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old homestead farm adjoining on the south the sentatives. In faith and testimony of which we city of Monroe. He has six children--Joseph have freely made our ordinary marks of signaA., George W., Charles and Mary (twins), ture in Detroit, June 3, 1785. Edith May and Leo John, all minors, residing

ASKIBY. with their parents. Colonel Francis Navarre, in the year 1780,

SAC-CO-NI-BINNE. bargained for the right, title and interest of

MINGUINAN. the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians, represented

NANA-ONITO. by five chiefs, to the farm on the south bank of CHARLES CAMPEAU. the Namet Cybi, so called by the Indians be

HENEMARGINTEMOND. cause of the great quantity of sturgeon caught

In presence of the undersigned witness, Mr. therein, but called by the French River Aux

Pierre Labady has signed bis ordinary mark Raisins (tbe French for grapes) from the pro

by a cross, the present contract countenanced. fusion of grapevines which lined the banks of

PIERRE DE COMPT DE LABADY. the river on either side. As late as the years 1843 and 1844 they were growing on the banks

This grant of land from the Indian tribe of west of Monroe, and in great profusion on the

Pottawatomies was subsequently ratified by Saline and Macon streams, tributary to the

Henry Bassett, commanding at Detroit, in River Raisin in the western part of the county,

presence of George McDougall, and afterwards where the forest trees had not yielded to the

confirmed by General Gage. woodman's axe, growing on the tops of the

Two of his brothers, Robert, born in 1764, tallest forest trees. Some of the vines were

and Jacques, born in 1760, at Detroit, within from six to eight inches through. After climb

three years followed their brother Francis to ing to the tops of trees branches dropped to the

and settled upon the south bank of the River ground, which again took root and made a

Raisin, east of the farm of their brother. perfect mat of vines, filled with clusters, and

Colonel Francis Navarre was one of the first annually before the "vine casteth her fruit”

grand jurors at the first court held in Frenchtheir appearance was higbly picturesque. The

town, September 2, 1805 ; colonel in the War original deed executed by the Indian chiefs of 1812 and 1813 and what is a little remark. was written in the French language, and is

able thirty-six Navarres were enlisted and yet in the hands of Alexander Navarre, one of

fought in his regiment. He built on his farm the grandchildren of Colonel Francis Navarre. the first log house erected on the river. of A translation into English I procured as a rare

square hewn timber, fifty feet front, which was curiosity, a copy of which is hereto annexed:

the headquarters of Generals Wayne, WinchesWe, the principal chiefs of the village of the ter and St. Clair, and was occupied as beadPottawatomies, to wit: Askiby, Mongo-agon, quarters by General Winchester at the time of Minguinan, and Ona-oni-attenne, Nana-onito, the massacre on the River Raisin in 1813, and Sac-co-ni-binne, as well in our names as by is now the site of the elegant mansion of Doctor the consent of our village, declare that of our A. I. Sawyer. good will we have conceded to Francis Navarre, Colonel Navarre was thoroughly conversant surnamed Tchigoy, and to James, his brother with the language, peculiar habits and mode of (both our allies), all the extension of land warfare of the savages, and spoke with facility which belongs to us upon the bank of the and ease several of their languages. He was River Raisin, formerly called Namet Cybi, captured at Brownstown, whither he had gone commencing to take from the river road (as in advance of Colonel Richard M. Johnson to filed in court) to the end of the prairie, going up negotiate with the Indians; was taken as a the stream Namet Cybi, allowing more or less prisoner to Sandwich, but fortunately escaped. twenty acres in width by eighty or one hun- He was the personal friend of Generals Wayne, dred in depth ; the whole may be determined Winchester, St. Clair, Cass, McComb and by a line lengthwise south and a league north Judge Woodward, and his correspondence with in width, going up the River Namet Cybi, in several of them has been preserved. It was order to possess on the whole in all propriety soon after his settlement on the River Raisin, and perpetuity by themselves and their repre- stated by some as in the year 1783 and by



others in 1786, that riding on his French pony him and merchants and fur traders of those following the Indian trail, he brought from De- early days. I was surprised, in perusing troit several scions about the size of one's lit. them, to learn the vast amount of money reptle finger of the French pear, which trees have resented therein, and to see the methodical since become famous for their delicious fruit and accurate manner in which the statements A number of the trees are now vigorous and and accounts were kept, and the very neat healthy, annually yielding from thirty to forty and legible handwriting, which would favorbushels.

ably compare with the statements of the best I have frequently listened with great interest accountants of the present day. to the narratives of Robert, the oldest son of Colonel Navarre was highly esteemed by Colonel Francis Navarre, of the incidents that Governor St. Clair, General McComb, Gov. occurred at the time of the barbarous massacre ernor Lewis Cass, Judge Woodward and Genof the River Raisin in January, 1813. Then a eral Winchester, and a number more of disyoung man in his twenty-first year, he dis- tinguished men of his time, judging from the tinctly remembered being aroused by his father commissions to him and the voluminous corat midnight; of going up the stairs and arous- respondence with those gentlemen, which are ing General Winchester and his staff, who were pervaded with very strong expressions of somewhat bewildered, as they could distinctly friendship and great confidence in his patriothear from the battle field the sharp crack of the ism and bravery. Believing the perusal of a rifle, reports of musketry and booming of can- small portion of them would interest the citi. non. The report that General Winchester, zens of Monroe, I have procured translations with his officers, had, the evening previous to of a small number and annex them hereto, with the attack, retired from a frolic under the influ- a copy of the orignal letter written in English ence of liquor, and were thereby incapacitated by General Winchester to Colonel Francis for duty, is without foundation. The general Navarre, in which he gives expression of gratrepaired in basto to the barn, leaving his unis itude and thanks to Mrs. Navarre for preservform coat behind him in the house, mounted ing his watch, spectacles and pen-knife from Colonel Navarre's horso and rode to the field the general wreck and destruction of property, of battle.

on the morning of his defeat and hasty deThe night after the massacre Colonel Na parture from her hospitable home. varre dispatched his son Robert, with his mother and eleven children, on a French train to Detroit for safety, the train being so crowded that Robert rode with his feet braced on the Lewis Cass, Governor of the Territory of Michigan, to all thills or shafts. As they passed the quarters who shall see these presents, greeting:

e these presents, greeting:

of Colonel Proctor on Sandy Creek, where Know ye that reposing special trust and Proctor's forces encamped the first night after confidence in the integrity, diligence and the battle, he witnessed the drunken Indians ability of Francis Navarre, of the County of scalping the wounded American prisoners and Monroe, in the said Territory of Michigan, their inhuman and barbarous manner of ac- Esquire, I do hereby appoint him to be an complishing it — by cutting with a butcher Associate Justice of the County Court of said knile a circle around the crown of the head, County of Monroe, in said Territory of Michand then placing one foot on the neck of the igan, and do authorize him to execute and fulprisoner, with their hands in the hair, by main fill the duties of that office according to law, force peeling the scalp from the head. This to bave and to hold the said office with all Robert Navarre, who died in Monroe, was the the powers, privileges and emoluments to the last of the survivors in our vicinity of the sol- same of right appertaining, from the day of the diers of the War of 1812 and 1813.

date hereof, during the pleasure of the Gov. I am under great obligations to the treasurer ernor of Michigan for the time being. of our county, the Hon. Alexander Navarre, In testimony whercof, I have caused these the grandson of Colonel Francis Navarre, who letters to be made and the seal of said Territory has in his possession the original files of the of Michigan to be hereunto affixed. Given under accounts, statements and settlements between my hand at Detroit, in the Territory aforesaid,


this 16th day of July, 1817, and of the inde- abilities of Francis Navarre, I have appointed pendence of the United States the forty-second. him Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant in the By the Governor :

LEW. Cass. Second Regiment of Militia. He is, therefore, WM, WOODBRIDGE,

carefully and diligently to discharge the Secretary of Michigan.

duties of that appointment by doing and per

forming all manner of things thereunto belongTERRITORY OF MICHIGAN, District of Monroe. Š

ing, and I do strictly charge and require all Personally appeared before me, the under- officers and soldiers under his command to be signed, the within named Francis Navarre, obedient to his orders as a lieutenant-colonel and took the oath of office prescribed by law. commandant, and he is to observe and follow LAURENT DUROCHER, J. P. D. M.

such orders and directions as he shall receive River Raisin, August, A. D. 1817.

from time to time from the President of the United States of America, or the Governor of

the Territory of Michigan for the time being, HEADQUARTERS, DETROIT, July 13, 1816. or general or other superior officers set over To Colonel Francis Navarre :

him according to the law and military discipline. Sir: On due consideration I am of opinion

This commission to continue in force during that we cannot get on with the road without the pleasure of the Governor of Michigan for the assistance of some person well acquainted the time being with the topography of the country, and I have

In testimony whereof, I have caused these thought that no person is so well qualified as

letters to be made patent, and the seal of the yourself to guide and direct the trace of the

Territory to be thereunto affixed. Given under contemplated route.

my hand, at the city of Detroit, this sixteenth I shall be glad to know if you will under day of December, A. D. 1813, and of the indetake to mark out the line and afford your pendence of the United States of America the counsel and advice. For this service a liberal thirty-eighth. allowance will be made.

By the Governor:

LEW. Cass. Please to inform me as soon as convenient if you can render the services required by this

Extract of letter written to Robert Navarre communication.

from Jesse P. Green, who fought at the battle With great consideration I have the honor

of River Raisin in January, 1813: to be, sir, your most obedient and very humble servant, GENERAL ALEX. McComb.


May 12, 1825. 5

To Colonel Robert Navarre, River Raisin: DETROIT, February 16, 1814. BELOVED FRIEND: I am ever mindful of Colonel Francis Navarre :

your kind, benevolent and charitable services DEAR SIR: On receipt of this you may set at the River Raisin, though years have passed out for Camp Meigs with ten trains. There since our last interview. was on the 14th instant seventy horse loads It would afford me great pleasure to meet that arrived at that place and as many more you and your ayed father and mother. I can were expected there the next day. Should you never think of them but with sentiments of

not have flour for all the ten sleighs, load them gratitude for their kind services rendered me · with cannon ball or boxes of canister tbat is at at their hospitable home. I have had the Camp Meigs. Yours, etc.,

pleasure of seeing your brother, Joseph G. JAMES McCLOSKEY, Navarre, in Kentucky. Say to your father and A. D. to the General. mother he is a gentleman of great promise, and

will, doubtless, from his high sentiments and

superior abilities, provo an ornament to MichLewis Cass, Governor in and over the Territory of Michi- igan Territory. Say also to your father that

gan, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting: bis services in the defense of his country, and

Know ye, that reposing especial trust and hospitality and kindness to the sons of Kenconfidence in the valor, patriotism, fidelity and tucky, will be gratefully remembered; that if


he should ever come to Kentucky he would TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES NORTHWEST find himself in the midst of a host of friends.

OF THE RIVER OHIO, Wayne, jos. I have not received a reply to my letter to

Francis Navarre and Joseph Jobin, Esquires, two of the him. He may have failed to receive it, as you

Justices assigned to keep the peace within and for the

said county of Wayne, to the Sheriff of said county, had no postoffice at Monroe.

greeting :
Your affectionate friend,

Summon Francois Vallequet, of the township of Sergeant, in the said county of Wayne, yeoman, to appear before us, at the house of Francis Navarre, Esq., in said county, upon

the 25th day of April instant, at ten o'clock in Captain Francis Navarre, Justice of the Peace

the forenoon of the same day, then and there in and for the County of Wayne, enters for

to answer to and defend against the complaint taxation a tract of land containing 708 arpents

of George McDougall and George Meldrum to or French acres, of second rate quality, which

us exbibited, wherein they complain that the tract of land the said Francis Navarre and

said Francois Vallequet, on the 8th day of April James Navarre, his brother received as a gift instant, at River Aux Sauble, in Sergeant townfrom the chiefs of the Pottawatomie Nation in

ship, in the said county of Wayne,with force and 1795, together with the farms on which James

arms and with a strong hand, did unlawfully Navarre, Isadore Navarre and George MC

and forcibly enter into and upon a tract of Dougall now reside, making in the whole 2,400

land of them, the said George Meldrum and arpents, or French acres, in front, by 120 in

George McDougall, in the said township of Ser

George McDougall: depth, as may appear by the Indian deed geant, on the River Aux Sauble aforesaid, conthereof, deposited by the said Francis Navarre

taining 120 acres, French measure, being part in the hands of the late Major-General Anthony and parcel of a certain tract of land of them, Wayne while at the treaty of Greenville in

the said Meldrum and McDougall, of 4,000 August, 1793, the which he has lately au- acres, bounded as follows,viz. : southerly on the thorized Mr. Jonathan Schiefilin to obtain

said River Aux Saublo, northerly and westerly back from the heirs of said Maior-General on the lands of said Meldrum and McDougall. Wayne.

and easterly on the lands of said Meldrum and Said Francis Navarre hereby confirms to

McDougall, now in possession of Joseph Porlea and quits claiming in any manner whatever,

Benac; and them, the said Meldrum and Mcall his rights to the aforesaid farms of James

Dougall, with force and arms and a strong and Isadore Navarre and George McDougall,

hand, as aforesaid, did expel and unlawfully having presented the two first to his said put out of possession; and them, the said Melbrothers, and allowed Colonel Chabert to re

drum and McDougall, does unlawfully and ceive afterwards, as a gift of the said Indians, unjust, and w

unjustly and with a strong hand deforce and the farm on which the said George McDougall still keep out of possession of the same. And now resides, which he purchased from said you are to make to us a return of this summons Colonel Chabert and afterwards settled. The and your proceedings therco

and your proceedings thereon on or before the said tract which Francis Navarre has reserved said day. to himself as aforesaid, and is now entered

Witness our hands and seals the 15th day of for taxation, is situated on the River Raisin, in April, A. D. 1799. the county of Wayne, and bounded as follows:

FR. NAVARRE, / Justices of the

JOSEPH JOBIN, Peace. Five arpents and nine poles in front, beginning on the west by a stone fixed in the division I have made service of the within summons line between the said farm and the farm of by leaving a copy with the defendant this day. George McDougall, and on the west by another

LEWIS BOND, Sheriff. stone, with pieces of glass, between the said farm

April 16, 1799. and the farm of Isadore Navarre, running in depth from thence 120 arpents in a parallelogram south, thirty degrees westerly.

Copy of letter from General Winchester to RIVER RAISIN, November 13, 1798.

Colonel Francis Navarro, Frenchtown:

STATE OF TENNESSEE, principles which form the base of our Ameri

CAIRO, 18th February, 1816.) can Government. The Congress of the United Colonel Francis Navarre:

States bas extended to the inhabitants of MichDEAR SIR: Your favor of the 18th of November igan Territory its friendship and protection, in last did not reach me until yesterday, though I publishing laws to assure them of the posseshad previously received from Colonel Anderson sion of their lands, which were depending upon a letter on the same subject, and without loss of uncertain titles, which at present have been time sent to his address at Washington a state-confirmed with true propriety in a complete ment of facts to the best of my recollection, re- and legal manner. It is a great misfortune lating to the public property as well as my that amongst the Canadians are found so many baggage, which was in your house on the who cannot read or write. The acquisition of fatal 22d of January, 1813. I regret the em- these first principles of education is an indisbarrassments which Colonel Anderson impru- pensable necessity to every American citizen. dently and improperly got himself into in Without these principles one can not be fully Washington, and sincerely hope it will not apprised of the daily improvements; to know operate against the just claims of the people at the laws wbich are published in the papers for River Raisin. I feel myself very much obliged the advantage of all; and abovo all, be able to to Madam Navarre for preserving my watch, keep his own accounts and govern his own spectacles and pen-knife from the general affairs It is also essential to know the English wreck and destruction of property on the language, because the acts of government and morning of my defeat.

courts of justice are printed in that lanCan you give me any information concerning guage. I would urge you, therefore, particularly, my papers and books? Some few of them that all the descendants of Francis should were in my trunk at your house, but the most teach their children the English and French of them in a trunk on the other side of the languages. The advantage of speaking them river. I should like to know if these papers both would be very great, because they are fell into the hands of the Indians or the British. used daily in the most ordinary details of life. Present my respects to Madam Navarre, and Besides that, the knowledge of several lanaccept for yourself the consideration of the guages has always been regarded by people of regard of your obedient servant,

the world, even the most polished, as a very

WINCHESTER. great accomplishment. The French of MichiMailed February 23d ; received March 21, gan Territory are always noticed for their 1816 Postage, 25 cents.

polite, gentle and engaging manners. These virtues, if I may call them such, contribute

much to distinguish a people and prove in them DETROIT, June 6th, 1821.

a degree of civilization which is appreciated, To Mr. Francis Navarre:

justly, by all persons of enlightenment and inMY DEAR FRIEND AND RELATION: The new struction. At the same time I should be dearrangement which has taken place in our ceiving you if I did not tell you that the inarmy calls me out of this country to go to habitants of this Territory are much inferior Washington. This circumstance alone bas to the rest of their fellow-citizens of the United been able to separate me from a great number States in point of arts and sciences; and above of friends and relations who are dear, and to all in agriculture, which is not regarded as the whom I am sincerely attached. As long as I least occupation by which men may support lave had the honor of commanding upon these themselves. The reason of it is simple, and frontiers I am constantly obliged to maintain the blame cannot be thrown upon the inbabitpeace between our neighbors, as much in Can- ants. It should be attributed only to the pecuada as with the savages; and my only aim has liar situation in which they have been placed, been to protect all citizens and guarantee to even since the first establishment of the counthem their rights and privileges. The old French try. Neither the Government which inauguinhabitants have been the continual object of rated these first colonies, nor the English who my attention and solicitude - above all that have succeeded that Government, bare dreamed they are ignorant of their own rights, and the of making of them an agricultural people.

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