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evitable destruction and of the Western army. Measures for effecting it had been for some time in agitation; and they were known to so many persons in the capital as to be the common topic of conversation. Yet so universally deserted was the unhappy King, that no one ever thought of giving him notice of these singular proceedings. When a Prince has justly offended his country—when the bulk of his people are ready to throw off their allegiance in self-defence—he is apt vainly to look towards his army, and to expect security from its disciplined fidelity. A confidence in its protection is also but too frequently one of the flattering visions which dance before his eyes, and beguile him to his ruin, while the danger is yet at a distance. But the history of the world presents us with no instance of a native army justifying such calculations, or forming an exception to the feel. ings and conduct of their countrymen at large. The first hint that Gustavus received of the Revolution was the arrival of a courier, to announce that the Western army had broken up from its quarters, and was marching towards Stockholm. We conclude these extracts, and this Article, with the following selection of passages, which contain a very spirited account of the Revolution.

• On Sunday, the 12th of March, an extra post arrived with the proclamation of the western army, and a full account of their proceedings. The King was panic struck. In the afternoon, he went from Haga to Stockholm. As soon as he entered the palace, the gates were shut,-guards were placed at the different entrances of the town, who were commanded strictly to examine ,every person who entered, and allow no one to leave Stockholm. In the evening, an account of the approach of the western army was sent to all the public establishments. The night was passed in despatching the most contradictory orders. All the great officers of state, were ordered to repair to Nyköping. The military were to depart from Stockholm, and one of the German regiments, with some artillery, was destined to oppose the western army. Baron Rozenblad, Secretary of State, was called from his bed, and ordered to raise as much money as he could, by the sale of bills on England ; and he in vain represented that at such an hour, no business of that kind could be transacted. The commissioners of the Bank were commanded to assemble at seven o'clock in the morning, and the proper officers were ordered to use every effort to collect the greatest possible number of horses.'

p. 213, 214. The departure of the King from Stockholm would have been the signal for a civil war-and the preparations for it were therefore calculated to call forth the instant exertions of the confeder. ates to save their country.

• The reputation which Baron Adlercreutz had acquired in the

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last campaign in Finland, pointed him out as the most proper person to lead the way in so dangerous an enterprize; and he willingly accepted the post of honour. The Baron had a conference during the night with some officers, whom he appointed to meet him in the morning at the palace. He himself, and several others, were commanded to attend the King at eight o'clock in the morning of the 13th March.

• The unusual circumstance of shutting the gates of the palace, occasioned some surprize even in the lower classes of inhabitants ; but, with those who were in the secret, all was confusion. General Helvig, Master of the Ordnance, was commanded at his peril to have some artillery prepared to follow the King, although there were no horses proper for the purpose to be procured in Stockholm. The regiments in town were ordered to different places to be provided with ammunition and provisions; but were allowed so short a time, that the provisions could not be distributed. Baron Rosen. blad was sent to the commissioners of the Bank to inform them of his Majesty's desire to receive part of the money in their care, and to inquire of them whether they supposed the remainder to be in security. From this message, the King's intention might have been guessed; but it became evident, when his Majesty afterwards said, that “ he might as well take the money as leave it to the rebels. " The commissioners answered, “ That they had received their trust from the States of the kingdom, without whose authority they did not conceive themselves at liberty to surrender any part of the property of the Bank, and that they did not suppose the Bank to be in any danger. It was easy to foresee the consequences of this answer ;

but before Baron Rosenblad could return to the palace, the Revolution was accomplished.

Baron Adlercreutz, Count Klingspor, Colonel Silfversparre, and many other officers, who had been informed of the intended Revolution, assembled in the palace at eight o'clock in the morning. Upon inquiry, Baron Adlercreutz was informed that only four of the life-guards remained in the palace, the rest having gone to prepare themselves for the journey. Little danger could be therefore apprehended from them, and about fifty officers were now in and about the palace, who were resolved to hazard the utmost extremity. The King had before ordered the gates to be shut, and no one was now permitted to leave the palace: officers were stationed in different parts, and a great number were assembled in the room adjoining the King's bed-chamber.. Count Ugglas was first called in to his Majesty. Soon after his Royal Highness Duke Charles arrived, and went in to his Majesty just as Count Ugglas

Baron Adlercreutz begged of the Count that he would remain; but he answered, that he had received orders from the King, which he must immediately execute. The Baron, however, insisted that the Count should not leave the palace, as a moment of infinite consequence now approached ; and that the King must be

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prevented from leaving Stockholm. The Count said that he had used every endeavour with the King, but to no purpose ; and begged that any further remonstrance might be offered with caution. The Baron answered, that it was now intended to speak to the King in a manner which he hoped would be effectual." His Royal Highness then came out, and Count Klingspor was called in to his Ma. jesty; and, during the conversation, strongly represented to the King the imprudence of leaving his capital. Baron Adlercreutz now judged that the eventful moment was arrived: he sent to de. sire those who were stationed at the gates, and other parts of the palace, to be watchful on their posts, and having assembled a number of officers, he entered the King's room.

When the door opened, the King seemed surprised, and the Baron approached his Majesty, and began to address him.--He said, “ That the public mind was in the utmost irritation from the unfortunate circum. stances of the country, and particularly from his Majesty's in. tended departure from Stockholm: that the higher officers of state, and of the military, and the most respectable citizens, had encouraged him to represent the consequences to his Majesty, for which purpose". -The King here interrupted the Ba. ron, loudly exclaiming “ Treason! you are all corrupted, and shall be punished !” The Baron answered calmly, traitors, but wish to save your Majesty, and our country. The King immediately drew his sword, and the Baron rushed upon him, and seized him round the waist, while Colonel Silfversparre took the sword from his Majesty. The King then vociferated, . They are going to murder me, help! help!'They en. deavoured to reassure the King; and he promised to be more composed, if they would return his sword,-a request which they endeavoured to evade; and when the King obstinately insisted upon it, he was told, that in this respect he could not be gratified, nor be permitted any more to interfere in the management of the kingdom.

• His Majesty's outcries had alarmed some of the body-guard, who had just arrived, and servants of the palace, who endeavoured to force open the door ; but not being able to succeed, they broke the upper pannel with pokers and their sabres. At this moment, Baron, Adlercreutz commanded the door to be opened, and rushed into the middle of the crowd-seized a sabre from an huzzar-snatched from the Adjutant-General his staff of office, and holding it up before him, said that he now considered himself as Adjutant General, and in that capacity commanded the guards immediately to retire. After some hesitation, this command was obeyed; and several officers who were not in the conspiracy were put under arrest.' p. 215—21.

The guards assembled in considerable numbers; and there was a moment when their conduct in this crisis seemed doubtful. The Baron addressed them, and urged every thing that could be devised, to gain their concurrence, or at least prevail on them

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to be passive spectators of the scene. But they remained undetermined-and the utmost that he could obtain, was a promise of remaining quiet. If they did nothing to favour the Revolution, they certainly did nothing to prevent it ;--and the citizens of Stockholm themselves mounted guard at the Bank, and provided for the security of the town, and preservation of peace. In the mean time, the King contrived to escape

from the room where he was confined ; and the following singular account is given of the Baron's pursuit of him.

• The King, through the door which the guards had demolished, saw the Baron advancing, and immediately escaped through the opposite door, which had been left unguarded, and locked it on the outside. The danger which might arise from the King's escape, animated the exertions of the Baron, who leaped against the door, burst it open, and ran in pursuit of the King. In the next room, there is a spiral staircase open all round, which ascends to the floor above. The Baron, when he entered the room, perceived, on the last step, the King, who threw in the Baron's face a large bunch of keys, and immediately disappeared. The King had so much the advantage, that when the Baron arrived at the top of the spiral stairs, the King was no where to be seen. But, by accident, he took the same road as the King; and, meeting some servants in his way, he was directed by them in his pursuit: but he reached the court of the palace without having seen his Majesty. The King, in the mean time, had been so precipitate in his endeavour to escape, that he fell in the stair, and hurt his arm severely.

When the King's escape was discovered, the greatest confusion and dismay prevailed among the authors of the Revolution; and the most terrible consequences were apprehended. Every stair was crowded with people descending to the court of the palace, to endeavour to intercept his Majesty's flight. Greiff, keeper of the King's game, had precipitately descended the great stair, and was the first who reached the court, and perceived the King, with his sword in his hand, making towards the only gate which had been left

open. As soon as Greiff overtook him, the King made a violent push at him ; but with so tremulous and unsteady an aim, that the sword passed up the sleeve of Greiff's coat, only slightly wounding him. His sword being thus entangled, his breath gone, and his strength exhausted, the King was easily overpowered. Many had now come to Greiff's assistance ; and the King, either unwilling to walk, or unable to support himself, was carried up stairs, and, by his own desire, taken into the white room. He was there set down upon the chair nearest the door, and exactly opposite to the portrait of the late unfortunate Queen of France, Marie Antoinette. The King, exhausted with his exertions, and disordered with indignation and disappointment, remained quiet the whole day.' p. 223-25.

So little disposition did the people whom he had misgoverned testify in his behalf, even under circumstances of affliction, which are wont to appease resentment, and to excite pity towards our oppressors themselves, that not the slightest displeasure was shown, and the play was attended by an unusual number of

spectators. '— The King was removed to another palace in the night. He there quietly signed an instrument of abdication, drawn up, it is said, by himself. Liberal provisions were made for him and his family. They were safely conducted to a foreign country ;---and they now reside, it is said, in Switzerland, to the infinite relief of Sweden, and to the remarkable confutation of the ancient saying, that there is but a short step from the prison to the grave

of him who has lost a Crown. We cannot close this subject without adverting to a charge which we doubt not will be brought against us by the creatures of the Court. It will be said that we have dealt rudely with fallen Majesty-and have not been disarmed, as we ought to have been, by the present unhappy state of the subject of this narrative. Why have we gone through our task without betraying any such emotions ? Not surely because we felt less for the exiled monarch than those who would now insult him with their canting pity,—but because we felt more for the people whom his misrule had for so many years afflicted. Let others confine their lamentations to the guilty,—and forget, in a sort of animal sensibility, excited by the punishment, the more rational feeling of satisfaction at the performance of substantial justice. They whose pity lies in the right place will reserve it for the thousands whom his pernicious career has sacrificed to want and wounds and misery ;-and, without shutting their ears to what may be urged in favour of the man, now that he is disarmed of his sceptre, they will rejoice that an instrument of such mischievous power in its abuse, has been torn, or rather gently taken, from hands incapable of holding it harmless.

J d

ART. VIII. Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon, to the Death of Charles III. in 1788. By W.

By W. Coxe, M. A. Archdeacon of Wilts. 3 vols. 4to. London. Longman & Co.

1813.

THE

HE last age abounded more than the present in a valuable class

of writers, who employed themselves in collecting, and arranging, and abridging the materials of history; an employment to which mere industry was very inadequate, and which required much more understanding than is often possessed by the pre

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