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If this first question however be well decided, there is really an end to the controversy; and it can scarcely be worth while to inquire into the comparative importanceof a Church-establishment, and of general education ; since it appears, that those two things are not opposed, but united in their interests. The impulse, however, in favour of education, has now been decidedly given; and the work must go forward, in spite even of greater obstructions than those which we are now lending our feeble aid to remove. Mr Edgeworth, in a letter annexed to the last Report of the Board of Education, attests this fact very strongly as to Ireland; and concludes with these remarkable expressions I • cannot quit this subject without observing, that the poor are
now uncommonly anxious to procure education for their chil• dren. As a proof of this I may mention, that in a number
of private letters which I have lately had an opportunity of
seeing, from young men abroad in different parts of the world, • I have found most urgent entreaties to their parents or their • wives, to keep their children to school."
From observation and inquiry assiduously directed to that object, we can ourselves speak decidedly as to the rapid progress which the love of education is making among the lower orders in · England. Even around London, in a circle of fifty miles radius, which is far from the most instructed and virtuous part of the kingdom, there is hardly a village that has not something of a school ; and not many children of either sex who are not taught, more or less, reading and writing. We have met with families in which, for weeks together, not an article of sustenance but potatoes had been used; yet for every child the hard-earned sum was provided to send them to school. From a quarter, worthy of our confidence, we are informed, that the number of letters which pass through the post-office, and, by the circumstances of their direction and superscription, prove that they are between persons in the lower ranks of life, has increased in a remarkable proportion during the last twenty years. Sunday newspapers are another extraordinary proof of the progress of reading, and the love of political information, among the lower orders of the people; however objectionable some of these publications may be thought. We are inclined also to think, though of this we cannot speak so positively, that the Evangelical and Wesleyan Magazines are chiefly read by the lower orders and of these together, it is affirmed, that from fifty to sixty thousand copies are distributed every month. We certainly wish that this disposition to read were better directed; though we are informed, hy persons who have paid some attention to the subject, that in point of rationality, and really useful information, the publications in question have greatly improved within the last four years.
Waging no war with the Church of England, to which, as a Religious Institution, we are willing to ascribe all the virtues with which her highest dignitaries have adorned her, we have no hesitation in declaring, that the political services which she has been said to render to the State, are so far from being worthy to be compared with the advantages of general education, that we should look upon the cessation of these services as an advantage of no small magnitude.
The alliance of Church and State,' when rightly interpreted, seems to mean merely the alliance of the majority with the majority, in order to keep down the minority,—which does not appear either to be a very just or a very necessary measure: : And accordingly, the doctrine of this famous alliance, which was at one time crammed down our throats with so much vigour, and which some persons seem sufficiently disposed to revive at the present moment, has been so generally discredited of late years, that it may fairly be considered as abandoned by all the temperate and enlightened advocates of the Establishment. Dr Paley, for example, has stated unequivocally, that to make of • the Church an engine or even an ally of the State, serves only
to debase the institution ;' and that the single end we ought • to propose by an ecclesiastical establishment, is the preserva• tion and communication of religious knowledge.' And to the same purpose Mr Burke, in terms still more direct and decided.
An alliance,' says he, • between Church and State; in a • Christian commonwealth is, in my opinion, an idle and a fan. ciful speculation. An alliance is between two things that are • in their nature distinct and independent, such as between two • sovereign states. But in a Christian commonwealth, the • Church and the State are one and the same thing.' To us, indeed, it appears more like a burlesque upon Government, than any thing else, to say, that the only way to secure the excellence of any political institution, is to connect it with a corporation of priests, dependent upon it by their interests, and consequently bound, as far as interest is concerned, to support it, when it invades the rights of the people, as well as when it -protects them. We are extremely happy to find the clergy of ihe Church of England, with almost one accord, now renouncing and ashamed of this perilous doctrine, and declaring the sole and exclusive utility of their order to consist in the preservation of a pure faith, and good works among the people. No good government can ever want more than two things for its support; Ist, Its own excellence; and, 2dly, a people suficiently instruct
ed, to be aware of that excellence. Every other pretended support must ultimately tend to its subversion, by lessening its dopendence upon these,—and consequently lessening the induceinent to promote good government and general instruction.
We cannot conclude this article without observing, that the Report which has been published by the authors of the exclusive scheme, conveys hardly any information. It tells us indeed of meetings that were held, and speeches that were pronounced about the excellence' of the Church, and the excellence' of the Church Catechism, and the advantages' of religion; and it also tells us of large sums of money that were subscribed: But as to what has been done with that money, except
buying of stock, our information is scanty indeed. We can• noi indeed find out from the Report, that any school as yet owes
its existence to the exertions of the National Society' (as it has christened itself), but one which is spoken of about Gray's Inn Lane: And, whether even that is actually opened, or only in a state of preparation, we are unable to discover. In an article of the Appendix, there is an account of several local subscriptions; and under the title Schools' as connected with those subscriptions, the names of about forty places are inserted: But in how many of these the schools are established, and in how many they are merely projected, does not appear. We observe, however, that they include all the old schools, in which the new methods have been adopted—and even those in which they were adopted before the National Society' had any existence; as those in Gower's Walk, Whitechapel, and in Orchard Street, Westminster. Where so little pains are taken to give clear and precise information, we may be pretty sure that clear and precise information is not calculated to advance the credit of the Institution.
While the Exclusive Society, however, with their great means, have been accomplishing so little, the extension of the Lancasterian schools, under all the disadvantages of deficient means, has been great and cheering. Instead of one solitary school for 1000 children in the metropolis, no fewer than three Lancasterian schools, for 1000 children each, have been erected ;-one in Spital Fields; one for Cripplegate, Aldersgate, Coleman Street, and St Luke's; and a third for Farringdon Within and Without, and the parishes of St Sepulchre and Clerkenwell. The journey of Lancaster in Ireland, and his visit to Scotland, were the occasion of many schools. It is impossible on this lead to be particular, because it is only incidentally that intelligence of new erections reaches the parent Institution in London. However, a pretty satisfactory idea may be formed of its progress, from the fact, that the funds of the Institution are insufficient to breed masters in sufficient numbers to keep pace with the demand ; and every month applications are received for teachers, with which it is impossible to comply. - This is an obstruction which it is impossible sufficiently to lament; and which the friends of education and of liberality cannot be called upon too earnestly to remove. The vast work of education is now brought to that happy state, that a very inconsiderable arinual sum is wanted to render its triumphs universal. The minds of the people are prepared to second our endeavours; and the expense is reduced to a mere trifle. Surely the liberality of the propertied classes, when the burden is so small which they are called upon to bear, will not be the only thing wanting to the accomplishment of this great and philanthropic purpose. A sum far less than is annually expended in many a single workhouse, would ensure the erection of schools, on the comprehensive principle, in every district in the kingdom; would supersede the assistance of the Government; and would finally place the education of the great body of the people, oli that foundation on which it must always he most desirable to place it,--the unconstrained support of those who have becii brought to desire it.
Art. X. The Resources of Russia, in the Event of a War with
France; and an Examination of the prevailing Opinion relative to the Political and Micitary Conduct of the Court of St Petersburgh'; with a short Description of the Cozaks. By M. Eustaphieve, Russian Consul at Boston. Third Edition, America, printed. London, Reprinted by John Stockdale, Piccadilly. 1813. [With a Copyright notice, entered at the District Clerk's Office
in Massachusets, in conformity to two acts of Congress for the encouragement of learning, ' &c. &c. &c.]
ON n inspecting the title-page of this work, and observing the
defensive securities with which Mr Eustaphieve has thought fit to surround it, it naturally occurred to us to inquire wlio Mr Eustaphieve was. He tells us that he is a Russian Consul at Boston ; and we have been able to learn nothing more of him, except that, about five years ago, he was a chorister in the chapel of Count Woronzow in London. Though neither of these statìons seemed particularly favourable for the acquisition of statistical information about Russia, we turned with some impatience to the work which he had guarded with so much care from the piracy of American booksellers.
The account of bis statistical treasures, however, is very soon rendered. They consist of statements of the revenue, population, mines, shipping, &c. &c. of Russia, taken from an elementary book of geography lately published at St Peterburghof the number of troops, regular and irregular, with which she can oppose an invading army, borrowed from the same authentic source of information--and of the means by which she can pay and subsist these troops within her territories. The conelusion which the learned author draws from this abstract of his Gazetteer, is, that Russia cannot possibly be conquered on her own soil :-a conclusion so extremely comfortable, that we are burt little disposed to quarrel with italthough more captious critics might suggest, that Bonaparte forced his way to Moscow, last autumn, in spite of the Gazetteer; and that his progress was arrested, less by the troops regular and irregular of his Imperial Majesty, than by the severity of the season, and the conflagration of the Eastern metropolis. A good deal might be said upon these topics; but we really have not the heart to insist on them. And as the result of the campaign has been, that, somehow. or other, the invader has lost his army, we think a zealous disputant-especially if he be a Russian-may be indulged, like his brother Cossacks of the war, in a few irregular advantages ; and allowed to evade explaining minutely how so great a good has been achieved, or on what principle of national power Russia may rely for the successive discomfiture of similar attacks.
We should have but little to say, indeed, to Mr Eastaphieve, if we had nothing to complain of but the want of originality, or anthority, in his Russian statistics. - Such as they are, they probably give most of his readers a better idea of the trath, than they ever had before ; and we are very willing to excuse a national chanpion for partialities and exaggerations, which are so easily engendered between patriotism and ignorance. But this writer, we are sorry to say, comes before us in the character of an English ministerial pamphleteer ; and, far as such a thing seem ed to lie out of the way of a Russian Consul in America, the main scope of his work is undoubtedly to traduce and vilify the Administration that directed the affairs of this country in 1806, and the early part of 1807. We cannot say that we at any time approve of the interference of aliens in our domestic factions and party quarrels ;-and most certainly there is nothing in the style or manner of Mr Eustaphieve, which tends