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Knapp, W. F. . . .
Lacroix, Hubert, . . .
La Fontain, Louis, sr., .
Landon, George, . . .
Landon, George M. . .
Lanman, Charles, ..
Lanman, Charles James, .
Lasselle, Antoine, . .
Lasselle, Francis, . .
Lasselle, Jacques, . . . .
Lauer, Edward G. J. .
Lawrence, Wolcott, . .
Lewis, Isaac, . .
Lewis, Samuel Baker, .
Lockwook, Ezra L. . .
Lockwood, Harry A. .
Loranger, Edward, . .
Loranger, Philip J. . .
McCallum, George Barclay,
McClelland, Robert, . .
McMillan, James. .
Man, Harry V. . .
Martin, John, . . .
Masecar, Alfred J. . .
Mason, John Warner, .
Moore, James, . . .
Morris, Gouverneur, .
Morrow, P. H. . .
Mulhollen, James, sr., .
Mulhollen, James, jr., . .
Mulhollen, Samuel, . .
Munro, Charles E. H. . .
Murphy, Seba, .

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Murphy, William Walton,
Navarre, Francis, . .
Navarre, Isadort, ...
Navarre, Jacques, . . .
Navarre, Joseph G. . .
Navarre, Peter, . . .
Navarre, Robert . .
Noble, Charles, . . .
Noble, Charles Wing, .
Noble, Conway Wing,
Noble, Daniel. . .
Noble, David Addison, .
Noble, Deodatus, .
Noble, Henry Shaw, . .
Noble, William Addison,
Paquette, Nazarth, . .
Parker, Burton, . . .
Peabody, John G. . .
Peters, George, . . .
Peters, Richard, . . .

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PAGE. . . 439 Randall, Seth C. . . . .

. . 106 Rauch, John R. . . . . . . . 124 Richard, Gabriel, . . . .

. . 431 Richardson, George W. . . . . . 460 Robert, Antoine Francis, . . .

. 322 Robert, Joseph, . . . . ., 321 Root, Philander Sheldon, . .

. . 119 Russell, James I. . . . . . . . . 119 Sancraint, John B. . . . . .

. . 118 Sawyer, Alfred Isaac, . . . . . . 367 Schmittdiel, Benjamin D. . . . . 244 Slayton, Willlam Earl, . . .

525 Smith, Henry, . . .

420 Smith, Winfield, . . . . 484 Soffers, Bernard G. . . . .

Soleau, Alexis, : . . . . 168 Southworth, Charles Tracy, . . . . 487 Southworth, Charles Tracy, jr., . .

437 Southworth, Hartia E. . . . . . 245 Southworth, Tracy, . . . .

280 Spalding, George, . .

252 Stevens, John J. . . . . . . . 423 Stockbridge, Francis B. . . .

. . 438 Stone, Harvey, . . . . . . . 445 Strong, John, jr., . . . .

. . 119 Studdiford, William V. . . . . . 455 Stump, John, . . . . .

442 Thurber, Jefferson Gage, . . 116 Tibbetts, Benjamin, . . . .

. . 590 Toll, Philip R. . . . . . . . 471 Tucker, Joseph L. . . . .

. . 441 Tull, John, . . . . . .

. . 160 Valade, Jerome J. . . . . . . 161 Valade, Joseph L. . . . . . . 93 Van Kleeck, James, . . .

115 Wakefield, Stephen B. . . 120 Waldron, Henry, . . . . . . 358 Weier, Joseph, . . . . . . .

. . 125 Wells, Noah M. . . . . . . . 115 West, William C. . . . .

. . 151 White, William Tandy, . . . . . 312 Wilkerson, Alfred, . . . .

· 313 Willett, Benjamin T.

166 Willitts, Edwin, . . . . 250 Wing, Austin E. . . . .

166 Wing, Charles R.. . . 464 Wing, .Talcott E. . . . . .

167 Wing, Warner, . . . 444 Winney, A. F. . . . . . ... 461 Wood, James C. . . . . .

. . 590 Wood, John, . . . . . . . 484 Zabel, John O. . . . . .

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EARLY DISCOVERIES —MISSIONARIES -- INDIAN VILLAGES -- CONGRESS OF INDIANS. AT ST. MARY'S

FALLS — THEIR MODE OF LIVING — LIFE OF THE INDIANS IN PEACE AND WAR.

M ICHIGAN derives its name from two In- corn, pease and beans. Fish were preserved in
W dian words in the Chippewa language, large vessels. Like more civilized people they
Mitchaw, great, and Sagiegan, lake—the land depended upon hunting, fishing and farming.
of the great lakes. The Territory of Michigan The villages were sometimes large and laid out
was a part of New France, whose boundaries regularly, often surrounded with timber and
were as illusive as its history was romantic well protected.
and mysterious. One historian tells us Michi- Detroit was visited as early as 1610, and
gan embraced that part of the Mississippi Val- Champlain's maps of 1612 show the connection
ley north of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois; of the straits between the lakes. On the strait
bounded on the east by Canada, and on the the wandering traders established stations, and
west by the great plains west of the Father of a village of Hurons existed near, or on, the
Waters. The Huron tribe of Indians occupied present site of the city, and was named by the
the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and were Indians Ka-ron-ta-en, meaning The Coast of
more civilized and less nomadic than the other the Strait. Thus it seems Detroit can claim to
western Indians. They early formed friends have been located before Boston, New York,
sbips with the energetic and adventurous fur Philadelphia, or New Orleans. The most relia-
traders, who had penetrated the wilderness for ble records of the early days of this State are
gain and advancement in civil and military derived from the Jesuit missionaries, of whom
positions. When the French traders returned Brebeuf and Daniel were the pioneers. They
to Montreal they gave such glowing descrip- joined a party of Hurons at Quebec in the year
tions of the country, rich in furs and sunny 1631, and sailed through the Ottawa River to
and fertile lands, they inspired the slumbering Lake Huron, upon whose shores they erected
spirit of the colonists. As early as 1536, when the first log house, which served for home and
Jacques Cartier reached Montreal on his second sanctuary for many long and weary days.
voyage, he was told by the Indians of “the They daily rang the church bell and called the
three great lakes ; a sea of fresh water (proba- savages to prayers. Here they educated a
bly Lake Superior), of which no man had small band of Hurons, and trained them for
found an end; of great stores of gold and missionary assistants.
copper; that there was a river running south- Raymbault began a mission at St. Mary's
west, which required a month's sailing to reach Falls in 1641, but his strength soon succumbed
a beautiful land where there was no snow or to the rigorous climate and his arduous duties,
ice, where oranges, almonds, nuts of various and in the last stages of consumption he re-
kinds and apples grew in abundance. The turned to Quebec to lay down his life, worn out
people in that region dressed as the French [no for his Master. Thus it was with many of the
doubt the Spaniards) and lived in walled towns, early missionaries. Their zeal was greater
and were at war with the inbabitants con- than their strength, and their enthusiasm
tinually.”

burned with a fervid and unquenchable flame. The Indians were prudent busbandmen and While carrying the cross through the trackless cultivated large fields of corn, laid out in sym- wilds, they braved all obstacles; they suffered metrical order, the remains of which can be at the hand of the savage every indignity; they traced in some localities to this day. The were scarred with hot irons, covered with squaws prepared the corn with mortars and burning bark, and often tortured to death. pestles. They made many kinds of pottage with What wonder Tallemand and other martyrs

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cried out in dying agony, “We are a spectacle Iroquois. The Indians were represented by unto the world, and to angels and to men." two explorers, who returned to Quebec in 1660 The ranks of these devoted men were filled as accompanied by sixty canoes, laden with rare they fell in this century's bighways by no less peltries and paddled by three hundred Algonardent followers of the cross, thus testifying quins; whereupon the Government determined to the world the wonderful missionary zeal of to explore the territory around Green Bay and that age. Although they formed no permanent Lake Superior, and establish at some convenmission for over a quarter of a century, who ient point a post for the general rendezvous of can estimate the influence they exerted from the tribes. This task was appointed Rene the Gulf of Mexico to the St. Lawrence? They Menard, a Jesuit missionary, who entered taught the Indians to cultivate the soil upon a upon his work with a determination to penemore generous plan; introduced new seeds and trate the Northwest farther than any of his plants, as well as fruits; and led them to pro- predecessors. He left Quebec on the 28th of vide against the adverse seasons and failures August, 1660, with but few supplies or comforts in the chase, thus avoiding the famines which of life, but with the trusting faith of a had, it is supposed, decimated their numbers child, saying, “I trust in Providence, which from the Atlantic to the Pacific shores to an feeds the little birds of the air and clothes the alarming extent. These pioneer missionaries wild flowers of the desert.” Menard reached rendered the only accurate and scientific ac. the bay now known as L'Anse, where he recount of the regions they penetrated, and con- mained eight long months, with no compantributed the earliest geographical knowledge ions but the rude, untutored savages. The of the great Northwest to the world.

Hurons invited him to visit them on the Island The French explorers engaged these conse- of St. Michael, where they had taken refuge. crated men upon all important expeditions, and He left his converts in the spring, and with it is believed their gentle policy mitigated ma- one Indian pursued his journey to the Bay of terially the experience of those who fell into Che-goi-me-gon. After passing through Portthe hands of men whose ambition for France, age Lake, his companion moved the canoe and as well as their own selfish motives, caused its contents across the portage, and the aged them to overlook the rights of a weaker and missionary, who was now quite feeble, strayed less intelligent race.

into the woods and was never seen again. The shores of the northern lakes and adja- Years afterwards his breviary and cassock were cent lands were explored in 1654 by two young discovered among the Sioux. fur traders, accompanied by a band of Ottawas F ather Allouez, undaunted by the fate of the and Algonquins. They penetrated the wilds for aged Menard, and full of the spirit of his a distance of fifteen hundred miles, and after order, embarked at Three Rivers in company two years returned to Montreal with such en- with about four hundred Indians, who were couraging reports of the richness and beauty returning home from Quebec, where they had of the country, that they were granted per- been for the purpose of trade. The missionary mission to fit out an expedition to extend with his Indian hordes reached Sault Ste. Marie French commerce into the Northwest. Gabrielle in safety; from there he proceeded to Lake Dreuillettes and Leonard Gareau, former mis. Superior, which he named in honor of M. de sionaries among the Hurons, were selected for Tracy, and the first map of Lake Superior, supthe enterprise, but they met with discourage- posed to be the work of Marquette and Allouez, ment at the outset, owing to the enmity exist. bears the name of Lac Tracy ou Superieur. ing among most of the Indian tribes at that The Indians regarded this lake as a divinity, time. They were attacked just below Montreal on account of its size and in consequence of its by a band of Mohawks and completely demoral- furnishing them with fish when hunting failed. ized. During the following five years various Allouez reported the existence of copper in this companies from Montreal interested in the fur region, and that he had seen pieces weighing trade pushed their way into the new regions, from ten to twenty pounds in the keeping of and eventually formed an alliance with a num- several savages, who regarded these specimens ber of western tribes who desired a league with as gods, and kept them wrapped up with their the French whereby they might resist the most precious articles, some families having

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