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Blair, his successor, who in a profound and was quick in defining its position and unfurlphilosophical address set forth the true nature ing its colors to the breeze, declaring in joint of our system of government, and the real resolutions passed February 2, 1861, the adhermeaning of the present and impending issues, ence of the State to the Government of the and closed with these emphatic and forcible United States, pledging and tendering all its utterances :

military power and material resources, and “We are satisfied with the constitution of also declaring that concession or compromise our country, and will obey the laws enacted was not to be entertained or offered to traitors. under it, and we must demand that the people Nothing, however, was definitely attempted of all other States do the same; safety lies in by the State authorities, and no actual defenthis path alone. The Union must be preserved, sive or aggressive measures were undertaken and the laws must be enforced in all parts of it until the gigantic struggle was fully inauguat whatever cost. The President is bound to rated by the fire upon Fort Sumter of the enthis by his oath, and no power can discharge circling batteries of the rebels in Charleston him from it. Secession is revolution, and Harbor, when all hope of evading an inevitable revolution in the overt act is treason and must conflict gave place to prompt and needful acbe treated as such. The Federal Government tion. bas the power to defend itself, and I do not Those awful tidings were received on April doubt that that power will be exercised to the 12th, creating the wildest excitement all over utmost. It is a question of war that the seced- the State, and in Detroit, the people, much ing States have to look in the face. They who alarmed, commenced estimating how united think that this powerful Government can be the public officials and people would be in the disrupted peacefully have read history to no cause of the Union. On the following day a purpose. The sons of the men who carried meeting of the bar, with other citizens, was arms in the seven years' war with the most held; presided over by the venerable Judge powerful nation in the world, to establish this Ross Wilkins of the United States Court, when Government, will not hesitate to make equal the United States officials were required to sacrifices to maintain it. Most deeply must we take the oath of allegiance, and resolutions deplore the unnatural contest. On the heads were adopted denouncing and repudiating the of the traitors who provoke it must rest the treason, and pledging the community to “stand responsibility. In such a contest the God of by the Government to the last." By the folbattles has no attribute that can take sides lowing Monday (April 15th), the surrender of with the revolutionists of the slave States. the South Carolina fort was known throughout

“I recommend you at an early day to make the land, and Michigan had received the Presimanifest to the gentlemen who represent this dent's call for 75,000 volunteers, assigning her State in the two houses of Congress, and to the own quota. The emergencies and duties of the country, that Michigan is loyal to the Union, hour were then fully realized by the people of the constitution, and the laws, and will defend the State, and the uprising was universal. them to the uttermost; and to proffer to the Most cities and towns were holding meetings President of the United States the whole mili- in open air, in public buildings — even in tary power of the State for that purpose. Oh! Christian churches – pledging fidelity and for the firm, steady hand of a Washington, or pecuniary assistance to the Nation in its hour a Jackson, to guide the ship of State in this of great peril, and volunteers in large numbers perilous storm. Let us hope that we shall find were congregating and demanding instant serhim on the 4th of March. Meantime, let us vice for the Union, while the watch-fires of abide in the faith of our fathers - ' Liberty patriotism had been kindled on every hillside and Union, one and inseparable, now and for- and in every valley, burning and flashing with

intense brightness, at once cheering and inThe sentiment of the people of the State had spiring. by this time been educated up to expecting Michigan was extremely fortunate in her prompt and decisive action by the legislature, Executive. His example and utterances in and they were not disa ppointed. Inspired by public and private, full of loyalty, patriotism, its own steadfast and invincible amor patriæ, it and courage, gave an abiding tone to public

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sentiment, and inspired the troops. And al- once circulated, and $23,000 pledged by those though the intense prevailing patriotism of the present, and to complete the whole amount people of Michigan was undoubtedly the main committees were appointed to solicit further source of the high standard reached by her subscriptions in the city. Such prompt and troops in this respect, yet it being so eminently liberal action could not fail to be successful, inherent in her “War Governor," Austin Blair, and furnished the sinews of war for the time and which he so eloquently imparted to them being at least. Mr. Owen, with these pledges on every fitting occasion, impressed it on their of the people in hand, coupled with his own minds with so much earnestness as to produce good credit, succeeded in negotiating a loan most beneficial and enduring effects.

which was mostly taken by our own citizens, The State was equally fortunate in her legis- sufficient to warrant the executive to underlative bodies, being composed of men thor- take uniforming and equipping troops. The oughly in sympathy with the Union cause, op- amounts thus raised, as well as all other inposing with great earnestness and ability any debtedness incurred in like manner, were measures tinctured in the least with secession assumed by the State on the assembling of the or even a shadow of compromise, and as a re- legislature. sult their declarations in this respect were The necessity for such action on the part of "stalwart” and decided, not minced in clipped citizens of Michigan, when contrasted with or timid words, nor faint in expression, but the present substantial condition of the bold, pronounced, and defiant.

· State, financially, sets forth in the strongest In the management of her interests at the light her rapid advance in prosperity and National capital the State was well represented, wealth, even in the face of a large war debt, having in the several departments of the Gov- which is now virtually canceled. ernment men of influence who esteemed the April 16th a proclamation was issued by the reputation of their State, and were ever anx. gorernor, calling for ten companies of volun· ious and prompt to advance her cause. In her teers, and directing the adjutant-general to representatives in both houses of Congress accept the first ten that should offer, and makshe was especially favored, and with these ad- ing it the duty of that officer to issue all necesvantages Michigan unhesitatingly, but reluct- sary orders, and give such instructions in detail antly, although hopefully and fearlessly, as might be required. The movement thus inlaunched her bark on the turbulent sea of war augurated was at once successful, the comon rebellion.

panies responding promptly, the tender of Governor Blair reached Detroit on Tuesday, troops far exceeding the number required by April 16, 1861, and in the afternoon, at the the General Government. Thus all the duties of Michigan Exchange, met by arrangement the the hour were prompty met and discharged. State military officers and a large number of The governor bad also issued a proclamation leading citizens and capitalists of that city, on April 2d, convening the legislature in extra

The President of the United States had session at Lansing on the 7th of May. The called upon the State to furnish one regiment legislature met pursuant to the call, when a of infantry fully armed, clothed, and equipped, stirring address was delivered by the governor, to aid the Government in suppressing the ex- in which he gave a detail of the work already isting rebellion. It was then estimated that accomplished, and at the same time asked the $100,000 would be at once required for this legislature to legalize his past action, and to purpose, but the treasury was comparatively invest the State authorities with sufficient empty, and the condition of the State finances power for the future. was such that this pressing call could not be A session of four days resulted in the passage immediately met. When this condition of of laws endorsing the acts of the governor, and affairs was laid before the meeting by the Hon. clothing him with full authority to raise ten John Owen, State Treasurer, a resolution was regiments; also to effect a loan of one million unhesitatingly passed pledging Detroit to loan dollars, which was speedily accomplished. the State $50,000, at the same time calling up- The legislature, fully appreciating the patri. on the State generally to make a like advance. otic and perilous services required of the At this meeting a subscription paper was at troops, and the sacrifices which must be made

by their families in their absence, especially as serving until March 25, 1863, and was a faithto means of support, and at the same time an- ful and energetic officer. ticipating that some might be unprovided for, Friend Palmer, of Detroit, was appointed or might be left in want by the contingencies assistant quartermaster-general in May followor casualties of war, wisely enacted the “Sol. ing. His experience of several years in the diers' Relief Law,” to contribute aid to their quartermaster's department of the regular families by counties; this allowance to be made army rendered him a valuable officer, and to in the discretion of the supervisors according him the State was greatly indebted for the to circumstances, but not to exceed fifteen dol- efficient and economical direction given to the lars a month, and in case of the death of a sol- administration of that department. dier, to continue one year thereafter.

General William Hammond succeeded GenThis relief was unquestionably administered eral Fountain March 25, 1863, and served until with that generous liberality which the law March 25, 1865, when he was relieved by the contemplated. Yet the duty was neither easy appointment of General 0. N. Giddings of nor desirable, as it required much labor, good Kalamazoo. Both these officers served with judgment, discrimination, and delicacy, at the marked ability and faithfulness. General Gidsame time giving opportunity for much cen- dings baving resigned in March, 1867, was sure. While imposition on the counties had to succeeded by General Palmer, who served inntil be guarded against, respect for the claims of September, 1870. applicants was demanded, and in its distribu- On the 21st of May, 1861, Colonel James E. tion there was a degree of delicacy requisite in Pittman, of Detroit, was appointed State paybarring the least idea of a charity, and in master, and served in that capacity, making establishing one of a right.

large disbursements as pay to troops while in The quartermaster general, J. H. Fountain, the service of the State, a duty which he faitha faithful and energetic officer, who had been fully performed. He was also a member of the appointed in March, was charged with cloth. State Military Board from September 19, 1861, ing, equipping, and subsisting the troops on until November 1, 1862, when be was appointed contracts made by the “Military Contract inspector-general of the State, serving until Board,” organized May 15th by legislative March, 1867. authority, and composed of Colonels E. O. At the commencement of the war General Grosvenor, Jonesville; Jerome Croul, Detroit; John Robertson held the appointment of adjuand William Hammond, Tekonsha. Individual tant-general of the State; has served continuability and great energy, coupled with exem- ously since that time to the time of his death, plary economy, characterized this board, re- which occurred at Detroit in 1888. lieving the quartermaster-general of much Captain Heber LeFavour was appointed as. labor and responsibility.

sistant adjutant-general April 1, 1861, which General A. S. Williams and Colonel H. M. appointment he held until June 15th following, Whittlesey, of Detroit, Colonel A. W. Wil when he was commissioned as a captain in the liams, of Lansing, and Colonel C. W. Leffing. Fifth Michigan Infantry, and took the field well, of Grand Rapids, constituted the State with that regiment. Captain DeGarmo Jones Military Board, with the adjutant-general and succeeded him and served until May 6, 1862, quartermaster-general as members ex officio. when he resigned. Both these officers served

Colonel William M. Fenton, of Flint, was in with marked efficiency. June following appointed a member of the Colonel Frederiek Morley was commissioned board in place of Colonel Williams, who had May 6, 1862, as assistant adjutant-general, servgone to the field with the Second Infantry. ing with eminent ability and distinction until Soon after, Colonel Fenton entered the service March 11, 1865, rendering arduous and valuas colonel of the Eighth Infantry, and was able service to the State. succeeded by Colonel E. H. Thomson, of Flint, The President's call upon Michigan for who, on the 13th of August, was elected presi- troops was promptly met by the muster in of dent of the board.

the First Regiment and its early movement to Jabez H. Fountain, of Manchester, was com- the seat of war in Virginia. missioned quartermaster-general April 1, 1861, In the meantime, authority bad been re


ceived from the War Department to raise three these regiments, one battery, and one company other regiments, but at the same time stating had been subsisted, clothed, and partly armed that it was “important to reduce rather than by the State. In addition to this, thirteen increase that number." This authority only companies had gone into service in regiments covered the Second, Third, and Fourth In- of other States, failing, as before stated, to find fantry, already in process of recruitment, while service in those of their own. many companies througbout the State, not in Governor Blair, on January 2, 1862, delivcluded in the organizations referred to, had ered his message to the legislature, then in been recruited without authority in the hope extra session, from which the following extract of obtaining place in those or other regiments, is made, and wbich was accepted at the time but were disappointed, and most of them sought as an expression of the people of the State on and found service in the troops of other States. the war question:

This limited policy of the Government was “I cannot close this brief address without an extremely at variance with the views of Gov- allusion to the great object that occupies all ernor Blair regarding the necessity of the men's minds. The Southern rebellion still country at that time, and deeming immediate maintains a bold front against the Union preparation to meet emergencies necessary, he armies. That is the cause of all our complicaestablished the “Camp of Instruction ” referred tions abroad and our troubles at home. To to in another part of this work.

deal wisely with it is to find a short and easy The great pressure for the acceptance of deliverance from them all. The people of companies continued unabated, while the appli- Michigan are no idle spectators of this great cations for appointments as commissioned contest. They have furnished all the troops officers had reached the maximum, and the required of them, and are preparing to pay the Governor was continuously importuned by in- taxes and to submit to the most onerous burfluential citizens of both political parties to a dens without a murmur. They are ready to most unbearable degree, while men were being increase their sacrifices, if need be, to require forced by them upon his attention for favor. impossibilities of no man, but to be patient and able consideration, regardless of natural or ac- wait. But to see the vast armies of the repubquired qualifications for the place. In fact, lic, and all its pecuniary resources used to prothis continued during the entire earlier part tect and sustain the accursed system which has of the war, and although much care was uni- been a perpetual and tyrannical disturber, and formly exercised in making selections, both as which now makes sanguinary war upon the to original appointment and promotion in the Union and the constitution, is precisely what field, it is but reasonable to expect that some they will never submit to tamely. The loyal mistakes were made.

States having furnished adequate means, both In his perplexing and responsible position, of men and money, to crush the rebellion, have Governor Blair always recognized qualifica- a right to expect those men to be used with the tions for the office, and loyalty to the cause, as utmost vigor to accomplish the object, and that the tests, more than personal friendship or without any mawkish sympathy for the interpolitical status.

est of traitors in arms. Upon those who caused Under a law of Congress of August 3d, the the war, and now maintain it, its chief burdens President was authorized to receive into ser- ought to fall. No property of a rebel ought vice 500,000 volunteers, and while the propor. to be free from confiscation — not even the tion of Michigan was understood to be 19,500 sacred slave. The object of war is to destroy the State was charged with 21,337 on an adjust the power of the enemy, and whatever meas. ment of credits.

ures are calculated to accomplish that object, Michigan, in response to this requisition, and are in accordance with the usages of civ. continued a vigorous recruitment, sending regi- ilized nations, ought to be employed. To ment after regiment to the field, and up to undertake to put down a powerful rebellion, December, 1861, had sent to the front thirteen and, at the same time, to save and protect all regiments of infantry, three of cavalry, and the chief sources of the power of that rebellion, five batteries of light artillery, with a total seems to common minds but a short remove strength of 16,475 officers and men. Ten of from simple folly. He who is not for the



Union, unconditionally, in this mortal struggle upon the loyalty of its citizens and an adheris against it. The highest dictates of patriot- ence to the constitution; ism, justice, and humanity, combine to demand “AND WHEREAS, The welfare of mankind, that the war should be conducted to a speedy tbe usefulness and power of the Nation are inclose upon principles of the most heroic energy volved in the events and issues of the present and retributive power. The time for gentle conflict; therefore, be it dalliance has long since passed away. We Resolved (the House concurring), That meet an enemy, vindictive, bloodthirsty, and Michigan, loyal to herself and to the Federal cruel, profoundly in earnest, inspired with an Government, reaffirms her undying hostility energy and self-sacrifice which would honor a to traitors, her abiding love for freedom, and good cause, respecting neither laws, constitu- her confidence in the wisdom and patriotism tions, nor historic memories, fanatically de- of the National Administration. voted only to his one wicked purpose to destroy Resolved (the House concurring), That the the Government and establish his slaveholding people of Michigan deem it the imperative duty oligarchy in its stead. To treat this enemy of the Government to speedily put down all gently is to excite his derision. To protect his insurrection against its authority and soveslave property is to help him to butcher our reignty, by the use of every constitutional people and burn our houses. No. He must be means, and by the employment of every energy met with an activity and a purpose equal to his it possesses; that Michigan stands firm in her own. Hurl the Union forces, which outnumber determination to sustain, by men and treasure, him two to one, upon his whole line like a the Constitution and the Union, and claims thunderbolt; pay them out of his property, that the burthen of loyal men should be lightfeed them from his granaries, mount them upon ened, as far as possible, by confiscating to the his horses, and carry them in his wagons, if he largest extent the property of all insurrechas any, and let him feel the full force of the tionists; and that as between the institution of storm of war which he has raised. I would slavery and the maintenance of the Federal apologize neither to Kentucky nor anybody Government, Michigan does not hesitate to say, else for these measures, but quickly range all that in such exigency, slavery should be swept neutrals either on the one side or the other. from the land, and our country maintained. Just a little of the courage and ability which Resolved, That the Governor be requested carried Napoleon orer the Alps, dragging his to forward a copy of the foregoing preamble cannon through the snow, would quickly settle and resolutions to each of our Senators and this contest, and settle it right. If our soldiers Representatives in Congress. must die, do not let it be of the inactivity and “Approved January 18, 1862.” discases of camps, but let them at least have Recruiting was being vigorously prosecuted the satisfaction of falling like soldiers, amid the at the commencement of 1862, and under most roar of battle, and hearing the shouts of vic- favorable circumstances, brought about to some tory; then will they welcome it as the tired extent by a brisk competition between officers, laborer welcomes sleep. Let us hope that we often leading to various schemes for inducing bare not much longer to wait.”

recruits to change regiments both before and Equally estimating with the Governor the after muster ---- a practice then considered great emergencies and necessities of the coun- sharp, but which was neither legitimate por try, the legislature, with firmness and pluck scarcely honest, but still considered by some as worthy of the people which they represented, evincing a degree of energy, and by some passed with much unanimity the following called SMART. And although this mode of well-timed and eminently proper joint resolu. operating was protested against from time to tion in referenco to the rebellion:

time, and complaints made leading to the pub“WHEREAS, The Government of the United lication of orders against it, yet it was found States is engaged in putting down a causeless impossible to prevent the practice, and it was and wicked rebellion against its authority and generally excused under a plea of zealous pursovereignty, inaugurated by ambitious men to pose. obtain political power,--a Government, the At this time there were in progress of rapid safety and perpetuity of which must ever rest recruitment five regiments of infantry and



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