Prehistoric Farming in Europe
Graeme Barker, Disney Professor of Archaeology and Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Graeme Barker
CUP Archive, 11 de jul de 1985 - 327 páginas
Drawing upon his own extensive knowledge of European archaeology, Graeme Barker has impressively integrated the full range of archaeological data to produce in this book a masterly account of prehistoric farming in Europe on a unique scale. He makes use of modern archaeological techniques to reconstruct the lives of prehistoric farmers in remarkable detail. Not only do we now have a vivid picture of the prehistoric farmyard, but we know what animals were kept, how they were fed and why they were bred. Evidence for crops grown and techniques of cultivation and husbandry helps recreate the prehistoric landscape. Even the social organisation that determined the use of resources, and provided the crucial stimulus for agricultural change, can be relived. Graeme Barker develops his argument through analogies with the agricultural history of classical and medieval Europe and concludes that today's industrial farmers can learn much from the successes and failures of early European farming.
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Approaches to prehistoric farming
resources and constraints
The Mediterranean basin
The Balkans the middle Danube basin and the Ukraine
The Alpine region
The continental lowlands
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agricultural system alpine Alps arable areas argued artifacts Atlantic aurochs Balkans barley barrows bones Boreal Bovenkarspel bronze age burials catchment cattle central cereals changes climate coastal colonisation communities crops cultivation culture dairying Danube Denmark Dennell domestic Drenthe early economy einkorn emmer evidence excavations farmers faunal samples fishing foraging forest fourth millennium grazing hillforts Holocene hunting increase indicated Italy Jarman Kazanluk land late legumes loess lowlands major manure meat medieval Mediterranean mesolithic metres microliths middle Danube basin mixed farming modern neolithic normally northern numbers organisation pasture period pigs plateau pollen population postglacial pottery practised prehistoric Europe prehistoric farming probably production radiocarbon dates red deer region Renfrew roe deer Scandinavia second millennium settlement sheep and goats sheep/goat social soils southern specialised species steppe subsistence data suggested summer Swifterbant Swiss plateau temperate Europe transhumant upland valley vegetation villages wheat whilst winter