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had them in possession for fifty years; to others of his Majesty, the King of France. The tribes “they had descended from time out of mind, were assembled upon a hill near the village, presented by the gods who dwell beneath the the standard of the cross was erected with the waters.” At St. Theresa Bay this missionary most solemn ceremonies of the church, while found a few of the converts of Father Menard, the soldiers chanted the Vaxilla to the admira“whose memories he refreshed with the mys- tion of the Indians. Then the lilies of France teries of his religion,” and pressed on his jour- were marked upon a cedar post, while the ney. “After many discouragements by means French chanted the inspiring Exaudeat, and of famine, storms and great weariness both offered prayers for the sacred person of his day and night,” he landed at Che-goi-me-gon Majesty. The chiefs were informed they were (La Pointe) on the first day of October, 1665. under the protection of the French king, and Here Allouez remained nearly two years, win- guns were fired. After much ceremony Father ning converts to the faith and establishing Allouez addressed the savages in their own peace between the Chippewas and the Sioux. tongue as follows, which is a sample of the oraGreat bands of Indians gathered about the tory impressive to the Indians of that time: mission and listened to his instruction. He “ It is a most important affair that calls us also visited Fond du Lac, and there the Sioux together. Cast your eyes on that cross which informed him of vast plains farther west where is high above your heads. It is there where roamed immense herds of buffalo. Becoming the Son of God was willing to be attached and to more and more enthusiastic in his mission, and die in order to satisfy His eternal Father for feeling the need of better aid in establishing your sins. He is the master of your lives and stations among the various tribes, he repaired also of heaven and earth and hell. It is He of to Quebec in the fall of 1667. With burning whom I have often spoken, and whose name words he appealed to his brethren, and was so and words I have borne into these distant successful in interesting them that his object lands. But at the same time look upon that was accomplished in two days. He imme. other column, to which are attached the arms diately returned to the Indians with fresh re of that great chief of France whom we call cruits and augmented zeal.

King. He lives beyond the sea. He is the chief Father Marquette and Claud Dablon were of chiefs, and has not his like in the world. so thoroughly interested in the project that All the chiefs of whom you have heard are but they soon followed, and succeeded in estab- children compared with him. He is like a lishing the first permanent mission at the Sault great tree, while they are mere shrubs which we de Ste. Marie, and the second was soon begun tread upon. You know Onontio (the Governoron the Island of Michilimackinac. Both were General], the renowned chief of Quebec. You wisely chosen as important points. Marquette know that he is the terror of the Iroquois, and calls them “the keys or gates for the tribes that his name is sufficient to make them tremble, north and south," as they were obliged to go since he has desolated their lands, and carried througb them in order to reach the French fire among their settlements. There are besettlements. Soon after the establishment of the yond the sea ten thousand Onontios like him, mission the French Government, in May, 1671, who are but warriors of the great chief, our convened the long-desired congress of the In- King of whom I speak. When he says “I go dians at the Falls of Ste. Marie. Here they to war,' everybody obeys, and these ten thouconsolidated as far as possible the interests of sand chiefs raise bands of warriors, both for the the various tribes of the Northwest. Repre- land and the sea. Some embark in ships like sentatives of the Indian nations came in great those you have seen at Quebec. Your canoes numbers from the St. Lawrence on the north, will hold but four or five men, twelve at the and from as far south as the Red River. They utmost. Our vessels carry four or five hundred sat in council with the veteran French officers and even a thousand. and priests. The Governor-General of New “Another portion go to war on land, but in France was represented by M. de Lusson, who such numbers that when arrayed in double took possession of “all lands between the east ranks, they would reach to Mississaquenk, and west, and from Montreal on the north to which is twenty leagues from here. When he the south where any land existed,” in the name attacks he is more fearful than thunder. The


earth trembles, and the air and sea are on fire the earthen hearth, and the blue smoke curled from the discharge of his cannon. He bas to an outlet in the roof. Around these lodge been seen in the midst of his squadrons fires clustered the warriors, squaws, and little covered with the blood of his enemies, so many children, and listened to the legends of of whom has he put to the sword, that he does ancient chiefs and mighty medicine men, not number their scalps, but merely the rivers whose deeds of valor fired their impulsive of blood which he causes to flow. He carries hearts; or while the pipe was passed from such a number of captives with him tbat he band to hand the story-teller recounted to does not value them, but lets them go where these superstitious children of the forests, the they please, to show that he does not fear mission of the spirits who dwelt in the fire, them. Nobody dares make war on him. All water and air, whose messages came upon the nations beyond the sea have sued for peace wings of the wind, were written in the lightwith great submission. They come from ning and spoken in the thunder. every quarter of the globe to listen to him, The life of the Indian was one of contrastand to admire him. It is be who decides upon from the excitement of the chase, to the long, the affairs of the world.

patient fishing days on the ice; from the dan“What shall I say of his riches? You think gers on the war-path, to the festivals and yourselves rich when you have ten or twelve dance. Political ambition burned with a fervid sacks of corn, and batchets, and kettles, and heat within the breast of the red man, and he other things of the kind. He has more cities would dare many dangers to be counted among than you have men, which are scattered over a the notable men of the tribe. When the great space of more than five hundred leagues. In chiefs of the confederations had deliberated each city there are hatchets enough to cut all before the council fires and decided on war, your wood, kettles enough to cook all your they sent forth their messengers to call the caribou, and sugar enough to fill all your wig- warriors to arms from the East and West, wams. His house extends farther than from wherever their allies might be found. Their here to the Sault, is higher than the tallest of warlike natures responded with speed and your trees, and contains more people than the gladness, although first must be consulted the largest of your settlements ever contained." omens and dreams of the prophet, and a prepa

A military post was soon established at the ration made to insure success, by fasting, and Sault Ste. Marie, invested with a commandant prayer to the great war-god, ending in a warand small garrison. An industry in copper dance, during which they chanted the story of articles sprung up. Bracelets and other orna- former exploits, and promised superior feats of ments were made for the Indians, as well as strength and bravery in the coming expedition. crosses, censers and candlesticks for the church. When the required rites were concluded, they These were manufactured from masses of pure began to steal away through the wilderness, copper brought by the natives from the shores carrying their arms, food and canoes with them of Lake Superior. A large Indian village until they reached the rivers or lakes, when flourished near. Their dwellings were sur- they paddled rapidly to their destination. They rounded by palisades, sometimes in triple stormed the strongholds of their enemies, using rows, with platforms built within, where they their canoes as scaling ladders. They fell like kept supplies of stones to hurl upon intruders. tigers upon the unprepared, and butchered The Indian dwellings were sometimes more them without mercy. Their victories were than a hundred feet in length, were thatcbed stained with excess of cruelty, and not until with bark, and secured on the sides by a net- they were exhausted in their vengeance did they work of poles covered with bark. They con. spare the lives of those who remained and adopt tained several distinct families, who were as them into their tribe. Wives were separated signed compartments on the side, like stalls of from husbands, and children from parents, and a stable, where their couches were spread with they were distributed among different villages the skins of the chase. The ceiling was deco- that old affections and associations might be rated with the ripened ears of corn. In these obliterated. Thus their losses, which were comfortable habitations they passed the long considerable in the practice of almost constant and bitter winters. A bright fire blazed upon warfare, were repaired by this means, which the




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Indians designated by a word meaning “flesh shores of Lake Superior and the islands in the cut into pieces and scattered among the tribes." northern part of Lake Huron, while numbers

The Five Nations—or, as the French named were absorbed in the victorious ranks of the them, the Iroquois-were the most powerful Iroquois. Some years afterwards the Hurons people. They dwelt within the present limits descended to the Straits of Detroit, where they of the State of New York, and owed their tri. flourished for a time. umphs in part to the importance of their posi. The Neutral Nation inhabited the northern tion. The rivers and lakes were highways shores of Lake Erie as far east as the Straits of through the regions for their roving and am- Niagara. They derived their name from their bitious warriors. They were as a people thor- neutrality in the war between the Hurons and oughly organized. Each of the Five Nations Iroquois. But they soon met the fate of the peacehad several sachems, who, with subordinate ful Hurons, and the Iroquois had scarcely rested chiefs and honorable men, regulated all affairs from their vengeance when they attacked the of importance. When a foreign power was to Eries with their usual success. The Andastes be treated with, a general assembly of all the received their next siege, and though they had chiefs convened at the great council house in resisted their enemies for years, they fell as the Onondaga valley. The order of debate was ingloriously as the Hurons, in 1672. The Five prescribed by custom, and during the fiercest Nations soon absorbed all the adjacent tribes arguments they preserved an iron self-control and received into their ranks as equals the

The Iroquois in boundless pride styled them- warlike Tuscaroras, admitting them as a Sixth selves the men surpassing all others," and Nation, and giving their sachems a seat in the their ambition for conquest was insatiable. councils at Onondaga. The wrongs the TusTheir war-parties were sent over half America, caroras had sustained at the hands of white and their victories were so frequent that their settlers, in the loss of land and over-reaching name was a terror from the Atlantic to the far in trade of various kinds, the Iroquois made West. They were a superior people intel- their own; and with an intrepid, unreasoning lectually, and were thoroughly organized. vengeance, peculiar to the Indian, they nursed Their greatest numerical strength in their a cruel hatred of all white settlers and sought most prosperous age was not four thousand to wreak it upon the French in Canada. They warriors; and yet, in less than a quarter of a also had treasured their own wrongs and the century, they destroyed and scattered four na- injury they received at the hands of Chamtions as brave and powerful as any in America. plain in 1609, when he came into their midst

The Hurons or Wyandots occupied the pen with a band of Algonquins and shot with his insula between the lakes Huron, Erie and arquebuse two of their chiefs; and when they Ontario. Their population has been variously fled in terror to the woods and caves to escape estimated at from ten to thirty thousand souls. further destruction, Champlain imagined he They were an agricultural people, and bartered had for all time taught the red man to respect their corn to surrounding tribes, receiving in the power of France. From that time the Iroexchange fish and other articles they valued. quois never ceased to harass them. They The early Fathers called this country the burned their houses, laid waste their fields. granary of the Algonquins, which family sur. They kept a vigilant watch upon the route berounded the powerful Iroquois, and em- tween Quebec, Montreal and other points. braced the country on the north from Hudson They attacked Montreal with fire and steel, and Bay to the Carolinas, from the Atlantic on the their horrible cruelties were scarcely credible. east to Lake Winnipeg on the west. The Hu- They placed infants on the embers and required rons, like the Iroquois, were divided into tribes, their own mothers to turn the spit. Others but unlike them were not professional warriors. suffered torments too barbarous to describe. The peaceful Hurons met a disastrous fate in At times the Jesuits would obtain an influence the depths of the winter of 1649. The Iroquois over the savages and for some weeks they swept down upon them and destroyed all be- would rest from their raids upon their peaceful fore them. They dispersed the whole nation. neighbors. Hope would again cheer tbe strugSome found refuge among the French of Can. gling and afflicted settlers, only to be again deada, others established themselves upon the ceived by the treacherous Indians.




MOUNT FRONTENAC was appointed Gov. energetic, and peculiarly fitted to administer L ernor-General of New France in the year the affairs of a new country. He encouraged 1672, when he was fifty-two years old. He the establishment of a chain of military posts was descended from an old and noble house, along the lakes and rivers. Exploring comand was the godchild of Louis XIII. Owing panies were sent forth and treaties made with to the position held by his father in the house- the “Far Indians," as they were called, in the hold of the King, Count Frontenac was rapidly vicinity of the great lakes. Two years before promoted to positions of importance during Frontenac was made Governor-General, in the stirring times of that age. When merely 1670, Father Marquette removed the mission a boy he fought M. Holland and distinguished of Michilimackinac to St. Ignace, where he himself for bravery, and before he was twenty- remained three years, engaged in his holy one had been actively engaged in several bat- office, and also perfecting his plans for the dis tles, Frontenac was made colonel of a regi- covery of the Mississippi. The great Father ment when twenty-three, and at the age of of Waters was supposed to bo the direct pastwenty-six was raised to the rank of marechal sage to China and the East Indies through the de camp (brigadier-general). His worldly mythical South Sea, into which it was believed prospects were not commensurate with his it emptied. Vast wealth was supposed to await military glory, and his siege to the heart of a the monarch whose subjects were enterprising young lady of sixteen was for a long time un- enough to discover this highway to wealth. successful. The young lady's guardians op. The ambitious Louis XIV. and his ministers posed the match, as they thought she might do schemed to control this passage to Eastern better than unite her fortunes to a man who treasure, and encouraged their representatives had but twenty thousand francs a year. But in New France to search out this long-hidden both were imperious and restive under oppo- path. M. Talon, a former Intendant General, sition, and soon settled the matter by a secret ambitious for the honor of the discovery, dis. marriage. The union was short-lived. Mad- patched M. Joliet, a citizen of Quebec, to ame Frontenac was ambitious, brilliant in Father Marquette, whom he found ready and society, and utterly worldly. She seemed to anxious to embark in the project, his desire to soon tire of her husband and child. The child spread his faith equal to that of France for was placed in charge of a nurse, devoting her- treasure. They selected five Frenchmen to acself to the society of Mademoiselle de Mont company them, and left Mackinac the 13th of pensier. From time to time various disputes May, 1673, in two canoes, supplied with Indian (in regard to property) with the Count widened corn and jerked meat. They crossed Lake the breach and embittered the nature of her Michigan to the Wisconsin River, "a beautiful husband, so be welcomed the appointment to stream, bordered by green banks, groves of Canada ard was glad to escape from his an- trees and pleasant slopes.” Floating down noyances. In his case, like many others, this placid stream they reached the Mississippi “ distance lent enchantment,” for during all on the 17th of June. They saw " great herds Count Frontenac's exile in the New World, his of buffalo and deer roaming the borders of the wife constantly exerted an influence for his river. Swans floated before them and great advancement, and succeeded in a great measure fish endangered their canoes." At length they in counteracting the intrigues of his enemies. discovered footprints in the sand, and leaving Frontenac stands a conspicuous figure of the their bark canoes in charge of the crew they

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they found a large Indian village. Joliet and Frontenac advised La Salle to apply directly Marquette made known their presence and to the King of France, and gave him a letter waited to be received. An embassy of four to the Minister of Marine, who proved a valuaold men soon approached and presented the ble friend to his interests. La Salle was inpipe of peace. They were informed that the vested with the title of chevalier, and the seigntribe belonged to the Illinois, whose country iory of Fort Frontenac on condition that he they were in. The next day they were enter- would rebuild it. Encouraged by the King tained by a feast of four courses; the first was and nobility of France, he with his devoted hominy cooked in the Indian style, the second friend and comrade, the Chevalier Tonti, and of fish, the third of dog, and the fourth of thirty men, left France in July, 1678, and roasted buffalo. They were treated with great reached Quebec the 15th of September. Alconsideration, attended through the village, though La Salle returned with but little money and given a lodge where they rested comfort. he was rich in resources. He soon found means

signifying their intention of proceeding on Fort Frontenac was to be altered and retheir voyage, were escorted to their canoes by paired, a new fort was to be built on Lake six hundred Indians. They pursued their Erie, and the navigation of Lake Ontario to be journey unmolested until they reached the completed, for which latter purpose a barque Arkansas, where they were attacked by a crowd was to be built. Materials for these objects of warriors, but Marquette's usual diplomacy existed in the wilds, and what to other men, saved them from any serious trouble. He pre- perhaps as practical, would have been insursented a pipe of peace, and, as he quaintly said, mountable obstacles, but fired his energy. He “God touched their hearts." Their provisions sent men into the wilderness to gather choice were nearly exhausted, and being convinced the furs, from which he hoped to realize enough to Mississippi flowed into the Gulf at no great pay his heavy expenses. These men were also distance from that place, they retraced their commissioned to conciliate and prepare the Inway. Joliet repaired to Quebec to render an dians for his coming. The French traders, or account of the expedition, and Father Mar- as they were then called, coureurs de bois, were quette again entered upon his chosen mission often men whose youth had been passed in the among the Indians. The wonderfully glowing gay and extravagant court of the King of description of this voyage kindled the ad- France, or among the excitements of the camp.

Salle, a native of Normandy, and a descend- led them to seek this life of adventure and ant of a noble but impoverished family hardship. They were naturally cheerful and His early life had been passed with the gay, and always hopeful of a golden reward in Jesuits, where the natural tendency of his tbe service of the fur trade (the chief source of mind was confirmed and strengthened. His income to the colony). The coureur de bois, or iron will could brook no obstacle, and land loper, lived happy in the midst of poverty, with great sagacity and penetration into the braved cold and peril of every sort, and his rolhearts of men, he possessed sound judgment licking songs rang over the plains and down and boundless enterprise. La Salle took coun- the rivers to the delight of the Indian. He sel of no man, and was stern and austere toward was ever welcome to the wigwam, and mingled those under bis command. He bad been among in the dance. He was often adopted into the the Indians, traders, and bushrangers of Can- tribe and became the favorite leader in all ada for a number of years, and in various ways their sports. Many of these hardy men were had been actively engaged in extending the lured on to explore the farthest confines of the interests of France. He found in Count Fron- wilderness by the hope of military or political tenac, the Governor General, a friend and advancement. abettor in his great designs to build a chain of In the latter part of the year 1678 La Salle forts along the lakes and rivers, complete the with his command repaired to the western bank exploration of the Mississippi, and plant the of the Niagara River, two leagues above the standard of his King upon the shores of the cataract, where, protected within a fort of paliGulf of Mexico. The far-seeing and judicious sades, he built a vessel of sixty tons burden,

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