any treaty whereby it may be got rid of, and lose, in the feeling of present burthens, all recollection either of the original cause of quarrel, or of the successes of their arms. As a remedy for all this, our author gravely recommends, that Latin be henceforth used in negociations; but we believe he would come down a little, and, splitting the difference, take Italian ;-in short, any thing, rather than the ‘jar• gon which is made an instrument of slavery, and a tool of atheism, '
-the cup of Circe, which makes him who imbibes sit forget his God, his country, his very nature, and be come Epicuri de grrge porcus.' (Vol. II. p. 269.)
The most interesting part of the Dissertation relates to the Italian clergy, secular and regular ; and, for the purpose of correcting the prevailing errors on this subject, in foreign countries, we shall extract some passages ; premising, that it would be quite superfluous to enter into any argument at this day, to show, that the learned author greatly underrates the force of the objections urged against monastic institutions.
• The traveller must not confound with the clergy a set of men who wear the clerical habit merely as a convenient dress, that enables them to appear respectably in public places, to insinuate themselves into good company, and sometimes to cover principles and conduct very opposite to the virtues implied by such a habit. The intrigues and vices of these adventurers have too often been attributed, by hasty and ignorant persons, to the body whose uniform they presume to wear, with just as much reason as the deceptions of swindlers might be ascribed to the gentlemen whose names are sometimes assumed for such sinister purposes. It must however be ac. knowledged, that the clerical body in Italy is too numerous ; that many supernumeraries might be retrenched ; and that such a reform would contribute much to the edification of the public, and to the reputation of the body itself. But, wherever any profession has acquired celebrity, or any corporation seems to open a wider or a shorter road to preferment, its ranks will necessarily be crowded, and the very avenues to it besieged with pretenders. This evil is now rapidly decreasing. The ecclesiastical profession, since the Church has been plundered and insulted by the French, is no longer the road either to fame or to fortune. The attractions it retains are merely spiritual, and not likely to allure a multitude, or to com. pensate, in the opinion of many, the restraints which it necessarily imposes.
• We now come to the regular clergy, so called because they live under certain rules or statutes, and take upon themselves obligations not connected with the clerical profession. This body is very nu. merous, exhibits a great variety of dresses, and strongly attracts the attention of an English traveller, who, if a zealous Protestant, is apt to feel, at the sight of one of its individuals, an aversion or anti. pathy similar to that which some hypochondriac persons are said to experience in the presence of cats and other domestic animals. The regular clergy may be divided into two great classes, Monks and Friars, who, though they are bound in common by the three vows of Poverty, of Chastity, and of Obedience, yet live under very different regulations. The former, under various appellations, follow almost universally the rule of St Benedict, who, in the sixth centu. rý, attempted to regulate the monastic life which had been introduced into Italy and the Western Church in the age preceding. His rule is rather a treatise of morality than a book of statutes, as it recommends many virtues, and prescribes few regulations, which re