Prehistoric Farming in Europe
Graeme Barker, Disney Professor of Archaeology and Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Graeme Barker
CUP Archive, 11 de jul. de 1985 - 327 páginas
Drawing upon his own extensive knowledge of European archaeology, Graeme Barker has impressively integrated the full range of archaeological data to produce in this book a masterly account of prehistoric farming in Europe on a unique scale. He makes use of modern archaeological techniques to reconstruct the lives of prehistoric farmers in remarkable detail. Not only do we now have a vivid picture of the prehistoric farmyard, but we know what animals were kept, how they were fed and why they were bred. Evidence for crops grown and techniques of cultivation and husbandry helps recreate the prehistoric landscape. Even the social organisation that determined the use of resources, and provided the crucial stimulus for agricultural change, can be relived. Graeme Barker develops his argument through analogies with the agricultural history of classical and medieval Europe and concludes that today's industrial farmers can learn much from the successes and failures of early European farming.
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Approaches to prehistoric farming
resources and constraints
The Mediterranean basin
The Balkans the middle Danube basin and the Ukraine
The Alpine region
The continental lowlands
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agricultural analysis animal arable archaeological areas argued Atlantic barley basin bones bronze age cattle central century cereals changes clay clear climate communities complex consisted crops cultivation culture Danube dates domestic early economy emmer established Europe evidence example farmers farming faunal fields fishing foraging forest goats grazing groups hills houses hunting husbandry important included increase indicated Italy land late later less lowlands major manure material meat medieval Mediterranean metres middle millennium b.c. mixed farming mountains natural neolithic normally northern organisation pasture period pigs plain plant plateau Pleistocene pollen population pottery prehistoric principal probably production range record red deer region remains river samples scale seasonal second millennium seems settlement sheep similar social societies soils southern stone studies subsistence suggested summer third millennium valley vegetation villages wild winter