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with one consent, call her one “ of the daughters who have done virtuously, but she excelled them all.”-- Prov. xxxi. 29. Thus ended the life of two pioneers, who were, for a season, citizens of Monroe county sixty years ago.

William Kedzie, the eldest son, was a schoolmate of the writer in 1826, under the tuition of Anthony McKee, since a resident of Deerfield, now deceased. Our school-mates of that day were Alexander D. Anderson, John Anderson, Robert and John Clark (all now deceased), and Charles Lanman, now residing in Georgetown, D. C. He lived on the same farm fisty three years, up to the fall of 1879, when he, with a competency, removed to Adrian to spend in ease the remainder of life.

James T. Kedzie still resides in Blissfield, one of our most intelligent and highly esteemed citizens.

Professor Kedzie, of the Michigan Agricultural College, at Lansing, Michigan, the third son, is constantly adding new laurels to an already well-established reputation.

George Kedzie resided in Deerfield, highly esteemed, until April 13, 1886, when he de. parted this life, stricken down with typhoid pneumonia, after an illness of eight days - the first male in the family called by death since that of the father in 1828.

The Reverend A. S. Kedzie, still living, resides at Grand Haven, Michigan, and is editor of the Grand Haven Herald.

The Kedzie family have contributed as largely as any family in Southern Michigan in laying the foundations for moral, religious and educational institutions in this portion of the State.





THE majority of the population of Michigan celed with a strap or fettered at night, and the

I continued to be French until the year 1818, bell which each one wore was freed from the when a portion of the public lands was thrown straw which bad bound its clapper through upon the narket. The moderate price and the day. The horses seldom strayed from easy terms of payment, based upon a credit camp, and lived on what they could pick up on system, encouraged a wonderful emigration of the road.” The surveyors and voyageurs, on thrifty and energetic Americans from the their journeys through the wilderness along Eastern States, as well as New York. The the Indian trails, took nothing superfluous pioneers immediately turned their attention to with them. Their food consisted of parched surveying public roads and facilitating com- corn, pounded fine and mixed with maple merce.

sugar, pork or tallow in small quantities. They The 27th day of August of this year, 1818, added to this simple diet such fish, game, wild the first steamboat made its appearance in the plums or other fruit as they might secure on straits of Detroit. She was named Walk-in- the route. Quite a number of our prominent the-Water, and was built at Black Rock, and men and women came hundreds of miles on when finished was taken to Buffalo, not by her these small ponies, and settled in Monroe and own motive power, as steam then had limita. adjoining towns.

breeze" -- several yokes of oxen being em- obtain a popular rote to make Michigan a State, ployed to tow her. The Indians were told but was not successful. “ tlie ship was drawn by sturgeons," and they General Cass, who was Governor over the swarmed along the shores to witness the won Territory during eighteen years, was one of its der. This steamboat made weekly trips, and most public spirited men, and in every way adoften brought one hundred passengers, which vanced the interests of the people The land crowded her to her utmost capacity.

had been represented as worthless tamarack Gradually roads were constructed for the swamps, bogs and sand-barrens, not worth passage of emigrant wagons which came giving as bounty lands to the soldiers of the through Ohio, or were loaded on schooners War of 1812, who instead received their at Buffalo. A military road extended ten miles grants in Illinois and Missouri. beyond Monroe. Still the use of pack animals In order to do away with the mischievous was necessary to penetrate the interior along representations made in regard to the resources the lesser streams. Judge Campbell's history of Michigan, Governor Cass organized an extells us“ The ponies which abounded in the pedition by way of the lakes to the headwaters woods were very serviceable for traveling of the Mississippi. He communicated his plan through the country upon the trails. They ran to the Secretary of War, Mr. Calhoun, with the at large, and droves of them were met near all objects and purposes of his expedition, which the settlements. When the seasons were dry were : First, a personal examination of the they would come to the streams for water in different Indian tribes, of their moral and large troops, and would gallop through the social condition, of their feelings toward the streets at night with a great clatter, but doing United States, of their numerical strength; no harm unless salt barrels were left exposed, second, to procure the extinction of Indian when they would break them in to get at the title to the land in the vicinity of the Straits of salt. On a journey they were usually span- St. Mary, Prairie du Chien and Green Bay,


and open the communication between the two establishing à military post. But it was not latter places; third, the examination of the accomplished without danger to himself and body of copper in the vicinity of Lake Supe- small band of sixty men. A chief appeared in rior; fourth, to ascertain the views of the the council at St. Mary's in the full dress of a Indians in the vicinity of Chicago respecting British officer of rank, and during the conferthe removal of the Six Nations to that coun- ence showed the greatest contempt for the


of the Government respecting their intercourse retire after General Cass bad explained his with the British authorities at Malden, and dis- mission, and demanded no more interference tinctly announce to them that their visits must upon American soil of those who were subjects be discontinued ; sixth, to ascertain the state of of the British Crown, the chief in British the British fur trade within that part of our colors spurned with a kick the presents which jurisdiction.

were laid in the center of the marquee where General Cass asked for no compensation for the council was held, and rushing out raised his time and services, and one thousand dollars, the British flag over the Indian lodges. When which had been appropriated for the expedi. Governor Cass beheld this insult, he walked tion, was scarcely enough to defray the actual over to the lodge over which the flag was flyexpenses of the trip.

ing, where the discontented chief stood, and The expedition left Detroit, May 24, 1820. seizing it, dashed it to the ground and trampled General Cass was accompanied by Captain it under his feet. The Indians were panicDouglass of the Engineer Corps, Lieutenant struck by the indignation of Cass. He called McCay of the Corps of Artillery, Alexander bis interpreter and addressed the chiefs; said a Wolcott, physician, James Duane Doty, Major repetition of such acts would not go unpinRobert A. Forsyth, and Henry L. Schoolcraft, ished. In less than fifteen minutes the squaws a scientific geologist and topographer, with and children abandoned their camp and were Charles C. Trowbridge as his assistant, and landed on the British shore, and everything Alexander R. Chase. Three bark canoes, each pointed to an immediate "attack by the Inadorned with a flag of the United States flying dians. Preparations were made for defense, from the stern and propelled by Indians and but a chief who had not been present at the voyageurs, carried the notable expedition from council interposed and brought the Indians to the wharf at Detroit, where the citizens all a more favorable mind, and in a few hours assembled, well aware of the importance aņd after the sun had gone down the treaty was bazard of the undertaking. The canoes were signed. paddled into the stream amid the cheers and from the Sault they prosecuted their explorahuzzas of the multitude, and seemed to fly tions; visited the great copper bowlder on the against a strong wind and current, the voyageurs Ontonagon river; penetrated the St. Louis regulating the strokes of their paddles to the river to a portage near Savannah river, down time of their inspiring row songs, and the that stream through Sandy Lake to the MisIndiaus encouraging each other by shouts of sissippi, and ascended that river through wild exultation. An effort was made by the Lake Winnipeg and beyond. The knowledge Indians, who propelled one of the large canoes, of the country and its resources derived from to take the lead, and an exciting boat-race was the exploration was of great value. General improvised over the now fashionable race- Cass returned from Chicago to Detroit by course, in which the Indians by their superior land over a road for which he had secured apskill soon left the other canoes far behind. propriations from Congress as well as aid from

The party reached Mackinaw on the 10th of the Territory. The construction of the variJune, where they divided the company and ous roads through the Territory encouraged freight among four canoes, and added to their the soun, men prospecting for cheap lands to escort a number sufficient to fill it twelve- settle in Michigan, and the population which oared barge, thon proceeded to the Sault Ste. had remained nearly stationary for fifty years Mary, wbere Governor Cass negotiated a treaty increased to twice the number of a previous

with the Chippewas and secured a cession of census. .sixteen square miles of land for the purpose of In 1823 an act of Congress provided for the establishment of a legislative council. Nine àbroad on business of a private character. His members were to be selected (out of eighteen son, Stevens T. Mason, was appointed secretary elected by the people) by the President, and to in his place. He was but nineteen years of be confirmed by the Senate. This number was age, and not, therefore, of legal majority. A increased to thirteen, and in 1827 the choice committee of citizens called upon him to inwas left entirely to the people of the Territory. quire into the facts. Mr. Mason frankly told

When in 1825 the Erie canal was finished – them he was under age, but that the President that gigantic work conceived by the far-seeing very well knew the fact when he made the apand liberal-minded Gouverneur Morris, a new pointment, and ingenuously justified the act, and direct route through the State of New saying the emoluments of the office were needed York, connecting at Buffalo with a line of boats for the support of his father's family during his across Lake Erie - indeed the first grand and absence abroad. The papers of the day took decided avenue to the prosperity of Michigan the matter up and great excitement prevailed was opened. Settlers were now provided with that a boy should be put over the heads of excheap and comfortable transportation for their perienced men; but nothing moved the deterfamilies and merchandise, and the line was mined President, and the people, finding they crowded by those who had left the hard and appealed to deaf ears, made the best of it. At stony soil of the East for the more generous a banquet given by Governor Cass, after the and promising land of Michigan. The Indians wine had flowed freely, and good-nature continued to code their domains to the Gen- reigned, the elder Mason appealed to the guests eral Government and retired farther into the to“ give the boy a chance," and they heartily wilderness. Their canoes sought the winding promised their support. When the “ Toledo rivers, while our white sails dotted the lakes War' broke out young Mason threw himself and navigable streams. Capitalists sought out into the cause of Michigan with all his heart, the most eligible tracts to establish prospective and completely won the good-will of her people. cities and towns. Villages sprang up as if by Perhaps no State in the Union was ever blest magic along the streams affording commercial by a more stable and creditable number of setadvantages.

tlers. They came from the older States where President Jackson summoned General Cass they were accustomed to self-rule, and valued to a seat in his cabinet in 1831, which gratified highly the privileges of the ballot. The census the territorial pride although they parted with taken in 1834 showed the population to be him reluctantly. According to the Jacksonian 87,273, more than the number authorizing them policy, “ To the victors belong the spoils of to apply for admission into the Union, two office," General Cass's successor was chosen years before the question was agitated and a from Virginia, “passing over men of ability vote obtained in its favor. and education who were familiar with its The Black Hawk war had diverted the ataffairs and fully possessed of the public confi. tention of those actirely engaged in politics. dence." Judge Cooley in his history of Mich- Many sharp fights occurred, and our Michigan igan writes: “The appointment of any one of volunteers rendered important service. Black these to the vacant office would have been rec- Hawk was taken prisoner and confined in ognized as that of a competent and suitable Fortress Monroe for several months. Black person. Some of them -as for example, Wil- Hawk was a treacherous chief of the Sacs in. liam Woodbridge, who had been secretary of the employ of the British, upon whom he dethe Territory, and as such had occasionally pended in his last campaign. He had been acted as governor in the absence of Governor engaged in the War of 1812, and was familiar Cass, and who, after resigning the office of with the localities about Detroit. On his return secretary, had been successively delegate in from prison, his surprise was great to see the Congress and judge; and Austin E. Wing, who advance of that city and villages near. had also been delegate to Congress — were There was a more silent enemy at work in the already well known at Washington, and others Territory and quite as alarming as the Indians. might have been known through Governor The Asiatic cholera reached Detroit early in Cass had he been consulted.” John T. Mason the summer of 1832, and although every prewas appointed, but did not serve, desiring to go caution was taken by boards of health author

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ized by the Michigan legislative council, it was in cases of criminal and corrupt conduct were impossible to avert its ravages. People fled subject to impeachment. Slavery and involunfrom Detroit into the country. A church was tary servitude were not to be countenanced, converted into a hospital. Business was para except on conviction of crime. lyzed. Seven per cent. of the population of The constitution was plain and well adapted Detroit died in a single month. At night, by to the necessities of an ambitious and growing the street crossings, along the roads at inter- State. It was ratified, and Stevens T. Mason vals, and before private houses, great kettles of was elected gorernor; Edward Munday, lieuburning pitch blazed and filled the air with the tenant-governor, and Isaac Crary was elected smoke, in a vain endeavor to disinfect the representative in Congress. Judges were apoppressive atmosphere. The returning vol. pointed and courts organized. The legislature unteers were attacked, and hundreds of them elected Lucius Lyon and John Norvell United died in the woods on their return from the States senators. West. Such was the horror and consternation. Michigan constituted herself a State, but as of the inhabitants, the passing bell was silenced. she would not consent to the conditions relatThe continuous tolling for the departed added ing to the southern boundary, she still remained to the general panic, as it was heard early and out of the Union, and President Jackson, who late during those oppressive and solemn days. was greatly displeased with Governor Mason Governor Porter was among the cholera's last in regard to his action on that point, appointed victims. He died July, 1834. Governor Por- John S. Horner, of Virginia, governor of Michiter had been appointed from Pennsylvania. gan. The president directed him not to recogHe took great interest in agricultural pursuits, nize the pretended State officers or judges, and and encouraged the improvement of stock, in accordance with these orders, Mr. Horner introducing into the Territory a fine breed of magnified his office and met with little or no cattle.

respect. He found no one who would coThe boundary question, treated in the chap- operate with him, and after addressing a meetter on “ The Toledo War," continued to be agi- ing at the Detroit city hall, giving his views tated with more or less heat.

with much self-assertion, those present organIn May, 1835, a constitutional convention ized and resolutions were adopted. One hy met in Detroit and framed a State constitution Jacob M. Howard (who espoused the cause of to be submitted to the approval of the people. Michigan on the boundary question, and had An election was called for the first Monday in gone to Toledo in battle array) was as follows: October to vote for a gorernor, lieutenant-gov- Resolved, That if our present secretary of ernor, members of the State legislature, and a the Territory should find it beyond his control, representative in Congress. The constitution either from the nature of his instructions, his gave the right of voting to all free adult wbite feelings of tenderness toward those who had, male inbabitants, then residents of Michigan, for a long period of time, set at defiance as well whether citizens of the United States or not. the laws of the Territory as those of the United The legislature consisted of a senate and house States, or any feelings of delicacy entertained of representatives, over whose acts the gov- toward the executive of a neighboring State. ernor possessed the power of veto. The who has in vain endeavored to take a forcible governor and lieutenant-governor were to be possession of a part of our Territory, to enable elected for terms of two years. The courts bim to properly carry into effect the existing were to consist of one supreme court, and such laws of this Territory, it is to be hoped he will inferior courts as the legislature might deem relinquish the duties of his office, and return to necessary. Provision was made for courts of the land of his nativity.” probate and justices of the peace. Cabinet Mr. Horner soon adopted Mr. Howard's adofficers and other State officers were to be ap- vice and retired from Michigan. pointed by the governor and senate. County Congress passed an act to admit Michigan as and town officers, judicial and ministerial, were a State, June 15, 1836, but with a proviso made elective. Education was to be encour- “that this act should not take effect until the aged, and a superintendent of public instruc- State of Michigan shall be admitted into the tion was provided for. State officers and judges Union according to the provisions of the act

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