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near the woods where the hogs did not go. grain to keep my family from starving. On They dare not bury them for fear of being sur- the 18th of January Colonel Lewis came to prised by the Indians. Am
River Raisin and drove the British and In" ANTOINE X BOULARD.
dians from that place, and on passing this Sworn and subscribed in my presence this
place, they shot two citizens, Eatane Labo and
John Bt. Soleau, and the only reason for doing 5th day of February, 1813.
it they said the young men asked them if they DETROIT, February 5, 1813.
were running away from the Big Knives. On I certify that the bodies of the Americans the 22d of January they took possession of my killed at the battle of La Riviere Aux Raisins house, with a number of prisoners. One they on the 22d of January last remained unburied, roasted by the fire, then made holes in the and that I have seen bogs and dogs eating floor, and he was the whole day dying, as I them, who seemed to be rendered mad by so
was told by one of my neighbers, Alexis Gee, profuse a diet of Christian flesh. The inhabit
who saw him often through the day, and his ants did not dare to bury the dead on account
cries could be heard a mile; but he dare not of the Indians. The French inhabitants have
say anything or even speak to him, as it would been threatened by the Indians if they did not
be certain death. When I came home in the take up arms and march against the Ameri
evening to see my house he was lying on the cans.
door-step, one side black. I cannot describe TERRITORY OF MICHIGAN,
my feelings on this mournful occasion, but on County of Monroe, s **
the 23d was still more gloomy. The poor Be it remembered, that personally appeared wounded men on the battle ground were all before me, James J. Godfroy, a Justice of the butchered or burned alive in the houses of Peace in and for said county of Monroe, in said Messrs. Godfroy, Lacroix, McDougall, Jerome Territory, Francis Gandon, who, being duly and Couture, and the families of River Raisin, sworn, deposeth and says that at the commence- Otter Creek and this place running in every ment of the last war with Great Britain he direction --some to Detroit, some to Sandusky, lived at Sandy Creek, about three miles from in sleighs, or horseback and afoot, leaving River Raisin, on the road leading from said their property behind. The British had proriver to Detroit, and that on the 21st or 22d vided a number of sleighs on the 22d to take day of August, 1813, or one or two days after their wounded to Malden, and these poor peo. the burning of the stockade and block:house ple had to go on foot and carry their children and the plundering and destruction of Colonel on their backs, and many who were in affluJohn Anderson's property, four chiefs, two ence the day before were beggars now. 1, Ottawas and two Delawares, came to my house with the others, went to Detroit, and when the and told me that they were going to the River Indians left my house, they put fire to it and it Raisin to cut off the two hands and pull out was consumed, as I was informed by Captain the tongue of said Anderson, so that he could Joseph Jabian, who saw it burning; and after not write or talk to the Big Knives (a name the arrival of General Harrison at Detroit they have for the Americans). I told a young with the army, I returned to my farm and man who lived with me to go as fast as possi- found house and barn and fruit trees destroyed, ble and give said Anderson notice, and I gave and my wife would not agree to live there any the Indians some refreshments to detain them. more on account of the dead bodies she had They took out their large knife and stuck it in seen there where the house stood -- there were the floor, saying " That is to cut off his hands," three or four skeletons which were burned. I They hated me heartily, and called me a dog was to exchange my farm at a great loss for a and a “Big Knife," etc., as I had light colored piece up the creek. I am now 60 years of age. hair.
I was a volunteer in the service of the United From that time to the 22d of January, 1813, States under the command of Captain Hubert I was much troubled with the Indians going to Lacroix, in consequence of which the Indians and from the River Raisin to Detroit, so that treated me harshly, saying I was a dog. They I had to move my family to Detroit, and I took from me fourteen horses and most all my would return as often as possible to save my hogs, cattle and sheep. They killed one ox
and left the meat to rot, and further this depo- The Americans had been defeated in nearly nent saith not.
every instance, and hundreds had fallen under (Signed) FRANCIS X. GANDON. the Indian tomahawk. It was the reverse with Sworn and subscribed before me this 25th
Tecumseh and his warriors; they had been day of November, 1834. J. J. GODFROY,
conquerors, and had proved invaluable as Brit
ish allies. Justice of the Peace.
With the opening of spring the British at. Judge Woodward also forwarded to General tempted the conquest of General Harrison's Proctor affidavits concerning the frequent rob. position on the Maumee. The General, appreberies committed by the Indians upon the set- hending their measures, urged forward re-entlers; but the communications seem to bave forcements, which were, however, delayed by been attended with the usual results of such the spring freshets and impassable roads. On correspondence- a number of polite letters and the 28th of April the British forces began the no action tending to stop the outrages.
investment of Harrison's camp, and by the first As heretofore stated, General Harrison was of the following month had completed their at Sandusky when Winchester arrived at the batteries. In the mean time the Americans had Rapids on the Maumee River. On the night constructed an embankment twelve feet high, of the 16th of January, 1813, General Harrison behind which the garrison withdrew as soon received information of the movements of as the gunners of the British commenced firing. General Winchester. General Harrison bast- Against this defensive wall the British wasted ened to Lower Sandusky, and on the morning their energies and ammunition for five days. of the 18th sent a battalion of troops to sup- With this ineffectual effort, the British general, port General Winchester. On the morning of having failed to accomplish anything, and apthe 19th of January he forwarded additional prehensive of re-enforcements to the Ameri. troops to the Rapids of Maumee, where he with can ranks, determined to retreat, and on the the troops arrived on the morning of the 20th. 9th of May returned with his forces to Malden. The whole body from this point moved for- On the 18th of July General Proctor made a ward to strengthen Winchester, but, meeting second attempt on Fort Meigs, and with his the survivors of the massacre of the River soldiers and savages again surrounded it, but Raisin and being informed of the disaster, re- finding the Americans prepared for them ac. turned to the Rapids of the Maumee. Here a complished nothing. council of war was held, resulting in a determi. Unsuccessful at this point, he moved on with nation to retreat farther in order to prevent his forces to Sandusky, the principal stores of being cut off from the stores and artillery on General Harrison being at that point. Major their way from Sandusky, and to Portage River, Croghan commanded at Fort Stephenson, now there to await the guns and re-enforcements, Lower Sandusky. This point was illy prepared which were daily expected but which were for a defense against heavy cannon, and it being detained by rains until the 30th of January. known that General Proctor was approaching On the first of February, 1813, he again ad- with artillery, General Harrison held a council vanced to the Rapids of Maumee, where he with bis officers and determined to abandon it. took up a new and stronger position, to which Before this could be done the appearance before
possible to gather. He then hoped before the 1813, made it impracticable. The garrison middle of February to advance on Malden, but consisted of 150 soldiers, with but one field the continued rain and warm weather rendered piece; while the investing force, including the roads nearly impassable, his troops were Tecumseh and his warriors, was over 3,300 unable to join him, and the prospects of ad- strong, with six pieces of artillery. General vancing on the ice frustrated. The winter Proctor at once demanded a surrender, with campaign against Malden was then abandoned, the assurance that if his demands were not as the campaign the previous fall had been be. complied with a general massacre would follow. fore.
To this the daring young officer but twenty-one The military measures thus far for the recov. years of age replied, saying “the Indians ery of the Northwest had proved a failure. would bave none to massacre if the British
conquered, for every man of his garrison McArthur took possession of Detroit and Mich. would die at his post.” Proctor at once opened igan Territory. fire upon the northeast angle of the fort. Cro- On the 25th of September Colonel Ricbard ghan, believing the British intended to make a M. Johnson, who was with his regiment of breach at this point, concentrated his whole Kentucky cavalry at Fort Meigs, received orefforts there. He at once strengthened this ders from General Harrison to march immepoint by bags of sand and flour, placed bis six- diately to the River Raisin and hasten to Malpounderin position to rake the point threatened, den, where he expected the fleet would land and then having charged his infant battery the army the next day. Johnson's regiment with slugs and hidden from the enemy, avraited hurried on to Frenchtown, remained nearly the attack for twenty-four hours. The firing one day occupied in burying the remains of the continued upon the northwest corner, then under brave Kentuckians that were the previous cover of smoke and darkness a column of 350 winter massacred, and on the following day men approached unseen within twenty paces marched into Detroit, and were received by the of the wall; the ditch was gained and in a whole population, who turned out en masse to moment filled with men; then the six-pounder, welcome 1,100 cavalry as they thundered by, only thirty feet distant and so directed as to under the command of Governor Shelby and sweep the ditch, was unmasked and fired, kill. Colonel Richard M. Johnson. The 1st of Ocing at once twenty-seven of the assailants and tober following, Colonel Johnson with his army creating a general panic. The column retired, crossed to Sandwich, and General Harrison and and the little fort, with the loss of one man, General Shelby with 3,500 troops left Detroit was saved. The next morning the British and in pursuit of the British army. Commodore their allies, fearing the approach of re-enforce. Perry with his fleet sailed up the river, and ments under General Harrison, were gone, when he arrived fifteen miles up the Thames leaving in their haste guns, stores and clothing. River disembarked and joined the land forces
The War Department in October, 1812, had in pursuit of Colonel Proctor, who was with all urged upon the Government the importance of haste making his way to the heart of Canada obtaining command of the lakes by preparing by the valley of the Thames. a fleet for that purpose at Erie. Appropria- The brilliant victory at Lower Sandusky tions were made, and on the 4th of the follow- substantially closed the military movements ing August (1813) Commodore Perry suc in Northwestern Ohio, and attention was next ceeded in getting his fleet over the bar into directed toward Erie, and Perry's preparations deep water.
for naval operations. It so happened that tbat At this time active preparations were being commander, on the very day of Croghan's vicmade for concentrating all the land forces pre- tory (August 2d) had completed the equipment paratory to an attack on Malden. Kentucky of his fleet at Erie, but, owing to a lack of sent her best men in great numbers under Gov- water, he did not cross the bar in the harbor ernor Shelby and Colonel Richard M. Johnson. until the 4th, when he set sail in search of the On the 20th of September, 1813, the forces of enemy. Not finding them, he returned on the General Harrison at Port Clinton were trans- 8th to Erie, to take in re-enforcements. August ported by the fleet to Put-in-Bay Island, on the 12th he again left, and anchored in Sandusky 24th reached Middle Sister Island, and on the Bay on the 15th, whence he soon departed in 27th arrived at Malden, to find it ruined, de- quest of the enemy. Cruising off Malden, but serted and wasted. The news of Perry's victory not finding the object of his search, he retired and the advance of Harrison's army disheart to Put-in-Bay. His fleet consisted of the Brig ened Colonel Proctor, who with his army of Lawrence (the flag ship), of 20 guns; the regulars and Indianswith army stores of Niagara, of 20; the Caledonia, of 3; the every description, evacuated the place and Schooner Ariel, of 4; the Sloop Trippe, and hurried with all convenient speed to the valley Schooners Tigress and Porcupine, of 1 gun of the River Thames. On the 28th the last of each-nine vessels with 54 guns and two the British army left Detroit, arriving at Wind. swivels. The British had six vessels, but they sor, opposite Detroit, with the last of the guns, were superior in size, with a greater number ammunition and stores. On the 29th Colonel of guns.
On the morning of the memorable 10th of But the enemy was not able to take possession September, Commodore Perry discovered the of her, and circumstances soon permitted her enemy bearing down upon him, when he at flag to be hoisted. once made preparation for the conflict, which “At forty-five minutes past two, the signal was accepted on both sides as probably deci. was made for close action. The Niagara being sive of supremacy on the lake, and as certain very little injured, I determined to pass through to have most important bearing on the general the enemy's line, bore up and passed ahead of contest. The report made by Perry consti- their two ships and a brig, giving a raking fire tutes the most compact and interesting account to them from the starboard guns, and to a small of the engagement to be had. It is as follows: schooner and sloop, from the larboard side, at “ UNITED STATES SCHOONER ARIEL, I half-pistol shot distance. The smaller vessels
Put-in-Bay, 13th Sept., 1813.) at this time having got within grape and can“At sunrise on the morning of the 10th, the ister distance, under the direction of Captain enemy's vessels were discovered from Put-in- Elliott, and keeping up a well-directed fire, the Bay, where I lay at anchor with the squadron two ships, a brig and a schooner surrendered, under my command.
a schooner and sloop making vain attempt to “We got under way, the wind light S. W., escape. and stood for them. At ten A. M. the wind « Those officers and men who were immehauled to S. E., and brought us to windward; diately under my observation, evinced the formed the line and brought up. At fifteen greatest gallantry, and I have no doubt that minutes before twelve the enemy commenced all others conducted themselves as became firing. At five minutes before twelve the action American officers and seamen.” commenced on our part. Finding their fire. On the 27th of September the American very destructive, owing to their long guns, and army set sail for the shores of Canada, and in it being most directed to the Lawrence, I made a short time stood around the ruins of the desail and directed the other vessels to follow, for serted and wasted Malden, from which Genthe purpose of closing with the enemy. Every eral Proctor had retreated to Sandwich, and brace and bow being shot away, she became was with haste making his way to the heart of unmanageable, notwithstanding the great ex- Canada by the valley of the Thames. On the ertions of the sailing master. In this situation 29th of September General Harrison was at she sustained the action upwards of two hours, Sandwich, and McArthur took possession of within canister-shot distance, until every gun Detroit and the Territory of Michigan. At was rendered useless, and a greater part of the 'this time Colonel Richard M. Johnson's mountcrew either killed or wounded. Finding she ed riflemen, which had gone up the west side could no longer annoy the enemy, I left her in of the River Detroit, rejoined the main army. charge of Lieutenant Yarnall, who, as I was On the 2d of October the American army beconvinced, from the bravery already displayed gan their march in pursuit of General Proctor, by him, would do what would comport with whom they overtook on the 5th. The British the honor of the flag.
were in two lines, occupying the field between “At half past two, the wind springing up, the river and a small swamp. The Indians exCaptain Elliott was enabled to bring his vessel, tended from the small to the large swamp, the the Niagara, gallantly into close action. I im- ground being suitable to their mode of warfare mediately went on board her, when he antici. and unfavorable for the cavalry. General Harpated my wish by volunteering to bring the rison ordered Colonel Richard M. Johnson schoouer, which had been kept astern by the with his mounted men to charge and try to lightness of the wind, into close action. break the regular troops by passing through
“It was with unspeakable pain that I saw, their ranks and forming in the rear. Colonel soon after I got on board the Niagara, the flag Johnson gave the right hand body of his of the Lawrence come down, although I was cavalry opposite the regulars in charge of his perfectly sensible that she had been defended brother James, while crossing the swamp with to the last, and that to have continued to make the remainder he led the way against Tecuma show of resistance, would have been a wan- seh and his savage followers. The charge of his ton sacrifice of the remaining of her brave crew. brother James was successful. The Kentuckians
received the fire of the enemy, broke through the possession of John Knaggs, the son of the ranks, and forming beyond them produced James, I have been recently permitted to copy, such a panic by the novelty of the attack that and annex hereto. the whole body of troops yielded at once. On the left the Indians fought courageously and
CITY OF WASHINGTON, June 6, 1841. the American cavalry were forced to dismount, Major James Knaggs as their horses were in danger of miring in the MY DEAR OLD FRIEND: I have received your swamp. In a few moments, Tecumseh, who kind and esteemed favor, wishing me a safe more than any other man brought about this arrival home among my friends. I truly and war, fell dead from a shot from Colonel John- sincerely thank you for the friendship which son's pistol. The British soon gave up the you have shown to me; and if ever it should contest, and now all was over but the pursuit be in my power to serve you, I am ready and of Proctor, who had fled at the commencement willing. That you may live long to enjoy the of the action.
blessings of that Government which you have Such were the glorious victories of our arms defended, is the prayer of your devoted friend over the British and Indians. Commodore and fellow citizen, RICHARD M. JOHNSON. Perry had conquered on Lake Erie, and the brave Harrison and his army at the Thames.
The following is the affidavit of James This last contest practically ended the war in
Knaggs: the Northwest. Tecumseh had fallen, the In- STATE OF MICHIGAN.) dians lost their power and prestige, and the County of Monroe, jo British having been thoroughly defeated gave James Knaggs deposeth and saith : I was but little trouble afterwards.
attached to a company of mounted men called Controversy bas arisen as to “ Who, killed Rangers at the battle of the Thames in Upper Tecumseh ?” but the fact that James Knagys Canada in the year 1813. During the battle and Medard Labadie, who were personally we charged into the swamp, where several of well acquainted with Tecumseh, who lived on our horses mired down, and an order was given the River Raisin for many years both before to retire to the hard ground in our rear, which and after the War of 1812, and who frequently we did. The Indians in front of us, believing we stated all the facts and details, and who car- were retreating, immediately advanced upon us ried Colonel Richard M. Johnson wounded from with Tecumseh at their head. I distinctly the field, were esteemed by those who knew heard his voice, with which I was perfectly them as good authority for any statement they familiar. He yelled like a tiger, and urged on might make, has settled the controversy. The his braves to the attack. We were then but a affidavit of James Knaggs having reference few yards apart. We halted on the hard thereto will be perused with interest, and is ground and continued our fire. After a few regarded as conclusive proof of the statements minutes of very severe firing, I discovered therein made by those in this vicinity, by Colonel Richard M. Johnson lying on the whom he was beld in high esteem. General ground with one leg confined by the body of Cass, in the presidential campaign of 1840, was his white mare, which had been killed. My accompanied through this State by Mr. James friend M. Labadie was with me. We went Knaggs and Medard Labadie, who occupied up to the Colonel (with whom we were prethe platform and were exhibited as the cour viously acquainted) and found him badly ageous soldiers who carried Colonel Johnson wounded, lying on his side with one of his from the field. The General stated frequently pistols lying in his hand. I saw Tecumseh at his belief that Colonel Johnson was entitled to the same time, lying on his face dead, and about the credit generally awarded him of being the fifteen or twenty feet from the colonel. He hero who killed by a pistol shot the great Indian was stretched at full length and was shot chieftain, and from the fact that General Cass through the body, I think near the heart; the was an officer in the same engagement, full ball went through his back. He held bis tomcredence was given to his statement. The ahawk in his right hand (it had a brass pipe recognition of the kind offices of James Knaggs on the head of it); his arm was extended as if at the battle of the Thames by a letter now in striking, and the edge of the tomahawk was