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From this, however, to the methods contained in the Bija Gannita, the step is prodigiously great, in as much at least as regards indeterminate problems, a subject of difficult discussion, and treated of by the Hindu mathematicians, as we have already observed, in a manner not unworthy of the reputation of Euler and LA GRANGE. The Indian treatise, though so much more ancient, is much more profound than the Arabic, which at this moment is reputed the best in that language ; a fact which furnishes a complete answer to the assertion, that the sciences of the former country are borrowed from the latter. We know indeed of no country, in a condition to lend the truths, which the Hindus are alleged to have borrowed, except modern Europe, and that only since the middle of last century.
This argument, in favour of the originality of the Hindu algebra, is quite independent of that which we formerly stated, as grounded on the singular application of the word colour, and the names of the different colours. This is a distinguishing mark, to which nothing similar occurs in the science of Arabia, or of any other country, and has a strong claim to the character of originality
It is necessary to attend particularly to the import of the term originality, as employed here. We do not pretend, by it, to say of what country this algebra is the original production, but only that it is not derived from any known source, or any system of science with which the Western world has yet been made acquainted. It may either be an indigenous production of India; or it may be, as indeed there is reason to think it is, a fragment of a system that is lost ; a remain of a great body of science which enlightened the world at some very remote period, when the Sanscrit was a spoken language, or when some parent language, still more antient, sent forth those roots which have struck with more or less firmness into the dialects of so many and such remote nations, both of the East and of the West.
Or it may be a fragment of antediluvian science, that has escaped the ruin produced by one of those great catastrophes which have shaken or overwhelmed the earth, and brought destruction on so many of its inhabitants.
But whatever opinion is formed at present, it can be considered only as probable, and provisionary, till such time as all the evidence can be examined. It would contribute essentially to this object, to have both the books of Bhascara, the Lilavati and the Bija Gannita, accurately translated from the Sanscrit originals, accompanied with such notes or commentaries as the translator should judge proper, but in such a form, that
these last should be quite separated from the text. It is not too much to hope for this from the Asiatic Society, to which we are already indebted for so much inforination concerning the antiquities of India. Perhaps it might be reckoned an undertaking not unworthy of the protection of the Company itself, whose very liberal and disinterested exertions in behalf of science, we have more than once had occasion to remark.
It would also be necessary, to render the data complete, to have fuller information concerning the Arabic works in algebra. Though Mr STRACHEY has given a very full and satisfactory account of one of the best of those treatises, and has done, indeed, all that an individual could be expected to perform, there may be other treatises on the same subject deserving of notice, and concerning which it were desirable that farther inquiry should be made. If Arabia have any claim to be considered as the instructor of India, it is in this way only that such claim can be established. Indeed we have very little doubt that the truth, to a certain length at least, would be ascertained on good evidence, if the question were discussed with perfect fairness and impartiality, without any love of paradox, on the one hand, or any desire to prove, at all hazards, the great antiquity of Indian science; and, on the other hand, without any fear of discovering proofs of such antiquity, or any desire of reducing it within limits previously determined. To one who is not quite aware how much prejudice warps all our opinions, it would seem very unnecessary to exhort men to impartiality on an inquiry into questions of the most remote antiquity, and that can affect, one should think, the personal interest of no one individual at present on the surface of the earth. Yet
every one who has attended to what has already passed on the subject of the astronomy of India, must know, that such cautions as we are now presuming to offer, are by no means unnecessary. We cannot dismiss this subject without again reminding our readers how much they are obliged to Mr STRACHEY, for supplying a document so important in this question, as that of which we have been giving an account. He has entered on the research with candour and ability; has pursued it with great industry, and at great expense of time, in a situation where his time was probably of great value. He may, at least, have fairly the satisfaction to think, that he has done a service to all who are interested in the history of knowledge; and that nothing which has yet been produced,' has thrown so much light on the science of the East, as that which he has laid before the public.
Art. VII. A Tour through Italy, exhibiting a Viero of its
Scenery, its Antiquities, and its Monuments ; particularly as they are Objects of Classical Interest and Elucidation : With an Account of the present State of its Cities aud Towns, and occasional Observations on the recent Spoliations of the French. By the Rev. John Chet wode Eustace. 2 vol. 4to. pp. 1342. London. Mawman. 1813.
cris is one of the best books of travels that have appeared
since we began our labours; and, consistently with our high sense of its value, we cannot delay bringing it fully before our readers. Of the subject, little needs be said. It is, perhaps, the most interesting to which a traveller could devote himself. In the design, we may have occasion to regret certain omissions, and to wish that Mr Eustace had taken a somewhat wider range in his inquiries and observations. Of the execution, we must speak niore in detail as we proceed.
Mr Eustace is a Roman Catholic clergyman, who travelled with an amiable young gentleman of the name of Roche, since deceased ; and having, during the year 1801, fallen in company with Lord Brownlow and Mr Rushbrooke at Vienna, they all resolved to undertake together the tour of Italy, which they accomplished the following year. He does ample justice to the good qualities of his companions ; and in particular, expresses his obligations to Lord Brownlow, for much valuable assistance in the course of his work. A good Catholic travelling in Italy cannot fail to find frequent opportunities of reminding his readers, that their religious creeds differ; yet we must say for Mr Eustace, that he is by no means narrow-minded or uncharitable in his observations. There is no doubt, however, that he is considerably tinctured with enthusiasm, religious as well as classical. He plainly feels inspired as much with the modern as the ancient recollections, excited by the scenes which he visits : But there is little or no bigotry mixed up with his enthusiasm ; and we know not that his book is the worse for this peculiarity in his faith. It certainly lends animation and interest to many parts, wbich in former travellers were somewhat tame; and this may serve to make amends for the excesses of description into which it leads him, when he gets among churches and ceremonies. At all events, the frank and manly avowal contained in the following passage of his Preface, must be allowed to give the reader full warning upon this topic; and our Protestant alarmists have themselves to blame, if they run the risk of seduction, by entering the scarlet gentlewoman's dwelling, after reading so plain an inscription over the door-way.
• Religion, Politics, and Literatu:e, are the three great objects that employ every mind raised by educatio' above the level (f the labourer or the mechanic; upon them, every thinking man must have a decided opinion, and that opinion must ccasional y influence his conduct, conversation, and writings. Sincere and u disg 11 sed in the belief and profession of the Roman Cainlic Religion, the Author affects not to conceal, because he is not ashamed of its influence. How.' ever unpopular it may b-, he is convi ced hat its evil report is not the result of any inherent detect, but the natural consequence of polemic animosity, of the exiggerations of friends, of the misconcep. tions of enemies. Yes! he must acknowledge that the affecting lessons, the holy examples, and the majestic rites of the Catholic Church, made an early impression in his mind; and neither time nor experience, neither reading nor conversation, dor much travelling, have weakened that impression, or diminished his veneration. Yet with this affectionate attachment to the ancient Faith, he presumes not to arraign those who su port other systems. Persuaded that their claims to mercy as well as his own, depend upon Sincerity and Charity, he leaves them and himself to the disposal of the common Fa. ther of All, who, we may humbly hope, will treat our errors and our defects with more indulgence than mortals usually show to each other. ' Prefaca, p. xi. xii.
It is pretty manifest, that a person who feels thus warmly attached to the Catholic religion, visits Italy with far livelier interest than they who are merely attracted to it by its classical associations, or the objects which it presents to gratify more ordinary curiosity. He is making a pilgrimage, wh re others are only on a tour; and his spirit is editied by conteinplations, which merely excite their sprculations, or, at the most, awaken secular and profane recollections. lle mu-t also find himself more at home, as it were:-he is among his own sect; and in the places to which his thoughts have been turned from his earliest years. The fluence of these circumstance is perceptible through the wh le of the volumes before us. Mr Eustace sees Italy with far diffrent eyes from Mr Addison ;- sactly as the latter derived a gratification at each step of his journey, which one ignorant of Latin, or who had not been educated among the' antiquities of the Romans, could neither conceive nor participate.
The title page has already informed the reader, that the principal object of our author is classical illustration; and unquestionably, this must ever form one of the most copious sources of gratification to the traveller who crosses the Alps and Appennines. But we regret that Mr Eustace has not extended his views of what is interesting and important a little farther. The political state of Italy, in its various communities and governments, forms a subject of contemplation scarcely less attractive to the
observer than its ancient history; and although our author by no means passes over this topic, it occupies him in a much less proportion than it ought. I wo large volumes like those before us, should contain more valuable information than Mr Eustace has thought it worth his while to communicate. His quotations are numerous, and highly useful to the classical reader; though perhaps somewhat too frequently taken from the less exquisite sources of Claudian and Sílius Italicus. His descriptions are proportionably copious; and if not very often distinguished by picturesque and happy touches, yet they faithfully and industriously go through the country, and register the prominent features of it as in a catalogue; though they can scarcely be said to preserve its image. But when we have said that our author quotes copiously, and describes diligently, we have well nigh exhausted his merits. In reasoning he deals moderately ; his professed object being, as he repeatedly reminds us, classical, he dwells little upon those views of men and things which bear no relation to their ancient state ; and he expressly states, that he considers the fine arts, excepting where they now and then force themselves upon him, as not within the scope of his design. If a good deal of the details respecting churches had been abridged, and the size of the work either reduced, or the vacant space filled up with facts and anecdotes, conducive to instruction or amusement, the book would have been, in either case, considerably lightened and improved. As for the style, it is rather free from great faults, than distinguished by any very striking excellences. is somewhat monotonous, and by no means either close or concise. It is certainly sufficiently easy and copious, but frequently a little heavy and feeble. Our readers should, however, bear in mind, that it is rare indeed to find a book of travels written in so good a style ; and that there is, perhaps, less of absurdity in the composition of these two volumes, than in those of any traveller who has for a long time past come before the public. For the rest, Mr Eustace seems to be not only a very learned and well-informed man, but an amiable and an honest onęwhich is a far better thing; and we sincerely rejoice to find, that there are persons of such accomplishments and apparent worth, to superintend the education of our Catholic countrymen.
The preliminary discourse contains a full account of the branches of information requisite, or at least highly advantageous to a traveller who wishes to visit Italy with protit. Our author certainly takes care to provide his traveller priity handsomely. He must be intimately acquainted with the Latin classics, and also with the modern Latin poets of Italy. The language of Italy, and its history, must be familiar to him. He should be know